Skip to main content

Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (Jan.-June 1890)"

See other formats



3^ c ^T.IFOfi 

g'J'zLl 'J'Jl D EDO? lEObflDT 3 

California State Library 

^_ _ 

WAo, /rom and w ^ w/(imc obtamed 

unth the price paid, if any, may be found 
the above number in the Scaler of Booh,, 
which is always open to inspection. 

Extract from the Political Code 


No persoii shall take or detain from t),e „i r u 

«9-The foregoing Regulations will be strictly enforced.-** 

Cnr. 1898. 




[Jan. 4, 1890 


Orange-Growing in Central and 
Northern California. 

(Written for the Ri'ral Prkss by Robbrt Williamson of 
the W. K. Strong Company.] 

Citrus culture was begun (on a small scale) 
many years ago in this State. Orange trees 
were planted in Sontbern California years be- 
fore the gold excitement of '49, but until the 
last decade it had not been carried on exten- 
sively. For the past '20 years this industry has 
been developed very rapidly in portions of the 
State, and it has been demonstrated that there 
is a very large area well adapted to orange cult- 
are. Many districts are now growing that 
fruit successfully where suoh a thing was not 
thought of 20 or 30 years ago. We find here 
and there all through Central and Northern 
California groves which demonstrate beyond 
the possibility of a doubt the practicability of 
growing this fruit successfully. The territory 
referred to extends from Kern county on the 
Bouth to Shasta on the north, a distance of 
nearly 600 miles. I do not pretend to say 
that orange culture can be successfully carried 
on in all this territory, but I do say, and know 
from actual experience, that there are quite 
large portions of the following counties where 
the fruit cm be successfully and profitably cul- 
tivated: Kern, Tolare, Fresno, Merced, Tuol- 
umne, Stanislaus. Calaveras, Mariposa, Ama- 
dor, El Dorado, Placer, Sutter, Yuba, Butte, 
Tehama and Shasta; then, coming down on the 
west side of the Sacramento river, we would 
nime Colusa, Yolo, Solano and portions of 
Napa and Santa Clara. Oranges can also be 
grown in several of the coast counties, but 
they do not do well where there is much fog. 

In Santa Clara county there is quite a large 
plat on the eastern slope of the Coast Range 
mountains known as the Los < • atos country, 
where they are a great success. On the east 
side of Santa Clara valley, in the district 
known as the Berryessa district (warm belt), 
some of the finest trees I have seen in the State, 
and some of the finest lemons I have seen any- 
where, are grown. The area of country in 
these several counties which is well adapted to 
orange culture is usually the foothills of both 
the Sierra Nevada and the Coast Range mount- 
ains, lying at an altitude of from 150 to 1200 
feet, and in some instances 1600 feet, above the 
sea level. There are also many places down 
on what is known as the "plains" land, and, 
in some instances, on the river bottom, where 
oranges do well. I could oite many instances 
in the valley where they have been successfully 
grown. In Sacramento county, opposite Fol- 
80m, is the Orange Yale Colony, where there 
are several thousands of acres of most excellent 
orange land, the successful culture of which in 
that noted district is no longer a question of 
doubt, and at no very distant date large quan- 
tities of the fruit will be shipped from this 

There are in Sacramento county probably 20 
or 30 places in the valley proper where oranges 
are doing well. These localities are usually 
where there is a slight elevation above the com- 
mon level, but in some cases there is an excep 
Hon. Senator RouMer, eight miles east of Sao- 
ramento, near the American river, has seedling 
trees 14 years old that he says have never been 
sufficiently affected by frost to cause them to 
shed their leaves. They have been bearirjg for 
several years good crops of fine fruit, and are 
now bending under their weight of oranges of 
fine quality. His place is probably not over 
60 feet above the sea level. In the city of Sac- 
ramento there are hundreds of good trees 
heavily laden with ripe golden fruit, and the 
city is but 30 feet above the sea level. The 
same is true in Marysville and Yuba, which are 
but little higher in altitude than Sacra- 
mento. I could cite hundreds of similar cases, 
but in the foothills, at the altitudes mentioned, 
there is a very large territory well adapted to 
citrus culture, and while the figures can be ap- 
proximated, I feel perfectly safe in saying that 
they will aggregate over 2,000,000 acres, and 
the quality of the fruit, as a rule, is very 
superior, as it is clean, absolutely free from any 
black fungus or rust, and the flavor is generally 
very fine. The oranges ripen early, and being 
grown in a dry, hot climate, are long-keepers 
and always command the highest prices; for in- 
stance, the oranges from these foothill oistricts 
have for years sold in the markets at from §20 
to $25, and sometimes §30, per thoneand (by 
count). Only last week I was trying to buy 
some oranges in the foothills of Placer county, 
and found that I was ton late, that they had 
already been bought at 2J cents each, or $25 
per thousand. 

The heaviest, most solid and finest flavored 
oranges I have ever seen and eaten on the. Pa- 
cific Coast was at Oroville, Butte county. So 
far the OrovlUe district has outstripped all 
others in Northern and Central California in 
citrus culture. The freeze of two years ago 
failing to hurt the trees at Oroville, such con- 
fidence was inspired among growers that they 
are now engaging largely in that industry. I 
think there have been planted in the vicinity 
of that city very near 200,000 trees in the past 
two winters, and there will probably be planted 
during the coming season nearly 100,000 more. 
It will be interesting to some of your readers to 
attend the citrus fair to be held at Oroville, 

commencing January 7th. The visitor from 
other sections would, I think, be overwhelmed 
with astonishment when he sees what can be 
done in that oounty. There are 

Several Large Colonies 

Up there where they are planting mainly or- 
ange and lemon trees. The Thermalito Colony, 
embracing several thousand acres, is planting 
oranges mainly. The Palermo Colony, five 
miles from Oroville, has planted in the past 
two years about 80,000 orange and lemon trees, 
and will probably plant 60 000 more the coming 
season. Another colony, known as the Dresher 
Colony, planted largely last year and is going 
to plant on an increased scale this year. I do 
not believe a better investment could be made 
anywhere in the State of California than in 
land on whioh to grow oranges in this oounty. 
The day is not far distant when hundreds, and 
even thousand", of carloads of oranges will be 
shipped from Butte oounty. 

But there are other districts, and many of 
them, too, where this fruit can be grown with 
equal success. I would mention, among others, 
a district in Tulare county, known as the Por- 
terville Colony — a very promising district for 
oranges; also, immediately east of Fresno, in 
Fresno county, is a fine locality. All along the 
foothills there is incontrovertible evidences of 
successful oitrus culture. About eight miles 
east of the city of Merced, on the plains, nr on 
what is known as mesa land, is a gentleman by 
the name of Atwater. who has lime trees 15 to 
16 years old, 15 to IS feet high, bearing heavy 
crops of fruit annually, of very fine, quality, 
and he assures me that the frost has never 
affected them enough to cause them to shed 
their leaves. It is a well-known fact that the 
lime tree will not stand more than half as much 
frost as the orange. Lime and lemon trees 
may be found in a strong, healthy and vigorous 
condition all along the foothills in the counties 
above referred to. This of itself should be 
proof that oranges can be successfully grown in 
all theBe districts. The famous 

"Bldwell Bar Tree" 
In Butte county is well no in the mountains, 
at an altitude of about 1200 or 1400 feet above 
the sea level, possibly 1500 feet. This tree is 
now over 30 years old and its owner says it has 
never been injured enough by frost to prevent 
it bearing a crop since it first commenced bear- 
ing. The oranges from this tree have been 
sampled by thousands of Californians, all of 
whom will testify that they are of a very supe- 
rior quality. The soils of these foothill districts 
are usually of a red granite and sometimes of a 
slate formation; other portions are of a dark 
red soil underlaid with gravel instead of clay 
or bedrock. It has been thought by many 
that the orange tree must have a very deep 
soil, and while it is true that a deep soil is good 
for orange or any other tree, it has been thor- 
oughly demonstrated both in this State and in 
Florida that the orange tree will grow and do 
well where there ia not a grant depth of soil. 
It is a large surface feeder and its thousands of 
fibrous roots penetrate and enter the surface 
for many feet from the tree. 

When in Florida my attention was called to 
an orchard planted by a mac who was supposed 
to be a crazy crank at the time. He went out 
into a pine forest, took up a piece of Govern- 
ment land, where the soil (or sand) was but 
three to three and one-half feet deep, and 
underlying that was a tight pipe clay. I was 
told that his neighbors considered him crazy 
for selecting such a piece of land, but to-day he 
has an orchard about 12 or 14 years old that 
will compare favorably with anything I saw in 
Florida. In this State I know of a number of 
places in the foothills where there are strong, 
healthy and vigorous orange trees, 15 to 20 
years old, bearing heavy crops of good fruit, 
where the soil does not exceed three feet in 
depth before striking solid bedrock. I mention 
these facts because I know the general impres- 
sion among a large percentage of the people is 
that the orange tree must have a great depth of 
soil, but I know from close observation that 
such is not the fact. 

So much for the area of Northern and Cen- 
tral California, on which the orange and the 
lemon and lime may be successfully grown. 
Now as to the 

" Profits of Orange Culture." 
I will mention a few cases where there have 
been fabulous results obtained from single 
trees, not that I wish the public to understand 
that they may expect such results for all time, 
but that orange oulture has been and always 
will be, in this State, one of the most profit- 
able of industries. Among results that have 
been obtained in past years, I would mention 
the celebrated Wolfskill orchard at Los 
Angeles. In early days this orohard yielded 
thousands of dollars to the acre; also the grove 
of Senator Wilson, at San Gabriel, and several 
other smaller orchards where immense profits 
were made in a very few years. In Northern 
California I would mention a single tree in the 
city of Marysville, owned by one Cbas. Raish, 
which is now about 30 years old, from the seed. 
It has been bearing for over 20 years, and has 
yielded its owner (so he statin over his own sig- 
nature in the Marysville A pjw «J] all the way 
from §40 to §400 per annum. I think he states 
that in 1873 he raised 1000 oranges, and ped- 
dled them out so as to realize §400 from the 
tree in a single year. Another tree in Ore 
ville, now about 25 years old, has yielded from 
3000 to 4000 oranges annually, and have been 
sold at from one to three cents each. Only 
1 last winter our firm (W. R. Strong Co.) paid for 

the oranges off of this same tree $40, and picked 
them ourselves. We got a little over 4000 
oranges from the tree. Two other trees were 
pointed out to me last March in Oroville, which 
had yielded their owner §63. (These trees 
were onlv 13 years old from seed.) The famous 
Bidwell Bar tree has often borne 4000 oranges 
in a single year, and they have brought all the 
way from one to four, cents each. I was told 
that the owner sold the oranges last year at 2£ 
cents each — I did not learn the yield. I could 
mention many other trees in that and other 
foothill districts. Oae tree in Sacramento 
brought its owner over $50, some two years 
ago. I wis told, on good authority, that one 
tree at Knight's Ferry in Stanislaus oonnty, 
brought us owner something over §100 last 
year; also, that another tree in Fresno oounty, 
about 12 miles east of Fresno City, brought 
$60, and ten trees represented as being 15 
years old, belonging to the same party, brought 
an average of c50 to the tree. A party in Pen- 
ryn, Placer county, has 50 Mediterranean 
Sweet at; Navel orange trees that have been 
planted nine years — they were one year old 
from bud when planted. He estimates that 
they will average 1000 oranges to the tree this 
season, and that he has them all contracted 
lur now at 21 cents each. I know of quite a 
number of orange orchards in Northern and 
Central California ranging from S to 12 years 
old, that I think will yield this season a net 
profit of $400 or §500 to the acre. 

But supposing that an orange grove from 8 
to 20 yearn old should yield an average net 
profit of §200 or even §100 to the acre, clear of 
all expenses, is there anything in which a 
farmer could engage that would pay him eo 
well ? I have not the slightest fear but that 
orange growing will continue to be immensely 
profitable for many years to oome. I think we 
need have no fears about overproduction, as I 
hope to show further on in this article. Besides 
the profit of orange-growing there is nothing 
that so ornaments a home as an orange grove; 
nothing will so attract the Eastern tourist or 
F. astern capitalist; nothing will bring about 
advances in real estate so quickly and so surely 
as will successful orange culture. It lies as 
the basis of the great booms experienced in 
Southern California, and while we do not wish 
such an unnatural and unwise boom in Central 
and Northern California, we do wish to enhance 
the value of our homes and our real estate 
generally. As has been remarked, nothing will 
do it so quickly and so surely as successful 
citrns culture. 

We have a territory now lying idle capable 
of supporting millions that is well adapted to 
this beautiful industry, and why should we not 
avail ourselves of the great advantages whioh 
Nature has put within oar reach ? Only develop 
these orange-growing districts and prove to the 
world what we can do, and we will have such 
an inflax of immigration from the East and from 
Europe as will surprise even the most sanguine. 

There is in nnr entimation no Viranob of horti- 

oulture that has such a refining influence on a com- 
munity and on the young and rising generation, 
as the beautiful orange groves which can so 
easily be had in our own country. There is no 
branch of horticulture or agriculture that is 
more healthful, and when we can have h( a' thy, 
more beautiful, and immensely profitable homes, 
why should we neglect our opportunities ? Bat 
the reader may say, 

May not this Industry be Overdone In 
California ? 

I can say conscientiously that there is little 
or no danger of it b ing overdone in the next 
50 years, for the following reasons : 

First — The population of the world is in- 
creasing as rapidly as the production of the 
world, particularly in agriculture and horticult- 
ure. Manufacturing may be overdone ; fac 
tories may increase faster than population, 
from the fact that there is a tendency all over 
the world for people to flock into cities and 
towns and engage in industries other than agri- 
culture. But agriculture and horticulture are 
not increasing faster if even as fast as the con- 
sumption. Our local population^iucreasing very 
rapidly by immigration and our oitrus fruits are 
and always will be marketed on the American 
continent. This is an immense territory, 
capable of supporting hundreds and even thou- 
sands of millions of people, and is destined 
to be filled with a consuming people. Com- 
paratively speaking, a very small portion of 
this vast territory is capable of citrus culture. 

Again, the people not only of this continent, 
but of ' the world, are using more fruit per 
capita than they did in former generations. 
This tendency to use fruits instead of meats is 
constantly growing, so that in future years a 
still larger percentage of our diet will be fruit. 
While oranges have been looked upon as a lux- 
ury to be eaten only occasionally, they can be 
preserved so they may be had in the house 
at all seasons of the year in some form. It is a 
well-known fact that they contribute largely to 
health, and this fact is going to cause an 
increased consumption. Nothing is more 
healthful to the stomaoh than the acids con- 
tained in the orange, lemon and lime, and this 
fact is known to the world. The day is coming 
when even orange-blossoms in California are 
going to be used in large quantities for the 
manufacture of perfumery. Every orange tree 
has at least ten times as many blossoms on the 
tree yearly as it can or ought to bear fruit. At 
least three-fourths if not seven-eighths of 
the blossoms can be picked off and worked 
Into perfumery without damage to the orange 
crop. It is a well-known fact that the orange- 

blossom contains as large if not a larger per- 
centage of perfumery than any other blossom. 

There is a place on the Mediterranean, called 
Grasse, lying between Genoa andKensie, where 
the manufacture of perfumery from orange- 
blossoms Is a specialty — the trees being culti- 
vated for that purpose. The orange cultivated 
for that purpose is identical with the Florida 
sour orange, and I have it on what appears to 
be good statistical authority that at Grasse it 
is not uncommon for factories to use 30,000 
pounds of orange-blossoms per day daring the 
blooming season. Some of the perfumes are 
exceedingly expensive — one kind of oil made 
from the orange-blossom selling at the rate of 
§300 per gallon. This industry assumes enor- 
mous proportions in that locality, and there is 
no reason why these same products cannot be 
manufactured here in California as well as at 
Grasse or any other place. But to return to the 

Prospective Market for Citrus Fruits. 

As above indicated, we have an immense ter- 
ritory to supply. Look, for instance, at the 
vast territory and millions of population in the 
Eastern, Northern and Western States and 
Territories, where they cannot raise the orange, 
where there will always be a large market. 
Imagine the population of that country in fifty 
years from to-day and we can readily see that 
it will take a vast territory to supply them 
alone. Then coming to the Western Coast, 
this side cf the Rockies, contemplate the im- 
mense territory that must and will be densely 
populated, in which they cannot raise oranges; 
think of all the territory between the Rockies 
and Sierra Nevadas ; think of the vast por- 
tions of California where oranges cannot be 
grown, and the millions of population that must 
inhabit these territories. Think of the vast terri- 
tory near at hand — Oregon, Washington, Alaska 
and British Columbia — a territory where hun- 
dreds of millions of people can and will live, not 
one acre of which can raise citrus fruits. Large 
portions of Oregon and Washington are des- 
tined to become the most densely-populated 
districts on the Pacific Coast from the fact that 
they have all the material for manufacturing on 
an immense scale — iron, wood, coal, shipping fa- 
cilities, and everything that is requisite for 
manufacturing. This oountry is filling up rap- 
idly and in a very short time will attain an im- 
mense population. We could find a market 
now, in the territory west of the Rocky moun- 
tains, even with their present population, to 
consume the oranges from many thousinds 
of acres. Growers in Central and North- 
ern California have this market right at their 
doors, as it were. We are several weeks earlier 
than the southern part of the State, so there is 
little danger of competition from that source; 
neither can there be any danger of competition 
from Florida, nr from othor oouukrice, uu that 
it can readily be seen that we, in this portion 
of the State, will have absolute control of these 
markets. At this very time millions of dollars' 
worth of oranges, lemons and limes are annual- 
ly imported into the United States for con- 
sumption by our people. Take the port of San 
Francisco for instance — I am not prepared to 
give the exact amount of these fruits annually 
imported, though it is a well-known fact to be 
a very large business, and an immense sum of 
money goes from Ban Francisco every year to 
foreign countries to pay for these products, 
every dollar of which should be kept in Califor- 
nia and in the bauds of our own people. One 
firm in San Francisco imported in 1S87 15,000 
cases of limes, which would average $6 per case, 
4000 cases lemons and 10,000 cases of oranges. 
When we consider that there are many import- 
ing firms in that city, and taking this one as a 
basis, we can form an idea of the enormous 
amount of foreign fruits of these varieties sold 
in one port in our own State. This fruit pays 
a heavy duty, and if foreigners oan afford to 
raise and ship citrus fruits to our oountry, can- 
not we afford to grow it and put it on the mar- 
ket without a duty ? 

About 14 years ago a friend in Los Angeles 
county made a careful computation of the num- 
ber of orange trees then planted in orchard in 
Southern California, and estimated the average 
produot per tree, and from his figures he ar- 
rived at this conclusion : That in ten years 
from that date it would not pay to pack and 
ship oranges to market. He was a man of in- 
telligence, one who reasoned from cause to 
effect, and he supposed he was right, and to 
look at his figures at that time one would nat- 
urally oonolude that he was right. My only 
reply to him at the time was, " You forget that 
the consuming population of the world is in- 
creasing faster than the production," but I oon- 
f ass that I felt at the time a fear that he might 
be right. He is not alone; hundreds of others, 
nay thousands, have made the same predic- 
tions relative not only to orange-growing, but 
all other branches of fruit-growing in this 
State, but the facts do not bear out these pre- 
dictions. We all know good fruit of all kinds 
is bringing as remunerative, and io many in- 
stances better, prices than it did 10, 12 or 15 
years ago, and my opinion is that this will 
always continue to be so. Oranges in Southern 
California to-day are paying the growers better 
than they did four, fire, or even ten years ago, 
notwithstanding the increased acreage that has 
come into bearing. This I know from actual 
experience. Oar firm has been handling or- 
anges from that part of the State for 30 years, 
and of late we have been doing a very large 
business in this fruit, shipping to the Eastern 
markets. We pay as much, and for some 
choice brands more now than we did five, six 
or 10 years ago, and at this very time we find 

Jan. 4 ; 1890.] 

f ACIFI6 f^URAlf> p RESS 

sharper competition in buying than in former 
years. Dealers irom the East come out by the 
score every winter to Los Angeles and the 
southern counties and bid against each other, 
running prices up much higher than was pos- 
sible some years ago. These buyers from the 
East know the wants of their people, and the 
California orange, a? well as all other Califor- 
nia fruits, has acquired a reputation in the 
East that will always sell it o>-er the fruit of 
other localities. Its flavor and appearance is 
good, its keeping qualities excel anything from 
any other part of the world, and the demand 
for our fruit eatt of the Rockies is increasing 
very rapidly. In Northern and Central Cali- 
fornia we can raise as good oranges as they can 
south, and get them s'x weeks earlier, and con- 
sequently the cream of the market. 

There are many other reasons that I m'ght 
name why I think there is no danger of over- 
production, but I have hinted at enough, so 
that the intelligent reader can apprehend the 
situation. The howl and cry of overproduction, 
especially of frnit, is a common thing in all 
fruit-growing countries. In New York and 
some of the other fruit producing States in the 
East, that cry was raised 50 years ago and has 
been kept up ever since, and yet the fruit- 
growers in these same districts, with all the in- 
creased acreage that has been planted, are still 
doing as well, if not better, than at any period 
in the history of the country, and in my mind I 
feel positively sure that the day will never oome 
when intelligent fruit-growing will not pay, and 
pay a muoh larger profit to the grower than 
any other agricultural industry in the State. 
The man who is always croaking and howling 
about overproduction, and is timid about vent- 
uring, is the one who will be the loser in the 
end. We have but to look around us and see 
those who have engaged in this industry, even 
taking desperate chances by involving them 
selves, and we find that these are the men who 
are to-day on top, and this is the class of men 
that always will be ahead, particularly in horti- 
cultural distriots of the State. 

As before stated, we nob only add weight to 
our purse by citrus fruit growing, but orna- 
ment and beautify our homes and our country 
and make it attractive. California, I think, is 
capable of sustaining a larger population than 
any other country of its size in the world, and 
if we will only engage in the right industries 
and seek to improve and ornament our homes, 
we will have the most intelligent, most refined 
and noblest people on God's earth. We think 
we have the best country in the world, and by 
proper education and training we may have the 
best people in the world. 

Sacramento, Cal. 

<S>HE JfJpiARY. 

Apiarian Notes. 

[Written for the Rural Press by S. L. Watkins.] 
To keep ants out of your honey-house, sprinkle 

the floor with salt. 

Poison oak and its near brother, the sumac, 

are excellent honey plants. 

A rainy season foretells a good honey crop. 

We must be going to have a good one next 


To get nice straight combs without separa- 
tors, use If inch sections. Sections 4Jx4g will 
average one pound. 

. If you wish to increase your bees, divide. If 
your objset is honey, keep them from swarm- 
ing as much as possible. 

When anybody goes in a business and ad- 
vertises and proposes to sell articles below cost 
value, it is quite evident that he is sending out 
an inferior article. 

A great many people have got it in their 
heads that bees puncture grapes. This is not 
so. Bees never injure sound fruit. Yellow- 
jackets and other insects that have strong 
mandibles first puncture the fruit before bees 
oan work upon it. After grapes and other 
fruits have bursted it will soon rot anyway, 
and the bees mi>v as well have the sweet as to 
let it waste. Unthinking persons seeing the 
bees work upon fruit have jumped to the con- 
clusion that the bee was the original trespasser. 
I suppose near a large vineyard and where 
there are a great many grapes handled, a great 
many are bursted open, and if there are any 
bees in the neighborhood' they are sure to be 
there, and if a large apiary is near at hand they 
may become a source of annoyance. Bees are 
pretty industrious little bodies, and believe in 
"gathering np the fragments," that nothing 
may be lost. The good bees do, far overbal- 
ances the damage ever done by them; they are 
a great advantage to all farmers and fruit-grow- 
ers in the fertilization of the blossoms. 

In reply to friend Styan in regard to a bee- 
keepers' convention in California, why not 
have a convention at Sacramento at the time of 
holding the annual State Fair? I think it 
would be a gocd idea. What say you, bee- 
keepers of California ? 

Esparcette, or sainfoin, grows well In the 
mountain counties of California without water 
and on the rockiest kind of soil. There was 
not enough of it near my apiary this season to 
determine its value as a honey plant, but the 
bees worked upon it first rate. A bee-keeper 
in Marin oounty informed me that it is destined 
to become one of the leading forage and honey- 
producing plants of the country. California 

bee-keepers and others, please give us your 
opinion of it. 

A friend informs me that in Chili, South 
America, he has seen 500 barrels of honey 
leave a port in that place in one day. The 
most of the honey produced in that country 
cornea from the desert of Atacama, which he in- 
forms me is a wonderful honey-producing coun- 
try. All Chilian honey is dark and inferior 
compared with California honey. 

What do you think of raspberries that still 
continue to bloom, and ripen fruit in Decem- 
ber, this, too, at an elevation of 4000 feet 
above sea level ? I was up to the Falling 
Springs ranch a few days ago and found plenty 
of ripe berries. There has been no frost there 
yet to speak of. I found a few bees still work- 
ing on golden-rod, the last bloom of the sea- 
son, at this hight. 

A fruit-grower in Eagland established an ex 
tensive greenhouse, and stocked it with choice 
native and exotic fruit trees. He expected in 
due time that he would have an abundance of 
fruit. Seasons passed, but no fruit. There 
were plenty of blossoms on each tree, but no 
fruit. A great many different plans were em- 
ployed to bring the trees to bearing, but they 
were all unsuccessful. Finally a friend sug- 
gested to him to place a hive of bees in his 
greenhouse to fertilize the blossoms. The next 
season there was an abundance of fruit. The 
bees had distributed the pollen from flower to 
flower and thus fertilized the blossoms. In 
the large greenhouses at Arlington, N. J., 
where they raise early cucumbers, they have 
bees to fertilize' the blossoms. 

When I first commenced to learn my ABC 
of bee culture, I was assured by men who 
claimed to be experienced bee-keepers, that I 
would have a world of trouble with the bee 
moth. In a few years I found that there was no 
trouble at all to be apprehended from the poor, 
much-abused moth. A progressive bee keeper 
will tell you that it is all carelessness to lose a 
colony of bees by moths; especially is this true 
with colonies of Italian, Cyprian, Carniolan 
and Holy-Land bees ; these races of bees are 
about moth proof. Black bees are poor de- 
fenders of their hives, and occasionally in full 
colonies will be found the silken galleries of 
the moth- worm; but if there are enough bees 
to cover the comb they are all right. When a 
colony with a poor queen dwindles down so as 
to be unable to protect the combs, they had 
better be taken away and given to a good, 
strong colony. If the combs have remained 
unprotected for any length of time during a dry 
spell, it is quite likely that they are literally 
infested with the eggs of the bee moth ; but if 
they are immediately placed in a good strong 
colony of Italians, or Carniolan bees, they will 
tear out the young moth worms as soon as they 
are hatched. The first brood of moths in this 
part of California are hatched about the mid- 
dle of July; another brood of moths comes 
along in September. The female moths appear 
along in the spring and lay their eggs in and 
around the hive ; if they cannot cuter tboy 
deposit their eggs in the cracks and crevices of 
the hive, and when the little worm-like cater- 
pillars hatch out they can easily crawl through 
the cracks or gnaw a way through; therefore 
how utterly useless are the contrivances for 
catching the moth. All moth traps are bee- 
catchers as well as moth-catchers, and no sane 
man in this enlightened age will have such a 
thing around his apiary. The best moth traps 
in the world are good colonies of Italian, Cyp- 
rian, Carniolan and Holy-Land bees. Try them 
and see. 

In regard to the introduction of the Italian 
bee into California, I was pleased to read Mr. 
A. J. Biglow's article in the Press of Deo. 
14. I find on page 390 of *' Harbison's Bee- 
keeper's Directory," a letter of his to J. S. 
Harbison, on the introduction of Italian bees 
into California. The statement I made I found 
in an old number of an Eistern bee paper, and 
supposed that it was correct. 

Placerville, Cal. 

San Bernardino's Honey Crop. 

Editors Press: — Of the five horticultural 
newspapers that come to our address, no one is 
more highly prized than the Press, and I dis- 
like to see it led astray on any subject. Iam 
prompted to say this after reading, in the last 
issue of your paper, the report of S. L. Wat- 
kins of Placerville on the honey crop of the 
State, with San Bernardino county left out. 

It is due to Mr. Watkins to say that he 
notes in bis report that not all the counties 
had been beard from. 

There has already been shipped from this 
county 280,000 pounds of extracted and 60,000 
pounds of comb honey, and there are about 
30,000 pounds yet in the hands of growers. It 
is estimated that there are about 8000 hives in 
the county. These figures will indicate that 
San Bernardino is the banner honey-producing 
county in the State. J. C. Scott, 

8pc'y Board of Trade. 

San Bernardino, Dec. S3. '89. 

A Botanical Garden of Alpine Growths. 
A botanical garden in the Alps of Valais is situ- 
ated on a cone-shaped knoll abont 200 feet 
high, at an altitude above sea level of more 
than 5600 feet. Plants from all the Alpine 
regions of the globe will be cultivated. 

The San Diego Sun says six large vessels will 
be loaded at Belfast, Ireland, for that city with 
cargoes of steel railroad ties. 

(She JStock ^af^d. 

The Shorthorn Association. 

J. F. Chiles of Davisville, Yolo county, sec- 
retary of the Pacific Coast Shorthorn Associ- 
ation, writes us concerning the formal organi- 
zation of that association at a recent meeting 
in Sacramento, of which notice was given in the 
Rural, There were present the following 
breeders : Judge Bridgeford, Hon. John Boggs, 
Colusa; Ed Younger, San Jose; P. H. Murphy, 
Perkins; P. S. Chiles and J. F. Chiles, Davis- 
ville; P. Peterson, Sites; E. S. Driver, Ante- 
lope; Heilbron Brothers, Sacramento; J. 
Marzen, Lovelocks, Nev.; S. E. Camp, Per- 
kins; and W. H. Coward, Woodland. There 
are other members than those named who were 
not able to be present. The association is de- 
sirous to secure the membership and co-oper- 
ation of all in the Shorthorn interest on this 
coaBt. The entrance fee is fixed at $5. Appli- 
cations for membership may be addressed to the 
secretary named above. 

The officers of the association were elected, 
Judge Bridgeford, president; A. Heilbron, vice- 
president ; J. F. Chiles, secretary; P. Peterson, 
treasurer ; directors, J. Marzen, P. S. Chiles 
and Ed Younger, who together with the presi- 
dent and secretary constitute the executive 

P. H. Murphy suggested the holding of a 
public sale once or twice a vear under the 
auspices of the association. He said that the 
advantages of the sale would be that breeders 
of Shorthorn cattle would each offer stock, and 
in that way all ages of Shorthorns would be 
represented. The sale would cause buyers to 
come from various parts of the country. 

After a long discm sion the members present 
agreed to offer a sufficient number of cattle to 
warrant a public sale. The resolutions as be- 
low were then adopted: 

Resolved. That the first public sale of pure-bred 
Shorthorn cattle take place under the directions and 
rules of this association, on Wednesday. March 5, 
1890, at Agricultural P-irk, Sacramento; said sale to 
be advertised and arrangements made by officers of 
thi^ association. 

Resolved, That where a public sale has been called 
bv this association, any member having cattle to 
offer at such sale must first send in a list of the 
animals to the secretary forty days before said sale, 
that they may be properly classed and advertised 
and all the expenses of such sale shall be paid out of 
the gross receipts of such sale. 

President Bridgeford presented an address to 
the State Agricultural Society which was read 
and a committee was formed of Messrs. Heilbron, 
Murphy and Chiles to present the address and 
at the same time to constitute a committee to 
do their best to procure better accommodations 
for Shorthorns and if possible have them all to- 

The address reads as follows: 

To the Boird of Directors of the Stale Agri- 
cultural Society of the Slate of California: The 
breeders and exhibitors of Shorthorn cattle 
respectfully ask your Honorable Board of Dlrec 
tors to consider the advisability of increasing 
in the near future the value of the premiums 
effared this most worthy class of cattle. We 
do not desire to make comparison with other 
classes of cattle further than this: You will 
find by reference to your records of former 
years that the number and quality of Shorthorn 
oattle have far exceeded any other class of 
oattle. The exhibits of other classes of cattle 
have generally not been extensive, and the 
premiums given have fairly compensated the 
owners for the expense and trouble; but the 
exhibits of Shorthorns have been so numerous 
and so extensive that large division has been 
the result and no one has been sufficiently com- 

There is no one class of stock that has been 
added in the past or probably will in the future 
add more to your exhibit than the Shorthorns. 
This coast is now attracting widespread at- 
tention on account of her fine horses. She is 
producing the bpst horses the world affords. 
The East is sending to our shores and paying 
large prioes for California-bred horses. We 
have the climate and all proper conditions to 
raise the best cattle in the world. There is no 
reason why we cannot excel not only any 
other portion of America, but Europe as well. 
All that is required is to arouse a proper in- 
terest. This can be accomplished by no 
other meanB so well as through proper en- 
couragement at the hands of your society. 

We respectfully suggest that an increase of 
100 per cent over the premium list of 1889 
would not be extravagant. The experience 
of fairs in the Eastern States warrants it. 
Let California be behind in nothing. 

Respectfully submitted. 

On Mr. Younger's motion, the same committee 
were authorized to wait on the State Fair 
Association in regard to offering prizes for fat 

President Bridegeford in an able manner 
pointed out the advantage that would be re- 
ceived from feeding a herd of Shorthorns and 
taking them through the East, thus showing 
that in Shorthorns, as in every class of 
thoroughbred horses, California was facile 
princept. A gool deal of discussion on the 
matter ensued and probably in two or three 
years' time the president's idea will be realized, 
for it will take at least two years to fit oattle 
for the show ring. 

The Beef Combine. 

Editors Press: — This combine is, perhaps, 
when its scope and power are fully compre- 
hended, one of the most remarkable ever or- 
ganized in the United States. Its conception 
and the ability to perfect its organization in all 
its details, and direot its machinery to ultimate 
success, betokens a mind of no ordinary pow- 
ers — a mind Napoleonic in magnitude, baoked 
by sufficient capital and unlimited credit. 
Philip Armour stands at the head of this pow- 
erful combine, and directs its movements. It 
controls all the fresh-beef markets in all places 
east of the Rocky mountains — from Denver in 
Colorado to Portland in Maine. Its refrigerator 
cars are found daily in all the more important 
towns in the Atlantic StateB — even to Charles- 
ton, Savannah and New Orleans. People in the 
Atlantic States have only Armour's beef dealt 
ont to them in the mornings in the meat mar- 
kets in all the towns. No independent butcher 
oan live for a week in opposition to the combine. 
No retailer of fresh beef can live in opposition 
to it. If any one attempts to sell fresh beef 
-procured from other than the combine, he is 
immediately met by such crushing competition 
as drives him at once into his hole, defeated 
and perhaps ruined. No small butcher can 
live by his business in opposition to the com- 
bine. Retail dealers dare not buy of him : to 
do so would ruin them in their business. If he 
sets up a retail shop of his own, the combine 
opens a shop by him at the next door and sells 
cuts of beef cheaper than the butcher can buy 
his live-stock. This has beoome now so well 
understood that this great combine has a vir- 
tual monopoly of the fresh-beef trade in all 
plaoes east of the Rocky mountains. 

But this is only one way the combine exerts 
its powers. So great is its power and so un- 
ceasingly does it exert this power, that it has 
obtained a complete monopoly of the live-stock 
market. Nowhere throughout the Great West 
are there any buyers of fat cattle save the 
agent of the great combine. These agents 
usually work on a commission, and whether 
the fat cattle be sent to Chicago for a market, 
or sold on a stock range, it is always to an 
agent of the combine they are sold. 

Thus the combine not only has the power to 
fix and actually does fix the price of fresh beef 
in the retail stalls, but it also has the power to 
and does fix the price of fat cattle on the stock 
ranges. Stockmen complain loudly of the 
prioes paid by the combine for fat oattle and 
declare that if such prices continue they will 
have to abandon the business. They are re- 
plied to by the combine to the effect that if 
the prioe of fat cattle be raised, then the price 
of beefsteaks must also be raised, which would 
tend to limit sales, as the consumers would 
then turn more to bacon, mutton and fish, and 
thus the feeder is dismissed with a flea in his 

This oombine has an army of men in the field, 
thoroughly organized, every man in his allotted 
place. The whole oountry is divided into dis- 
tricts and each district is known by its num- 
ber. Over eaoh district is placed a director, 
who is always in communication with the head 
office in Cbioago. Their duty is to collect and 
transmit moneys received from the venders of 
m-ats sold, and also transmit daily to the head 
office the quantity of meat rr quired the next 
day at this point or that point. These direct- 
ors are assisted in the discharge of their duties 
by subordinates nominated by themselves, sub- 
ject, however, to the approval of the head di- 
rectors in Chicago. This is the system of the 
combine organized with its stops and checks to 
prevent frauds and secure a strict accounting. 

While this combine, perhaps, has secured in its 
own interest a steadiness to the cattle and beef 
markets, it has removed, or rather put an end 
to, fattening for this market cattle in Ohio, In- 
diana and Michigan, and at points farther eaBt. 
Feeders in those States cannot afford to feed 
cattle and sell them in competition with the cat- 
tle grown on the great plains of Montana, 
Idaho, Colorado and Texas. Thus is one 
source of agricultural wealth destroyed in the 
States named by this combine. Slaughterers 
in those States are driven out of the business; 
farmers in those States no longer think of grow- 
ing cattle for the market, and if, by chance, a 
farmer happens to have a fat steer in the fall of 
the year, he kills him on private account, 
maybe selling a portion of him to a neighbor to 
put down for winter use. Thus is it that trusts 
and combines militate against the prosperity 
of the farmer. 

Wherever I went, in Ohio,. ir» Pennsylvania, 
in New York, in Michigan, in Kansas, in Iowa, 
I heard the same complaint. Lands had ceased 
to have any selling value. Sons when coming 
of age quit the farms on which they were born 
and railed, saying there is nothing in farming, 
leaving their parents to struggle on in old age 
alone. But of all this in another letter. 
Haytaards. W. C. Blackwood. 

The Fossil Horse;, as is quite generally 
known, differs from the existing speoies in hav- 
ing his hoofs divided, and is supposed to have 
beoome extinct many ages since; but Mr. C. 
B. Williams has called attention to a quotation 
from Suotonius, which seems to imply quite a 
recent existence of this type of the horse where- 
in that writer says that " Caesar made use of 
a remarkable horse, with feet almost human 
and hoofs divided in the manner of toes." 
Cseaar's horse might have been a possible ex- 
ample of what evolutionists term reversion of 
the modern to the fossil type. 



[Jan. 4, 1890 


Farther Grange Beading. 

In our Rural Press Official Grange Edition, Issued 
every week, will be found much additional matter 
under this department, oi Interest and Importance 
to Pa'.rons or Husbandry. Any subscriber who 
wishes can change tree to that edition. 

The Master's Desk. 

Happy New Year. 

With the week we bid good-by to 1SS9 and 
introduce ourselves to the new 1S90. With the 
old goes some of our love, some of our sorrow, 
some if our success and some of our failure. 
With the new comes renewed hope, anxious 
anticipation, great expectations and many well- 
timed and, to be, unfilled promisee. But to the 
work to be done, each one of us should head 
with renewed courage, with strong conviction 
and with a heart for nny fate. In the Grange 
field there is much soil to cultivate. The culti. 
vators are strong, nervy, willing men, who 
have received, and are yet to receive, good ad- 
Tioe and plenty of encouragement from the 
faithful shepherdesses. 

The considerate cultivator, when he goes to 
his work, takes the hoe and the prnning-knife. 
With the one he outs the weeds, stirs the soil 
and draws the fresh, life-giving earth about the 
tender plant ; with the other he prunes the 
straggling branch, the nnneeded growth and 
the noxious insect. So, at this New Year sea- 
son, Patrons should cultivate the tender plantB 
of oi»r Order — help the weaker ones ; care for 
the sick ; encourage the disheartened ; assign 
work for the young ; cheer the older ones and 
make them feel ever welcome at the Grange, 
and, if there be any straggling branches infected 
with noxious insects, now is the time to prune. 
No drones are wanted in the Grange hive, 
" but to all interested in agrioulture, who have 
generous hearts and open hands to help the 
needy, raise the fallen and aid in making the 
labors of this life cheerful— we say, Welcome 
to the Orange." 

Eden Grange some time since published a 
set of resolutions concerning the suspension of 
the Patron. There has been some misunder- 
standing on the part of many Patrons as to the 
exact status of this case. It is, therefore, well 
to wait a time in patience, till* the facts can all 
be made public. This will all be done in due 
season. There will be no attempt to conceal 
the truth. The Grange in California is too 
large and too honest and too powerful to be long 
under a cloud. Sunshine is sure to come, and 
we hope that the first ray, in this case, will come 
from E 'en, the historic garden. Brother Dewey 
and Brother Ewer of the Rural Press have been 
patient, courageous and liberal in their treat- 
ment of this, to them, very trying ordeal. They 
have been guarded as to anything said in the 
Rural, and though the press is an all-powerful 
weapon, the brothers have not, so far, wielded 
it in their own behalf. This patience and for- 
bearance, on their part, has made them many 
friends, and has won, as it deserves to do, many 
plaudits of "Well done, good and faithful 
servants." May the sunshine of the new year 
develop the olive branch, so that there shall 
be harmony everywhere. E. W. D, 

" Waterbound." 

The long and overabundant rains have inter- 
fered with many meetings, but oar Granges are 
as determined to progress as ever, as shown In 
the following : 

Dear Sir and Brother .-—Our Master is 
waterbound by the river, so he cannot get 
to town, so we have been unable to hold a 
meeting this month, so far. Owing to his 
absence I cannot complete my report till our 
next meeting, which will be held on Saturday, 
Jan. 4th, and I will send report and dues then. 
Yours fraternally, Clark Hitt, Sec'y. 

San Miguel, Dee. S8th. 

Dear Sir and Brother : — You will please ex- 
cuse the tardiness of the San Lucas Grange in 
sending its report and paying the quarterly 
dues. Our excuse is the inclement weather, 
and not a lack of promptness on the part of our 
Grange. We are peculiarly situated, not only 
living miles apart, but are unfortunate in being 
almost equally divided in number by the 
Salinas river — down on the maps a small 
stream, but for the last 30 days an almost im- 
passable torrent, rushing, surging, raging to the 
sea. No bridge or ferry connects the shores at 
this point, the means of transit being) a small 
boat. However, our members are made of 
sterner stuff than to be turned aside by water 
and quicksand, and braved the stream on the 
21st to elect officers for the ensuing year. 

The Grange edition of the Rural Press is 
giving entire satisfaction to those of our mem- 
bers who receive it, and it gives us pride and 
pleasure to read the bright, encouraging words, 
which fill its columns. We wish you every 
success in the good work and a Happy New 
Year. Yours fraternally, 

S. Sherwood, Sec'y. 

Son Lucas, Dec. S9th. 

A Worthy Gate-Keeper. — Danville Grange 
has elected a good white man for Gate-Keeper 
for 1890. See list of offioers in another 

San Jose Grange. 

The meeting of San Jose Grange, Dec. 28th, 
was only moderately attended, as the roads are 
not in that condition which makes the passage 
between city and country particularly inviting. 

The acting Master, Bro. Wingate, not only 
extended a general privilege of speaking for 
the good of the Order, but made his invitation 
personal and not with barren results by any 

Cyrus Jones spoke of the hopeful outlook, in 
spite of the extraordinary downpour of the past 


Miss Calhoun, the lecturer, read "Mahmoud, 
the Idol Breaker," with great interest. 

Mrs. F. M. Tenny said she had just heard 
from those who were her guests during the 
visit from the National Grange, they havirg 
safely arrived at their home in Connecticut, 
and expressing in their letter the most pleasant 
recollections of San Jose. Mr. Miller, a mem. 
ber of an Eastern 1 1 range, spoke of the great 
growth of the Order in his section. One prac- 
tical result there was — the extremely low rate 
of insurance secured on farm property. The 
insurance was upon the mutual plan, and an 
experience of several years proved that the 
actual cost was 17 cents on $1000 of insurance. 
This fact alone contributed greatly to the popu- 
larity of the Order, as none were admitted to 
this plan of insurance without first becoming 
members in the usual form. 

Capt. F. Dunn of Lawrence spoke on the 
question of taxation, and by many facts from 
history and actual observation in this and other 
lands showB the undesirability of the single tax 
system now being advocated in certain 
quarters. He said the plan was not at all 
new, but was in vogue in the ancient days, as 
shown by Roman and Grecian history. He had 
traveled in Scotland in districts out of the gen- 
eral path of tourists, and found there the great 
property was in land only. A large estate 
might have no houses larger than 10 by 15 
feet, built of stone, and with nothing but an 
earthen floor. There was no tax on houses 
there, nothing but the land. But here in 
America the land in some cases was really only 
a small part of the value of property. 

The railroads of the United States, valued at 
the capital invested, would require as much as 
5,000,000 tons of gold to purchase, it being a 
question if there is sufficient gold coin in the 
world to represent its worth. He said that no 
sane man who had any ideas of the progress of 
modern times, and any desire of keeping up 
with that progress, could entertain any idea of 
a tax on land alone for a moment. 

Many old worn-out things are foisted on the 
public as new. In illustration of this, Capt. 
Dunn cited the instance of the alleged invention 
and patenting of an improved center-board for 
vessels which was adopted by many modern 
yachts, but that in an old wreck of years and 
years ago, on an island off the China shore, he 
discovered the same device, and from writings 
of Francis Xavier learned the invention to 
have been in use for over 300 years. The single 
tax was even older than that, and its period of 
adaptation had long passed. 

C. J. Cressey, W. H. <iilmore and D. Coates 
spoke briefly, the latter advocating the earnest 
prosecution of measures for the financial benefit 
of members. The installation of the officers- 
elect occurs January 4th. — Mercury. 

Grange Elections.* 

Alhamkra.— Dr. J. Strentzel, M ; E. B. 
Smith, O.j Mise Mary Bartola, L.;'.EIam B. 
Barber, S.; Jas. Kelley, A S.; L. D. Messec, 
C; H Raap, T ; Mrs. M. B. Lander, Sec; H. 
C. Raap, G. K.; Mrs. L. Strentzel, Ceres; Mrs. 
Chas. Cousins, P.; Mrs. N. Kleiber, F.; Mrs. 
E. L. Boss, L. A. S.; L. O. Wittenmyer, 

Danville.— C. E. Howard, M.; F. B. More, 
O.; J. C. Jones. L. ; Elmer Baldwin, S.; M. S. 
Stone, A, S.; Rev. J. C. Burgess, O.J Charles 
Wood, T. ; Miss Jennie C. Bildwin, Sec ; J. H. 
White. G. K ; Mrs. M. W. Hall, Cere.; Mrs. 
R. O. Baldwin. P.; Mrs. W. Z. Stone, F ; Miss 

Miss Mina More, L. A. S.; , Trustee. 

Installation, Jan. 4th. 

Lincoln. — J. 8. Philbrick, M.; Hollis New- 
ton, O.; Peter Ahart, S.; Mrs. M. A Newton, 
L. ; Steward L. N. Scott, A. S. ; Mrs. R. Keaton, 
C.J Mrs. U P. Ahart, P.; A. J. Siule, Sec; 
Mrs. Belle Fowler, G. K.; Mrs. E. M. Crook, 
P.j Mrs. A. M. Fagg, P.; Mrs. A. Fuller, 
Ceres; Mrs. Lou Allen, L. A. S. 

Placerville — Mrs. Katie Briggs, M.; Elon 
Dunlap, O.; Mrs. S. C. Dunlap, L ; Wm. Hen- 
drix, S ; George A. Vignaut, A. S.; Mrs. Sa- 
matha Hooker, C ; Mrs. C. Allen, T.; J. P. 
Allen, Sec; Isaac Tribby, G. K ; Miss' Luella 
Carpenter, Ceres; Mrs. Lelia Beach, P ; Miss 
Drusy Allen, F ; Miss Clara A. Vignaut, L.A.S.; 
Jacob Lyon, Trustee. Installation, Jan. 4th. ' 

Sacramento County Pomona. — Morris 
Toomy, M.; H. W. Johnson, O.; Mrs. A. M. 
Jackman, L.; C. E, Mack, 8 ; D Reese, A. S.; 
George Wilson, C ; A. M. Plummer, T.; Mrs.' 
Dee D. Hull, Sec; George W. Hack, G. K • 
Mrs. Toomy, Ceres; Miss Belle Johnston, P.; 

Etta Plummer, F.; , L. A.S.; 

Trustee, Installation, Jan. 11th. 

*Nots.— The Secretaries of Granges are rcmiested to 
forward reports of all election and other matters of In- 
terest relatii).' to their Granges aDd the Order. 

Worthy Master Davis will go to Marysville 
January 8th, if weather and health will permit. 

Welcome to Bro. S. C. Carr. 

[Read before Bennett Valley Grange by Frankir Talbot.] 

Mr. Chairman, Palront, Ladies and Oentle- 
men: — Sounding down the eons of the English 
language, ever and anon comes a glad Saxon 
dissyllable floating in and out among sad and 
sorrowful tones like a golden thread running 
through the somber woof of some dusky fabric, 
and even amid tbe buBy cares and worries of 
life, we frequently hear the joyful ring of that 
cheery little word " weloome." It is not al- 
ways spoken. It may be the swift flash of 
recognition or the glad, bright smile that 
speaks the welcome more surely than words 
could do. Sometimes it becomes a public 
thought where many hearts choose one voioe to 
utter their sentiment. Thus it has been to- 
day. My brothers and sisters have chosen me, 
Worthy Master of Wisconsin State Grange, to 
bid you welcome, and we feel the full force of 
the word. You have well come. 

We the more gladly greet you because we 
know something of the earnestness with which 
you have for 17 years labored for the good of 
the Order. We know that yon have given 
your hearts, voices and hands to the advance- 
ment of the cause in your own State, and that 
the best energies of your lives have been put 
forth to firmly establish the Grange in this 
country. We know your influence has not 
been confined to Wisconsin, as it has wisely 
kept you in the National Grange for eight 
years, thereby extending your, influence over 
the entire nation. And another cause we have 
for kindly greeting yon is that you are the 
brother of one who sits in our midst, beloved 
and honored by all. For 16 years Bro. and 
Sister Carr have stood faithfully and unfalter- 
ingly by Bannett Valley Grange, and I do not 
think it would be alive to-day if it had not 
been for them. Sister Carr was inimitable, go- 
ing here and there, doing everything at the 
right time and in the right place, and Bro. 
Carr stood boldly looking forward to the great 
object of the Grange — the bettering of farmers 
and their condition — like that bluff old helms* 
man of song and story. 

I think no State in the Union needed the 
Grange and its ennobling work as much as did 
California. A spirit of unrest and speculation 
pervaded every class of people and every branch 
of business. A farm was like a game of faro, 
with the odds all in favor of the bank. The 
sowing of grain was like buying a Lonisiana lot- 
tery ticket, and was not much safer than the B : g 
Bonanza, McMillan or any other mining stock, 
and the make or-break system ruled the honr. 
Sonoma county men did not want to sow grain 
unless the rest of the State dried out. I have 
often heard some of our best farmers say : 
" Don't you think it is about time Sonoma had 
a benefit ?" meaning they thought it about time 
the rest of the State should dry out, so we 
could get a big price for our grain. I am afraid 
tiim- aime Sonoma, county farmers have -jmyed 

a little too hard this fall or else the other end 
of the State got in the best prayer. At any 
rate, we have got an overdose of wet weather, 
while the south is just suited. A few years ago 
a man thought but little of building a beautiful, 
permanent home for himself and family, and 
thought everything of getting some kind of a 
big crop and getting a big price for it. Little 
care or heed was given to the upbuilding of the 
neighborhood and society. I speak of these 
things because I know you can still see traces 
of them, though the Grange has done much to 
elevate farmers and their homes in California. 
But the Order has yet much to do, as you can 
tee. One would think that nowhere in the 
world would the heart of man find such an- 
chorage as here in California, where flower- 
gemmed valleys are shadowed by sun-kissed 
hills, at whose feet lie in slumberous repose the 
graceful vine with its royal purple clusters. 
But it is a strange fact that the early Califor 
nians did not appreciate their country till East- 
ern people began to flock in here and gave enor- 
mous prices for a blue strip of ether, with a 
sand dune, or what we thought was worthless 
land attached to it. Then we began to know 
our fair land bore some resemblance to Italy 
and the favored climes of Europe. Last, but 
not least, Bro. Carr, we welcome you because 
we hope to draw new strength and courage from 
your earnestness and zealous eloquenoe. 

Yuba City Installation. 

Dear Brother: — We have changed our day 
of installing tbe cthcers of Yuba Oity Grange 
from the 4th of January to the 8th, so as to 
have E. W. Davis, W. M. C. S. G. with us. 
The Grange will convene at 10 o'clock for that 
purpose. We want to have a rousing meeting, 
and all Patrons in good standing are cordially 
invited to be with us on that dav. Yours in 
F. H. and C , with F . L B. F. FiusiilE, 

Yuba City, Dec. S7lh. Master. 

The attention of Governor Luoe of Michigan 
having been called to what purported to be a 
Lansing dispatch to the New York World, re- 
ferring to the shabby treatment reported to 
have been received by himself and family upon 
his trip to the Pacific Coast, he declared it en- 
tirely without foundation. " Everything," 
said he, "was according to our expectations. 
There was no complaint or cause therefor dur- 
ing the entire trip, and a basis for the dispatch 
could not have been found in any conversation 
with me since my return. It reflects great in- 
justice upon all parties concerned." 

An Address to Farmers. 

The following circular has been issued from 
the office of the Worthy Master of the National 
Grange, Bro. J. H. Brigham: 
"What's the Matter With the Farmers?" 

I am led to ask the above question by what 
I see, hear, and read every day in these closing 
hours of 1S89. 

Are they at last shaking off the lethargy of 
years ? Do they at last realize that " He, who 
by the plow would thrive, must either hold 
himself, or drive " ? Have they learned that 
there are plowshares not made of steel or iron, 
which must be guided by the master's hand ? 
If so, then at last " day dawns "for the farmer. 

The night has been very dark, and the way 
hard to find; but there is yet hope. The farm- 
ers are moving — not in individual strength — 
but in solid columns. The army of agricultur- 
ists will henceforth cultivate, among other 
fields, the field of politics. Not by the forma- 
tion of a farmers' party, distinct from other 
classes, but as a body composed of nearly one- 
half the citizen sovereigns of this great Republic. 

If agricultural interests or agriculturists are 
ignored, or neglected in the future by any 
political party, we shall want to know tbe rea- 
son why. The farmers have been cajoled and 
relegated to the rear too long; and their inter- 
ests have suffered too much to admit of any 
more of the stale and threadbare " taffy" which 
has been ladled out to us, lo, these many years, 
by the average politician. 

We have heard of the "independent life of 
the farmer, " that he is the " bone and sinew 
of the land," until we are tired, very tired. 
We have learned that this is a representative 
Government, and that the interest not repre- 
sented is sure to get "left." Hence we shall 
ask not a monopoly of the law-making power, 
but a fair share of representation in future leg- 
islative bodies. We shall ask that in the ap- 
pointment of men to positions of honor and 
trust, farmers be not forgotten, or simply thrown 
a " sop," which the place-hunter doeB not 
want. We shall ask the control of boards hav- 
ing in charge institutions devoted exclusively 
to agricultural interests. 

In making these demands, we shall not com- 
promise the dignity of Amerioan citizenship, 
but only ask for ourselves what we are willing 
to accord to others. 

Patrons, " Forward, guide right," is the or- 
der for the year. In this forward movement 
our veteran organization, the Patrons of Hus- 
bandry, must be found in the front rank, not 
wasting its energies in fighting imaginary foes, 
nor in tbe vain effort to change the laws of 
trade and commerce, established after years of 
experience; nor foolish warfare upon legitimate 
business and reasonable profits; but by correct- 
ing abuses which have crept into business life 
in various ways, which unnecessarily burden 
the producing classes. "We must have 
an honest share for wife and home of 
what the harvest yields." Corporations, syn- 
dicates, trusts and vast accumulations in the 
hands of individuals must be so hemmed in and 
surrounded by wise and just legislation, prop- 
erly enforced, that the rights and interests of all 
classes shall be secure. 

Farmers in this righteous crusade, we want 
your help. No other farmers' organization oan 
offer you the advantage of over 20 years' ex- 
perience in organized methods. We make no 
extravagant promises. Our methods are not 
startling or revolutionary in their character. 
We shall co-operate with all who by legitimate 
means are seeking to secure to honest labor a 
fair reward. Butwemakeno entangling alli- 
ances which may lead to future disaster. We 
do not offer you miraculous or unusual power; 
but we do show yon how to make your power 
available for the protection of yonr interests. 

We have a great National Farmers' organiza- 
tion, well drilled in the work which must be 
done if farmers are to remain owners of their 
homes and be worthy of the name of American 
citizens. We are armed and equipped for the 
people's battle. Marching orders have been 
issued. The noise of the conflict between 
wealth-producers and those who by "ways 
that are dark " are absorbing the millions that 
should go to bless and brighten our homes, will 
soon be heard on every hand. We shall put 
every available man into active service. 

And now we want 500,000 new recruits — 
brave men and women — from the farms of our 
country, who are willing to help us in the ef- 
fort to secure only what is " ours by right." 

Shall our appeal be in vain ? I trust not. A 
subordinate Grange should be organized in 
every township; a Pomona Grange in every 
county, and then with extended lines, with 
high hopes, and with brave hearts, we shall 
wage a successful warfare against some of the 
crying evils of the day. And our victories 
shall be blessings to every home and legitimate 
industry of the land. 

Write to the Master or the Secretary of your 
State Grange for instructions how to organize a 
Grange. If you do not know their address, 
write to • J H. Brigham, 

Master of the National Grange. 
Delia, Ohio, Dec. 2i. 1889. 

The Massachusetts State Grange met 
Dec. 17th, with 77 Granges represented. The 
Secretary reports eight new Granges and 135) 
members gained. The strength of the Order 
in Massachusetts is stated to be 7618. Over 
400 members and visitors were present on the 
first day of the session. 

Jan. 4, 1890.J 

fACIFie fyjRAb pRESS* 

Maine State Grange. 

The Maine State Grange held its annual 
session commencing Dec. 17th, and continued 
three days. The weather was splendid, almost 
as warm as can be found in California. The 
attendance was very large and the interest and 
enthusiasm continued until the closing exercises. 
The annual address of the State Master oc- 
cupied an hour and was listened to by an 
audience of over 1000 farmers. It was pub- 
lished the next Monday in the daily papers of 
the State with favorable comments. The fol- 
lowing is an extract relating to California : 

" After the close of our session, which lasted 
nine days, we were guests of the State of Cali- 
fornia, and were placed in charge of a well- 
selected committee of five Patrons of Husbandry 
appointed by His Excellency Governor Water- 
man. The Legislature made a liberal appro- 
priation of $10,000, and we were thereby en- 
abled to make without individual expense a 
most royal, instructive and interesting tour 
through the State. We traveled nearly 2000 
miles, and had a grand opportunity to judge of 
the wealth and producing power of this great 
agricultural State. The citizens of the several 
towns and cities we visited were very enthu- 
siastic and generous in their attentions. The 
receptions and banquets surpass my power of 
description. Bands of music, beautiful display 
of flowers, tables loaded with richest abundance 
of food and all the tropical fruits of a 
Sunny South, and most cordial greetings and 
speeches of welcome from the best ladies and 
gentlemen of California were showered upon 
us from every quarter. I can only say that it 
is a wonderful country, with magnifioent re- 
sources, and the future development must make 
it the Empire State of the Union, and thus of 
the world. It would be difficult to discrimi- 
nate or compare the many sections we visited, 
for each place has its individual advantages, 
but it seemed to me that Southern California, in 
the vicinity of San Diego, has peculiar attrac- 
tions. There we find a perpetual summer, and 
the temperature through the entire year is prac- 
tically uniform, showing no extreme heat or 
cold, but comfortable and healthy weather at 
all times. 

" Oranges, lemons, grapes, oliveB and trop- 
ical fruits of all kinds grow in luxuriant pro- 
portions. The only criticism that I desire to 
make is that land is held too largely by the 
few, and there exists too much of the spirit of 
speculation. Land for the farmers is sold from 
$100 to $1000 for the acre. The farmer from 
New Eagland can hardly afford to pay such 
prices and take all the risks. Without muoh 
money he had bettor stay at home and cultivate 
the farms in Maine, where there is a certainty 
of independence, a generous livelihood and a 
true enjoyment of all the advantages of New 
England civilization." 

The following editorial extract appears In 
the Augusta Morning Journal: 

" After four terms or eight years of contin- 
uous, earnest, sincere and faithful service as 
Master of the State Grange of Patrons of Hus- 
bandry, Ex Gov. Robie retired from that posi- 
tion yesterday, and his annual address before 
that body now in session at Belfast, which is 
also a 'farewell address,' appears in our columns 
this morning. It reaches the usual high- 
water mark of eloquent and impassioned lan- 
guage so characteristic of Gov. Kobie's pnblic 
utterances, and deals with many questions of 
important public concern. Among these are 
several pertaining to practical affairs of the 
farm, discussed in an intelligent manner; the 
problem of abandoned farms and profits of farm 
labor; the evils of monopoly; power of the 
Grange organization as affecting legislation in 
behalf of agriculture, and other broad tropica. 
But little space is given to private history, 
work and polity of the organization, and still 
less concerning its secret character. A plea is 
made for universal suffrage, and there is 
throughout its entirety a highly eloquent treat- 
ment, broad spirit and evidence of much 
thought. When Ex-Gov. Robie was called to 
the position of Master of the State Grange, but 
two persons had occupied that position before 
him, and the Order numbered little if any over 
four thousand. Its membership to-day exceeds 
fifteen thousand and it is not only strong 
financially, but influential in every quality 
which gives moral force to an organization of 
intelligent citizens. Much of this growth is 
due to Ex-Gov. Kobie's personal effort and 
influence in the work of the Order. Heretlres 
from the high position he has so ably occupied 
for eight years, carrying with him the honor, 
esteem and love of every member of the 

The report and papers from the several com- 
mutes on Grange Principles and Purposes set 
forth the sentiments of the Order in an intelli- 
gent and concise manner, and cannot fail to 
accomplish too much good. The State Grange, 
by nearly a unanimous vote, refused to ratify 
any change in the Constitution reducing the 
fees. Only 4 of nearly 200 delegates voted in 
the affirmative. Nearly 100 Patrons took the 
sixth degree. 

The State Grange assisted, by raising funds, 
to erect a suitable monument to the memory of 
our late National Master, Put Darden. 

Ex-Gov. Robie carried out his previous dec- 
laration that he would not accept a re-election 
as Worthy Master. Hon. Kufus Prince of 
Turner, one of the largest farmers and moat re- 

spectable citizens of the State, was elected 
Worthy Master, and he will have the support 
of every Patron. The Lewiston Journal pub- 
lishes the following special: 

" Worthy Master Robie, in retiring from the 
chair, made a most feeling speech, and many of 
the brothers and sisters were visibly affected. 
He then proceeded to the installation, assisted 
by Past Master D. H. Thing as Marshal and 
Brother J. O. Kyes as Overseer. At the con- 
clusion of the installation, Past Master Robie 
read a, very interesting communication from 
Sister Robie, who for the past eight years has 
filled the office of Ceres. 

" Bro. S. F. Emerson of Skowhegan made an 
eloquent speech embodying the thanks and ap- 
preciation of the Grange of the services of the 
retiring Master. A rising vote of thanks to 
Worthy Master Robie for his past services was 

Thanks to Ex-Governor Robie. 
The following are the resolutions compli- 
mentary to ex-Governor Robie passed by the 

Resolved, That we members of the Maine State 
Grange esteem it a great pleasure to give expres- 
sion so far as it is in our power to do, of our appre- 
ciation of the great services rendered to our Order 
by our brother, Frederick Robie, the retiring 

Resolved, That we are fully aware that it was in 
the power of but few men to so easily arrest pub- 
lic attention and command respect for our noble 
Order, as he who after along career of distinguished 
public service grasped in the one hand the scepter 
of State, and yet esteemed it an honor to hold 
in the other, the gavel of the Master of the Maine 
State Grange. 

Resolved, That we are aware of a deeper indebt- 
edness to him, in that from his high position he 
has so earnestly and so unsparingly bestowed upon 
us the fruit of his wide experience and mature judg- 
ment in his devotion to our Order. 

Resolved, That he will have our best wishes for 
his future as he has had our confidence in the past. 

Single Tax. 

Editors Press: — Burns has spoken of his 
countrymen as having an immortal dislike to 
tolls and taxes, and it may be that I have in- 
herited my share of the dislike, for I have never 
taken kindly to assessors and tax-collectors, 
I believe I am not alone. Yet I know, every 
one knows, that all the various branches of 
government or public business incur expense, 
and the expense must be met by the public. 
All this is self-evident. At the same time all 
tax-payers evade all they can of the payment. 

The problem to be solved is, bow to levy an 
equitable tax in which evasion will be practi- 
cally impossible. Real estate is always visible 
and cannot be hid from the assessor, and its 
value is also a matter of public knowledge. 

Now it is maintained by quite a respectable 
number that land being inevaeable to taxation, 
and being the natural right of all, a birthright 
which we cannot give away, nor legislation take 
from m, or any public or private Act; there- 
fore, the public has a right to a rent of land In 
use as its landlord, which rent may be used to 
pay our taxes. 

AH this seems to me to be simple justice. 
But it is maintained still further that the land 
should bear all the taxes, that in fact it does 
bear all the taxes now, only that in levying a 
tax on improvements, the tax becomes inequit- 
able; the land having improvements paying 
more than its share. 

Taxing improvements has always seemed to 
me to be a gross injustice. Take city lots for 
example. More than one millionaire in San 
Francisco has become such by simply holding 
on to vacant lota, or by simply letting the les- 
see make the improvements, while the city 
grew by the improvements of others. These 
men paid no taxes on improvements while be- 
ing enriched by them. One man builds a fine 
house, has a beautiful lawn, bordered with rare 
flowers, and makes his place a pleasure to the 
public who pass that way, and who derive actu- 
ally as much benefit from it as the owner, who 
has all the expense to pay, and we show our 
gratitude to him by fining him for it by taxa- 
tion, while the vacant lot beside it is a public 
eye-sore, the receptaole of old hats and boots 
and all sorts of garbage, actually depreciating 
the value of property, and yet the owner is not 
fined, as he should be, but gets off with a light 
tax. This cannot be right. A farmer is 
thrifty, industrious and has his farm well 
fenced with suitable, substantial buildings, and 
for doing this he is fined, while his shiftless 
neighbor, who permits everything to go to rack 
and ruin, is encouraged in his lack of thrift by 
a lower assessed valuation. 

I can see why the public should demand a 
revenue from all lands, for the simple reason 
that all lands belong to the public; but what 
right has the public to what I have produced or 
built or manufactured? None that I can per- 
ceive. Instead of taxing industry it should be 
encouraged, for it gives value to land, the peo- 
ple's heritage, and by the bond which binds so- 
ciety together, I should be protected in the 
possession of all my improvements and prod- 
ucts and my disposition thereof against the 
whole world. 

Whether the public should be debarred from 
other revenue than from land, I am not so sure. 
What is called the single tax demands that land 
only shall be taxed. That land apart from 
improvements shonld only be taxed, I should 
like to insist on, but I peroeive a revenue from 
the post-office service, which I think is right 
and just; and as a necessary adjunot to the 
] postal service, the near future may find the 

railroads, telegraphs, telephones, etc., also 
owned by the public, and from which a revenue 
must proceed. 

The point which I want to make is, public 
revenue should be on a natural, not an arbitrary, 
basis. The land as public property should yield 
a public revenue; a revenue from public im- 
provements and possessions would also be right; 
but my private possessions and improvements 
do not belong to the public, and I should be 
permitted to enjoy them in full. 

It is due to society that all lands should be 
put to their best use, and that all lands held 
privately should be so UBed. To compel this, 
where compulsion may be necessary, vacant or 
unused lands should pay as if they were in use, 
and in the best use, and in the ordinary nature 
of things no one would care to hold that which 
was only an expense. This would destroy all 
speculative value in land, all holdings of exces- 
sively large tracts of land, and encourage the 
peopling of the country by families. 

The objection to the taxation of land apart 
from its improvements is, that it would throw 
the burden of taxation altogether upon the 
already over -taxed, over - burdened farmer. 
Complaints are more likely to oome from the 
city. The city, town or village is built on land, 
and centers of population give value to land, 
and the assessed valua of such land is very 
likely equal at least to all the remaining farm- 
ing land. The farmer will find that, by paying 
taxes on land only, freeing his buildings, fences, 
stock, tools, etc., from taxation, he has made a 
very good bargain and a just one, as well. 

I am not surprised that the Single-tax should 
meet with violent opposition from speculators 
in land and holders of vacant corner-lots, but I 
am surprised that industrious farmers should 
be found denouncing it — as if it suited them 
better to be specially taxed on unproductive 
things, to be fined for being thrifty and pro- 
gressive, and have everything they possess as- 
sessed in detail and graded and specified in a 
manner unknown to any other business or occu- 
pation. But the Jay Goulds, the Vanderbilts, 
the Stanfords, and the whole brood of million- 
aires who are spreading their nets over the 
well-being of the people, will thus be relieved 
of their just share of taxation, if not entirely! 
If reports be true, they very nearly occupy 
that position now. If, under the Single-tax, 
they can live in houses built in the air, run 
railroads on the same element, hold stocks in 
things in no way related to land, then they 
may escape taxation. On the other hand, if 
your oash improvements, cattle, etc., be exempt 
from taxation, it is only right that their dia- 
monds and dollars be exempt. Land is the 
only permanent property ; everything else is 
evanescent, even in the hands of a millionaire. 

But all the millionaires are opposed to the 
single-tix theory. They do not see in it a way 
of escape from taxation. They are too well off 
now under the present system to care for a 
change. As to the millionaires themselves, we 
have permitted a condition of things to exist 
by which these men with impunity could take 
from the public those extraordinary millions 
upon millions of wealth, and we have no right 
to complain; for, though wrong, they have only 
done that which we all would most likely have 
done had we been in their position and had 
had their power of management. Let them 
keep their wealth, let them enjoy it if they 
can, and as long as they can, but let the com- 
mand be issued from an all-powerful, intelligent 
public : Hitherto shalt thou come, and no 
farther, by placing the first barrier to the prog- 
ress of a millionaire — the single tax. 

Something must be done to stay the progress 
of trusts, monopolies and the combination of 
these millionaires, for our existence as a nation 
of free men and free women is threatened by 
tbem. The first step is the single tax, the next 
is the nation itself being the Great Trust. It is 
useless to advise farmers to form a trust or com- 
bination of any kind. They simply " won't." 
Reflect on the saving to the morals of the 
peoDle by the single-tax in perjury. 

Tulare, Dee. 27, 1889. J. W. Mackie. 

Adjourned Meeting of the Executive 

There will be an adjourned meeting of the 
Executive Committee of the State Grange of 
California held at the office of the State Secre- 
tary, 220 Market st , S. F., at 9 a. m. Thursday, 
Jan. 16 oh, for the transaction of suoh business 
as may be properly brought before it. 

Per order. A. T. Dewey, Sac'y. 


An adjourned annual stockholders' meeting 
of the California Patron Publishing Co. will be 
held at the office of the Company, 220 Market 
street, San Francisco, Cal., on the 16th of 
January, 1890, at 11a.m., for the purpose of 
considering and voting on the question of 
disincorporating the above-named Company, 
and for the transaction of such other business 
as may properly come before the annual stock- 
holders' meeting. I. C. Steele, President. 

J. Chester, Secretary. 

Watsonville Grange has ordered a set of 
officers' jewels to go with their badges ; also 
the Gate-keeper's insignia of offioe, the "owl." 
Extra preparations are being made for installa- 
tion of officers to-day, which will, no doubt, be 
a fine affair. . 

Worthy Master Davis will visit several 
Granges in January if weather will permit. 

Hydraulicking Virtually Ended. 

At a recent meeting of the directors of the 
Anti-Debris Association the proposition was 
discussed of the propriety of memorializing 
the Secretary of War to the effect that hy- 
draulic mining having practically ceased, he, , 
the Secretary, use the unexpended money 
next summer in improving the Sacramento and 
Feather rivers. Subsequently the Advisory 
Committee of the Anti-Debris Association at 
its meeting of December 16th took the same 
under consideration, when the following, intro- 
duced by Col. Edwards Woodruff, was unani- 
mously adopted : 

Whereas, Hydraulic mining has practically 
ceased. The little that has been done during 
the past twelve months has been only by 
stealth, and by stealth it is likely to continue 
for many years to come. It can no more be 
entirely stopped than can illicit distilling or 
other criminal practices; and, 

Whereas, The time has now arrived when 
the Secretary of War, acting upon due in- 
formation and knowledge, will undoubtedly 
cancel his order of years ago to cease Govern- 
ment work for the reformation of the rivers Sac- 
ramento and Feather, etc., therefore, 

Resolved, That the President and Directors of 
the Anti-Debris Association of the Sacramento 
Valley be and they are hereby advised to in- 
struct the manager thereof to use immediate 
efforts to cause this order to be rescinded and 
a new order issued whereby every preparation 
for resuming work upon these rivers next 
summer shall be made, and work begun there- 
on as soon as practicable. 

The matter was promptly referred to the 
Government attorneys, but the action by the 
Governor and citizens of Sacramento rendered 
any action on their part unnecessary. It 
may be stated that the preamble correctly 
sets forth the hydraulic mining situation, the 
Government agents having for a year or more 
had to do only with illicit mining. When the 
Secretary of War expends the money in his 
hands it is thought illicit mining will the sooner 
be suppressed. — Sutter Farmer, Dec. 27th. 

Postal Telegraphy. 

A bill has been introduced in the United 
States Senate, by Cullom of Illinois, author- 
izing the Postmaster General to contract for 
five years with any existing telegraph company 
for the use of its lines for the transmission of 
postal messages between free delivery offices, 
the Postmaster General having authority to 
determine between what points the lines shall 
run. Messages are to be prepaid with stamps, 
at rates to be fixed by the Postmaster General, 
and are to be delivered by letter-carriers on the 
first mail delivery after they are received, and 
at such other times as the Postmaster General 
may direct. 

Before making the contract with any tele- 
graph company the Postmaster General shall 
advertise for proposals. The contract shall 
require the telegraph company to furnish other 
wireB in case the lines leased shall become dis- 
abled through storms or accidents. 

This proposed improvement is endorsed by 
the Grange, and will be heartily supported by 
its members. 

The Illinois State Grange convened at 
Springfield, Dec. 10th. The Worthy Master, 
Bro. J. M. Thompson, was reported sick at 
San Francisco and unable to attend the session. 
The Executive Committee's report showed 52 
Granges organized during the year and 2500 
members added. The Secretary reported the 
finances of the Order in good condition. The 
receipts were far in excess of expenditures, 
though a large amount of lecture work had 
been done in nearly every county in the State. 
The Committee on Insurance reported policies 
in force in Grange companies covering $65,000,- 
000, saving the farmers of the State thousands 
of dollars. The session lasted three days. 

Installations are to take plaoe to-day as far 
as reported to us in the following Granges: 
llollister, Roseville, Watsonville, Grass Val- 
ley, Sebastopol, Stockton, Kibesillah. Merced, 
Tulare, Danville, Placerville, and Lodi and 
Woodbridge in joint session at Lodi. Yuba 
City Grange officers will be installed January 
8th. Next Saturday, January 11th, North 
Butte, Santa Rosa, Washington and Sacra- 
mento County Pomona Granges will install offi- 

Decree Certificates. — With two or three 
exceptions, sixth-degree certificates have now 
been del.vered or posted by mail to all who re- 
ceived that degree at the State Grange. Those 
who were promoted to the sixth degree at the 
National Grange will get theirs in due time, do 
doubt. No certificates are issued for the sev- 
enth degree. 

The storm has prevented many meetings, 
but with the advent of fair weather we expect 
our Grange columns will be crowded with good 
news from various quarters. 

An average of one new Grange per week for 
the past year is the record of the Illinois State 


f> ACIFie i^UftAb JpRESS, 

[Jan. 4, 1890 

Kitty Clover's Outing. 

" Midget, gypsy, big-eyed elf, little Kitty Clover, 
What have you been playing at for this hour and 
over ? 

Where have you been wandering, in the name of 
wonder ? 

Weren't you frightened at the wind ? Are you fond 
of thunder? 

Were you in a fairies' cave while the rain was falling. 
With your ears sown tightly up, not to hear me 

Who has taught your hair to curl ? 
Where's your apron, dirty girl ? " 

" Now my brains is all mussed up, got too big a 
head full, 

Fifteen questions at a time mixes me up dreadful; 
Course I been a-visiting, me and Rainy Weather, 
Sure to find the birds at home when we go together; 
Guess my ears was full of songs so I didn't hear you, 
K'se because you stayed at home I got too far from 
near you; 

Once some little thing said low, 

' Mamma wants you, Lu, I know.' 

" 'Spec' it was that funny bird that kept and kept a- 


While the rain was coming down and thunder-bells 
was ringing. 

' Oh, you goosie-bird,' I said, ' rains like sixty-seven, 
And your song will get so wet it can't fly up to 

Did you swallow it one day when you was a-drinking ? 
1 s it all the talk you've got, or only just your thinking ? 

Or do songs come up and sprout. 

And rain makes them blossom out ? ' 

" Then a bird came close to me— mamma, he did 

Said ' I never told before, but I'll tell you, Luly.' 
Thought their harps were out of tune, made such 

awful dinging; 
So he sang a piece of song, put some feathers 

round it, 

Then he threw it in a tree where some bird's name 
lound it. 

And he mixed the song and name 
Till they grew the very same. 

" Mamma, what you smiling at ? Hadn't you better 

hold me? 

I'll be tired a -saying through what the birdie told me; 
God sends word down by the rain when He wants to 
hear him. 

Should you think his song would lose ? I can tell 
you better I 

It don't have so far to go as my grandma's letter; 
Eirth and heaven's so close apart, 
God can catch it in His heart. 

" 'Twas the Wind that curled my hair— didn't he 
fix it funny? 

Combed and twisted it like this 'thout a spec of 

Where's my apron ? Let me see ! I must think 
it over. 

'FraiH you've got a naughty girl for your Kitty 

'Cause I gave that to the brook with the big stones 
in it, 

Covered 'em all dry and neat, 
Sa my brook won't wet its feet ! " 

— Carrie IV. Thompson. 

A Package of Old Letters. 

[Written for the Rural Prkss by Lupa.] 
Imagine me comfortably curled up In the 
center of an old rug on the attio floor. With- 
in reach of my left hand is the south window 
where the hornets hive danced so long they 
seem to have absorbed the sunshine into their 
own golden-hued bodies; a fly is buzzing in a 
spider web that is spread like a lace curtain 
across an upper corner, but his voice is so low 
and lazy I hardly think he is very anxious to 
be free; at the north end of the room old 
clothes are hung, waiting for some " walk- 
about " who may need them, and not far away 
stands a churn so old-fashioned that I have 
never seen its mate, and think, perhaps, it has 
spent its life in single-blessedness. It is large, 
square-cornered, rounded on the bottom, hung 
in a four-legged frame, and is swung like a ham- 
mock by means of a three-foot handle which is 
hooked to the side when wanted. If it never 
amounted to much as a churn, it was a most de- 
lightful doll's cradle in my childish days. 
Under the low eaves cluster bundles of catnip, 
sage, pennyroyal and boneset, with bags of car- 
away, coriander and mustard seed. In one 
corner, behind me, is a barrel of precious old 
papers, among others, whole volumes of the 
Boston Cultivator older than I am. 

Just in front of me, with its lid open and 
leaning against the wall, stands the blue chest 
(or " ohiBt," as grandfather called it); in its 
scented depths repose several (pelling-books ac- 
cording to Webster, who made them readers 
also by inserting -F. sop's fables, illustrated in 
oonvenient places. The faded Dames written on 
the fly-leaf show that they were the property of 
my Uther, uncles and aunts, all long since laid 
to rest. Nicely spread ov r them is the " sam- 
pler " worked by grandmother when a school- 
girl. Probably I oouldn't, certainly I shouldn't, 
stitch that alphabet, small and large, any bet- 

ter, but those weeping willows in the center of 
the piece do look so stiff and funny. I wonder 
if she had ever seen any. Yet I should not 
laugh at it, for on the monument in its sup- 
posed shade is the name of my great grand- 
mother, as dear to her as my mother is to me. 

Down in the bottom of the chest is a "calash" 
of bright green silk — a bonnet half a yard wide 
from crown to brim, Hiring ambitiously in all 
directions around the face, kept in Bhape by be- 
ing gathered on reeds or fine rattans and held 
iu place by a narrow green ribbon that was tak- 
en ccqaettishly between the thumb and finger, 
or pinned to the dress below the throat. If 
the ribbon was loosened, down went the bonnet 
like a collapsed chaise top. 

Now, at last, behind piles of little silk pin- 
cushions and big silk pincushions, broken dolls 
and baby dresses, I come to the letters I am 
going to tell you about. The writer lived 
among the mountains — you might gues" in 
" old Varmount" and I shouldn't answer. You 
might hint that the name signed, Kzekiel 
Conant, was not quite true, and I shouldn't eay, 
because it makes no difference, but I should 
suspect by your being bo inquisitive that you 
or your ancestors came from Yankeeland. One 
peculiarity that you would know Uncle Z eke 
by (unless some one else has the same, which I 
doubt) was his nose. The tip of it lay on his 
npper lip as closely as a mortgage on a farm, 
and though the nostrils swelled out each side in 
helpless rebellion, there was never any change. 
How, when and why it took that shape I never 
knew, but it was the wonder of my childhood. 
His voice had a peculiar sound on account of 
this, but the disposition seemed in no wise 
crooked, though other boys did ask him when 
his nose was going to spring, Baying it must be 
tired of crouching so long. As he grew older, 
some said it was blunted by poking into other 
folks' business ; but it was nothing uncommon 
in those days, before every one was bo well 
educated, for people to be peculiar Id some 
way, and that was only X-ke's oddity. I won- 
der if the tendency of all cultivation is toward 
sameness of physical and mental form. To old- 
fashioned ears, the sweetness seems to have 
gone from music when the individual tone has 
been cultivated out of it, and I sometimes 
wonder if that is not real education which is a 
drawing forth of the natural self instead of the 
substitution of another. 

Good, queer Uncle / ke ! I find myself ten- 
derly patting the bundle of yellow letters, while 
a feeling of mirth begins to nestle and quiver 
somewhere near the heart and flutter upward, 
till little Graoie asks, 

" What you finkin' 'bout, makes you look so 
funny ? " 

"Uncle Z;ke," I tell her. 

" Was he your uncle ? " 

"No, he didn't belong to me any more than 
to other people." 

" Did he writs these letters ? " 

" Yes." 

" What for?" 

"Because he wanted to. He wrote some be- 
fore he married Keziah Green." 
" Did you want to marry him ? " 
"No, indeed." 

" Did he want to marry you?" 

" Never mind. He didn't, and it was best so." 

Then she props her round chin with her 
chubby hand and "finks," while the hornets 
and flies still keep up their buzzing song and I 
read over this package of old letters. 

Here is one dated in 1845, how long ago ! 

Dear Friend:— I write to tell you that Uncle 
Klward has bought a stove. Did you ever see 
one? It is made to cook on instead of a fire- 
place and is the queerest thing I ever see. 
Aunt Huldah, she had been over the mountain 
to Squire Kibison'a and she seen one there; 
then nothin' would do but she must have one 
too. She said it waB so handy, and her dress 
wouldn't get burnt so much, and 'twaB no trick 
at all to get a meal o' victuals on it. 

Uncle Kiward, he grumbled and said he'd 
just as soon try to warm himself by a good 
sized lightnin' bug, and 'twas an awful sight 
o' money to nay out, but 'twa'n't no manner o' 
use; Aunt Huldah kep' a-pesterio' him till 
finally he said, "GoodNatur! I s'pese I must 
if it takes the last bog ;" so he went with 
seventy dollars' worth of pork down to the city 
and brought back the »tove. Jumpin' Jemima! 
For the next two weeks you would a thought 
there was a weddin' or a funeral goin' on all the 
time at Aunt Huldah's, the folks kep' a comin 
and a-comin' so. 

The thing (" Black Wench," Uoole Edward 
calls if) is a cut-iron box with doors in front 
an' on one end. The oven is inside, under the 
fire, an' that has doors each way. The smoke 
goes into a sheet-iron pipe at the back an' this 
pipe is bent over an' is etuok into a hole in the 
chimbly. The top is round an* runs on little 
wheels in • track on the top edge of the box. 
There are six holes in it with kivers, one six 
inches across an' the others larger with rings to 
set in an' make them smaller to suit different- 
aizad kittles. The fire is built in the upper 
story of the box, and when a thing gets too hot 
yon whirl the top to a cooler place. 

Uncle Edward wouldn't have the fireplace 
shut up 'cause he aaid " mebbe the tarnal thing 
wouldn't work," an' I most believe he hoped it 
wouldn't. Such a time as they had with that 
stove ! I vurn ! the pesky thing come plaguy 
nigh bustin' up the family an' the church, an' 
fiually the whole neighborhood. 

I was there one day when they were havin' a 
wrastle with it, an' couldn't help tellin' Keziah, 
an' she told her next neighbor, an' it went to 
the church, an' in goin' through some stupid 

head on the way, it came out that I heard 
Aunt Huldah swear; then the deacons an' the 
minister went to see her, an' when they found 
'twas the Black Wench that had made all the 
trouble, matters weren't bettered a mite. The 
minister prayed that the demon of discontent 
might be banished from that onoe happy home, 
an' Aunt Huldah she understood that he was 
hintin' at her not bein' satisfied with the fire- 
place, but she was olear grit all through an' 
held on. You see, there is good stock in her. 
Her father, you know, was Captain in the 
war of 1812, an' wouldn't stan' no foolishness 
from king nor priest. After he come home 
from the army, before his musket had had time 
to rust, he cleared up a little piece of woods 
and planted corn. It grew fine, but every little 
while a tough old bear used to oome into the 
patch with her young ones and help herself to 
corn; but she seemed to know when 'twas Sun- 
day, and take that day for grub huntin' so't 
she'd be safe, for 'twas agin the chnrch rules to 
shoot on Sunday. The captain stood it as long 
as he conld, but his dander kep' risin' higher 
an' higher, till one still Sunday mornin' he took 
down the old musket eff'n the pegs an' 
drawed a good bead on that bear. She never 
wanted any more corn, but that shot made a 
tarnal noiee in the church. They hauled him 
up for Sabbith breakin 1 , but he didn't repent 
worth a continents, an' when the Sunday come 
for turnin' him out o' church in good style he 
marched into the meetin'-house with the old 
musket on his shoulder an' defied tbem to do it. 
Well, they didn't, an' Aunt Huldah ie a chip 
of the old block, so she hung on to the stove 
an' declared she didn't swear, though mebbe if 
she'd ben a man she might a tried to. Her 
minister had a grudge sgin the Black Wencb, 
for he had ben invited to tea after Aunt Hul- 
dah thought she had learnt the thing pooty 
well, an' he counted on havin' some cream bis- 
cuits, such as he'd often had there bnt nowhere 
else, an' she started the fire, made the biscuits, 
an' was flyin' ronnd gittin' other things ready, 
so she trusted the bakin' to Betaey. Betsey is 
a good gal, but the scboolmarm wss board In' 
there, an' she took a magazine with fashion 
picters into it an' Betsey's head was a'moet 
turned with that an' the schoolmarm's talk an' 
fine ways; ao she hung on to the book, spite o' 
the minister's biscuits, and knew jestenougb to 
open the oven door and shet it again when her 
mother would ask her if they was burnin'. She 
never thought a word about the fire, 'cause 
'twas out o' sight, an' when everything else 
was ready the stove was cold an' the dough as 
rl it an' white as ever, so they had rye-'n indian 
bread for tea, an' the minister didn't forget it 
when he prayed about the demon. 

I'm comin' now to what made the biggest 
tronble. You see, it was time to make the fall 
soap, an' Aunt Huldah thought it would be fine 
to make it on the new stove, so she filled her 
ash-barrel as usual, drained off the lye, het it 
in the big kittle an' then put in her bacon 
rinds an' lard scraps and such. All went well 

till 'twaB a'mORt dona, when nbo stepped lu the 

front door a minute to tell a tin peddler she 
didn't want nothin', an' that soap riz an' riz, 
better'u the biscuits did, an' jest at ahe turned 
round it hung on the top of the kittle an' then 
poured over everywhere. 

The cat was settin' by the stove washin' up 
an' combin' his whiskers for dinner; but when 
the thick brown stuff rolled off the stove 
an' dropped on his back, he gave one onairtbly 
yawl an' shot through the door quicker'n you 
could say Jack Roberson. Uncle Edward was 
jest comin' in, an' somehow the cat an' his feet 
tangled up together, so the cat took them along 
toward the woodshed in his burry. Uncle Ei- 
ward grabbed at the air to save himself an' caught 
the water-pail. It upset an' splashed the water 
all over him jeat aa he struck the floor, and both 
hands went spat into the soap-puddle. He 
roared out "Good Nater!" an' old Toweer 
gave a ferocious yelp an' bounoed on to him, 
-• atchin' him wherever 'twas handy, trying to 
pull bim up. At the same time Bitsey rushed 
in from 'tother room screamin': "What's the 
matter?" an' Aunt Huldab was work in' the 
pump like all possessed for water to cool the 
soap with. I happened to come along jest then 
an' helped Uncle Edward np (for his hands 
were so slippery that every time he tried to 
prop himself with them they went out from 
under), fil:ed the wash-bowl so he could soak 
out the smart, an' then I looked at Aunt Hul- 
dah. Her face was as red as a beet, an' didn't 
get any paler when Uncle Eiward muttered 
that he hoped next time she'd hang the soap- 
kittle on the crotches in the yard, like a sensi- 
ble woman, not fool with that pesky black 

She looked as if she wanted to swear, an' 
that was what I said, but some folks can'c tell 
the truth straight when they want to; ao that 
made a peck o' trouble besides what they had 
already, as I told you before, but she hung on 
till she learnt the ways of the thing, an' now 
the church is thinkin' of buyin' one for the 
minister's Christmas present. H"w folks do 
change 1 I'm mortally afraid Iwiah'll be 
askin' for one next, so I s'pose I might as well 
be puttin' my foot down agin it in my own 
mind so's to be prepared. 

" E/.ekiel Conant." 

Miss Waldo (of Boston, discuaaing literary 
matten): " Have you read ' Homo Sum,' Mr. 
Wabash?" Mr. Wabath (of Chicago, who is 
keeping up his end of the conversation with 
dirficulty); "Well — er — yes, Miaa Waldo, I 
have read 'Homo ' some, but not a great deal." 
N. Y. Sun. 

Real Worth. 

[Written lor the Rckal I'kshs by Kmklik Tracy Y. 
Swktt ) 

Real worth is what the world cries out for 
now-a days. When notoriety is the goal toward 
which every one is striving — cheap notoriety at 
that — real worth is apt to be left lagging be- 
hind, sneered at, ridiculed, taunted. The 
baker's daughter calls herself a profeasor of 
muaic and gives lessons for three dollars a month 
with the use of the piano. 

The farmer's son, who has never Been any- 
thing of life outside of bis own circle of ac- 
quaintances, thinks himself a famous author, 
and writes stories for an agricultural paper. 

The school girl writes an essay, which is 
printed in the local press, and henceforth her 
ambition dreams of a great future, which 
hioders her from following np her domestic 
duties. The school-boy in the debating olub 
scores a point one night which calls forth 
storms of applause. He immediately loses all 
interest in a prospective clerkship and fancies 
himself an orator, a politician of wide-spread 

A bright young man joins a beneficiary 
society and works himself up to the titled posi- 
tions, but it spoils him for regular business oppor- 
tunities where he would have to work himself 
up by earned, faithful application instead of 
surface brightnesa that made him ahine aooially 
in the society. 

All this encouragement of mediocrity helps 
to impede the success of real worth, and also to 
apoil good men and women for the middle strata 
of daily life. 

The baker's daughter will no longer stand be- 
hind the counter and sell bread. Who will fill 
her place ? The farmer's son scorns the profes- 
sion of farming now that he baa become a literary 
aspirant. Where shall we get the next gener- 
ation of farmers ? The girl graduate despises 
housework, but if she shirks it who will take 
her place ? 

The would-be orate r 1 ugl a atpetly clerkships. 
Clerks must exist, but wnere shall we get 
them? The finest men and women the world has 
ever known have been those who were not 
above attending to the necessary details of an 
tvery-day life and whoae struggles for eminence 
were made secondary to their social dutiea. By 
social duty I mean the regard due to domestic 
law, and the duty to humanity. 

The men and women of real worth have been 
those who were willing to pats a bard, dis- 
couraging apprenticeship for the sake of gain- 
ing a reputation whose stability could not be 

A celebrated literary woman said to me onoe 
when I was just beginning my career: "Have 
courage. Djn't fall by the wayside aajao many 
thousands have done, just because the thorns 
pierce your feet. A name that is not worth 
suffering for. is not worth having." 

Time and again when manuscripts have been 
returned to me, I have remembered what ahe 
said, and studied my work to find wherein lay 
the fault— for fault there muet be or the work 
would find a market. There ia alwaye a field 
for good work. If you cannot find a market, 
there is a fliw somewhere, your work lacks 
real worth. 

What has been said of literary work is ap- 
plicable to all labor. 

Many, nay, nearly all writers live to thank 
the editor who rejecta the firat crude work 
which, if accepted might have marred their 
future reputation for worth. 

Minor Morals. 

It ia not easy to teach neatness to grown 
men and women, but it ia possible to infuse 
into children a horror of the anti-social prac- 
tices which help a great deal to diefigure and 
vulgarize our cities, and especially this oity, of 
throwing down refuse of whatever nature — 
peanut shells, bits of paper, ends of cigarettes 
and cigars, old shoes, hats, ashes, aaliva or 
other excretiona — in places frequented by or 
seen by one's fellow-citizens, such aa streets, 
roads, lanes, sidewalks, public stairways, etc. 

Our indifference to this practice, whioh ap- 
pears to be the result of a long familiarity, is 
incomprehensible to foreigners. It disappeared 
from European countries completely fully one 
hundred years ago. It ia now fonnd nowhere 
in the Eastern Hemisphere, except in Tarkiah 
or other Mueaulman towns and cities, and is 
looked npon as the sure sign of a low oivilizi- 
tion. It is considered in every European city 
a grievous offense against a man's neighbors to 
make any public display of off»l, or to sit down 
quietly in the presence of filth or rubbish of 
any description. A horror of it might be 
taught to every child in the public schools by 
any average teacher. To inatill it should be 
one of a teaoher'a first duties, for it must be re- 
membered that the chief observable superiority 
of the civilized man over the savage lies in the 
greater cleanliness of his person and dwelling. 
Nothing about an Indian encampment is so re- 
volting as the indifference of the inhabitants 
about their garbage and refuse. If they get it 
outside their door it is the most they strive for. 
When it is remembered that two-thirds, prob- 
ably, of the houses, stores and effioes in this 
city deposit their sweepings in the streets, and 
follow them in many cases with the slops, one 
has a humiliating sense of our nearness to the 
Crow or the Apache in some of our social 

No ohild ahould leave the publio schools 

Jan. 4, 1890 ] 


without having a dread of refuse ground into 
him. He should be tanght to hate the sight of 
answept streets or sidewalks, of saliva-stained 
marble or granite, of ashes and refuse of every 
description, and especially of bits of newspapers 
and ends of cigars, as signs of gross selfishness 
and a low social tone. — N. Y. Nation. 

"The Bloomer Costume." 

The following letter from Mrs. Amelia 
Bloomer, whose name became famous years 
ago in connection with what was known as the 
"Bloomer Costume," appears in print for the 
first time in the Philadelphia Ladies' Home 
Journal for January : 

Council Bluffs, Iowa, Aug. 21, 1889. 

My Dear Sir ; — I hardly know bow to write 
about the " costume " associated with my 
name. Bat I was not its inventor or originator 
as is so generally believed. 

In March, 1851. Elizabeth Smith Miller, 
daughter of Hon. Gerrit Smith, of Peterboro, 
N. Y,, visited her cousin, Elizabeth (Jady Stan- 
ton, at Seneca Falls, N. Y., which was then my 
home, and where I was publishing The Lily, 
and where Mrs. Stanton also resided. Mrs. 
Miller came to us in a short skirt and full Turk- 
ish trousers, a style of dress she had been wear- 
ing some two months. 

The matter of woman's dress having beon 
just previously discussed in The Lily, Mrs. 
Miller's appearance led Mrs. Stanton to at 
once adopt the style, and I very soon followed, 
Mrs. Stanton introducing it to the Seneca Falls 
public two or three days in advance of me. In 
the next number of my paper following my 
adoption of the dress (April, 1851), I wrote an 
article announcing to my readers that I had 
donned the style to which their attention had 
been called in previous numbers. 

The New York Tribune noticed my article, 
and made it known to its thousands of readers 
that I had donned a short skirt and trousers, 
and from this it went from paper to paper 
throughout this country and countries abroad. 
I found myself noticed and pictured in many 
papers at home and abroad. I was praised and 
censured, glorified and ridiculed, until I stood 
in amazement at the furor I had wrought by 
my pen while sitting quietly in my little office 
at home attending to my duties. 

Suffice it that it was the press at large that 
got up all the exoitement and that named the 
dress. I never called it the "Bloomer Cos- 
tume." With me, it was always the short dress 
and trousers. It consisted of a skirt shortened 
to a few inches below the knees and the substi- 
tution of trousers made of the same material as 
the dress. In other respects the dress was 
the same as worn by all women. At the out- 
set, the trousers were full and baggy, but we 
improved upon them by making them narrower 
and gathered at the ankle, and finally by mak- 
ing entirely plain and straight, falling to the 
shoe like the trousers of men. 

To some extent, I think the style was adopt- 
ed abroad, but not largely, or, for that matter, 
at home. There were individuals here and 
there who gladly threw off the burden of heavy 
skirts and adopted the short ones, but soon 
both press and people turned upon it their 
ridicule and censure, and women had not the 
strength of principle to withstand the criti- 
cism, and so returned to their draggling skirts. 
For myself, I wore the short dress and no 
others, at home and everywhere, for six or 
seven years, long after Mrs. Stanton, Lucy 
Stone and others had abandoned it. Lucy 
Stone wore the dress several years, traveled 
and lectured in it, and was married in it, I 
think. None of us ever lectured on the dress 
question, or in any way introduced it into our 
lectures. We only wore it because we found it 
comfortable, convenient, safe and tidy — with 
no thought of introducing a fashion, but with 
the wish that every woman would throw off the 
burden of clothes that was dragging her life 

This dress question has been of secondary 
importance with me, and it is not for that I 
wish to be remembered. As you will see from 
what I have written above, a wrong impression 
prevails in regard to my part in that matter. 
I was not its originator. I adopted the style 
and made it known to the public. The press 
did the rest. 

I am not lecturing at all these last few years. 
A throat difficulty and my 70 years have com- 
palled me to retire from active participation in 
works for the advancement of woman. Re- 
spectfully yours, Amelia Bloomer. 

[At Vineland, N. J., in the spring of 1874, 
we used to meet three women who wore habit- 
ually "the Reform Dress;" and one of them — 
previously a Massachusetts 'school-mistress, 
but then a poultry-breeder — cut her costume so 
tastefully, and wore it so gracefully, that we 
still remember her as one of the best-dressed 
women we have ever seen. — Ens. Press.] 

The Prince of Wales took the Princess to 
Birnum's circus. They wouldn't let the Queen 
go. She is so old she knows all the funny old 
clown's jokes, and the party didn't want their 
fun spoiled by having her tell them everything 
he was going to say. — Brooklyn Eagle. 

Literary Men are a good deal like hens 
The autbor lays » plot and the editor sits on it. 
Burlington Free Pre»s. 


The Boy Who Helps His Mother. 

As I went down the street to-day 

I saw a little lad 
Whose face was just the kind of face 

To make a person glad. 
It was so plump and rosy-cheeked, 

So cheerful and so bright, 
It made me think of apple-time, 

And filled me with delight. 

I saw him busily at work, 

While blithe as blackbird's song 
His merry, mellow whistle rang 
The pleasant street along. 
" Oh, that's the kind of lad I like 1" 

I thought, as I passed by; 
" These busy, cheering, whistling boys 
Make grand men by and by.'' 

Just then a playmate came along 

And leaned across the gate, 
A plan that promised lots of fun 

And frolic to relate. 
" The boys are waiting for us now, 

So hurry up ! " he cried; 
My little whistler shook his head, 

And " Can't come," he replied. 

" Can't come ? Why not, I'd like to know ? 

What hinders?'' asked the other. 
" Why, don't you see ?" came the reply, 
"I'm busy helping mother. 
She's lots to do and so I like 

To help her all I can; 
So I've no time for fun just now," 
Said this dear little man. 

" I like to hear you talk like that,'' 

I told the little lad; 
" Help mother all you can, and mike 
lier kind heart light and glad." 
It does me good to think of him, 

And know that there are others 
Who like this manly little boy, 
Take hold and help their mothers. 

— Col den Day 5. 

Tit for Tat. 

[Written for the Roral Prbbs by Ira \V. Adams.] 

A negro went into a barber's shop 

K>pt by a Creole named Green, 
For the purpose of having his hair cut short, 

And his whiskers shaved off clean. 

The barber got angry and saucy too, 
And said, " You have plenty of brass; 

I never shave monkeys — I mean the kind 
You'll see, il you look in the glass." 

The negro stepped up to the mirror and smiled, 
While the barber some steps withdrew, 

And said to the negro, " Xow who do you see ?'' 
Said the negro, "O— I— C — U." 
Bay State Garden, Calistoga. 

A Warning. 

[Written for the Rubai. Prkss by Martha T. Tvlrr.] 

There was once an old man who had three 
sons — Tom, Jim and Jack. Tom was a tailor, 
Jim was a carpenter and Jack was a joiner. 
They did not love one another very well, but 
they all agreed in doting upon their father. 

The last was more liberal- minded than any 
of his children, and as he was rich and thev 
were poor, they waited upon him and humored 
his every whim, having apparently no other 
object in life but to please him. When he vis- 
ited Tom, Jim and Jack protested that bis affec- 
tion for them was waning or he would not 
choose to remain so long absent from them; 
while Tom, on the contrary, was loud in his en- 
treaties that his beloved parent should never 
leave him, he being the eldest of the three 

So they fondled the old man and quarreled 
over him alternately until the credulous 
creature thought that he had the best and most 
devoted, 'children in the world, and lifted his 
trembling voice to heaven for a blessing upon 

At last, as his years increased and the care of 
his riches became a burden to him, he deter- 
mined to reward the fidelity of his offspring 
by a premature division of his property, believ- 
ing in his heart that he should want for noth 
ing so long as he had such dutiful sons. But 
no sooner were his heirs at law in actual posses 
sion of his fortune than they began to maltreat 
the poor old man. They were now as anxious 
to get rid of him as before they had been to en- 
joy the pleasure of his company, so that he 
was quite wretched and often lacked for the 
common necessities of life owing to their neglect 
and ingratitude. 

At length, however, he chanced upon an ex- 
pedient which placed him in a more comfort- 
able position. 

He obtained an iron-bound box, which he 
loaded with stones; then he summoned his three 
sons and addressed them thus : 

" My children, I divided, as you supposed, 
my whole property among you, that by seem- 
ing to place myself wholly in your power I 
might make trial of your affection for me. I 
need not dwell upon your fulfillment or non- 
fulfillment of the trust, or upon my own grief 
and disappointment; suffice it to say that in 
this box I have reserved the greater part of my 
wealth, which treasure I shall bequeath to him 
who treats me best in future." 

This strategic movement had the desired ef- 
fect. For the remainder of his days the aged 
father had nanght to complain of from his 

avaricious sons. On his deathbed he called 
them to him again. 

"I leave the contents of the iron box to be 
divided equally between you. You have all 
served me alike. No one of you is more de- 
serving than the others," and so expired. 

Scarcely was he cold in death when his sons 
hastened to possess themselves of the valuables 
in the box. Greatly to their discomfiture 
they discovered only a hammer, the stones and 
a paper inscribed as follows: 
" Who gives away his property before he is dead, 

Prithee take this hammer and hit him in the 
head ! " 


Apple Shortcake. — Make a crust as for 
baking-powder biscuit; butter a pie-tin, take a 
piece of the dough sufficient to press out with 
the bands to half an inch in thickness and the 
size of the tin; place in the tin, and spread the 
top with butter; mold out another similar 
piece and lay on the top of this, and bake. 
Prepare tart apples, as for sauce, adding a 
piece of butter the size of a hickory nut. 
When the crust is done, carefully divide the 
layers, spread with butter, and pat the hot ap- 
ple sauce between. Serve with sugar and 
cream, or other sauce, as preferred. 

Jelly Cake. — Beat one egg very thoroughly, 
add four ounces of sifted sugar, half an ounce 
of butter, five ounces of flour and a little milk; 
to this put quarter of an ounce of carbonate of 
soda, dissolved in milk, and last of all half an 
ounce of cream of tartar, also dissolved in a 
little milk; pour the mixture into shallow round 
tins, well buttered, and bake in a quick oven. 
When cold, pile the cakes one on top of the 
other with any sort of preset ve or chocolate 
icing between each. If icing is used, the top of 
the cake should be iced as well. 

Proper Use of Vegetables. — Potatoes are 
the proper vegetable to accompany fish. All 
kinds of vegetables may be served with beef, al- 
though green peas are more appropriate for 
veal, mutton or poultry. Corn should never 
accompany game or poultry. With venison, 
currant jelly. Cabbage, apple sauce, parsnips, 
carrots and turnips should be served with pork. 
Macaroni with cheese should always accompany 
woodcock. Green peas and watercresses, wild 
ducks. Apple sauce, turnips, cabbage, wild or 
tame geese. — Table Talk. 

Rice Pudding. — To make a good simple rice 
pudding, butter a pudding-dish that will hold 
three pints. Into it put a large half-cupful of 
well-washed rice, add one tablespoonfnl of mo- 
lasses, half a cupful of sugar, a small teaspoon- 
ful of silt and one quart of milk; stir all to- 
gether till mixed; now grate nutmeg over the 
top and put on some bits of butter. Bike 
or three hours in a slow oven. 

Corn Oysters. — Add to a can of corn slight- 
ly chopped two eggs, two teaspoonfuls salad oil, 
a small cup of milk, a liberal dust of pepper, 
a pinch of salt and just flour enough to bind. 
Drop from a tablespoon into boiling oil and fry 
quickly to a golden brown, draining thoroughly 
and transferring to a hot dish. Kit at once; 
the resemblance to genuine fried oysters is very 

Apple Tapioca. — Pare and core enough 
apples to cover ttre bottom of a pudding-dish; 
pat a little sugar and lemon peel on them, and 
bake till tender, putting in a little water if 
needed; soak one-half pint tapioca in one quart 
lukewarm water and a little salt over night; 
pour over the apples and bake one hour; eat 
cold with cream and sugar. 

Graham Bread. — For one loaf take one cup 
wheat flour (fine), two cups graham, one cup 
warm water, \ \ teaspoonfuls soda dissolved in 
water, one-halt cup yeast, one-third cup mo- 
lasses, one teaspoon salt. Stir all together, let 
rise once, and bike slowly for one hour, or a 
little longer as needed. 

Fruit Pudding — One cupful of milk, one- 
half of a cupful of molasses, one third of a cap- 
ful of butter, two-thirds of a cupful of raisins, 
one-third of a cupful of ourrants, two cupfuls 
of flour, one-half of a teaspoonfol each of soda, 
cinnamon and nutmeg. Steam 1^ hours. 

Cranberry Dumplings. — Sift together one 
quart flour and 2^ teaopoonfuls baking powder; 
mix to a soft dough with sweet milk; roll out 
and spread with one quart cranberry sauce, 
fold over, place in a pudding-bag and steam 
one hour. Serve with a sweet sauce. 

Apple Fritters. — Slice apple into a batter 
made of one pint of milk, two teacupfuls of 
flour, three eggs beaten stiff, two teaspoonfuls 
of baking powder, and one-half of a teaspoon- 
ful of salt. Drop in deep lard. Eat with 
maple syrup. 

Orange Jelly.— One-half teacup of cold 
water and one half box gelatine; soak one-half 
hour, then add a cup of boiling water, one cup 
of sugar, juice of one lemon, and one pint of 
orange juice. Strain while pouring into a mold. 

Mountain Cake. — One pound of flour, three- 
foarths pounds sugar, one-half pound butter, 
three eggs, a cup of milk, a teaspoon of soda, 
raisins and spice to taste. 

Walnut Pudding. — One cup of chopped nuts 
or raisins, two cups of graham or whole wheat, 
half-cup of molasses, half teaspoon of soda, one 
cup of milk, steam 2$ hours. 

Apple Cream. — Six large apples; stew and 
mash them to a palp. When cold, add the 
whites of six eggs wall beaten. Add five spoons 
of sugar, stir until creamy, and flavor to taste. 


A Novel Cough Remedy. 

The following is from a doctor connected with 
an institution with many children : " There 
is nothing more irritable to a cough than a 
cough. For some time I had been so fully as- 
sured of this that I determined, for one minute 
at least, to lessen the'number of coughs heard 
in a certain ward in a hospital of the institu- 
tion. By the promise of rewards and punish- 
ments, I succeeded in inducing them to simply 
hold their breath when tempted to cough, and 
in a little while I was myself surprised to see 
how some of the children entirely recovered 
from their disease. Constant coughing is pre- 
cisely like scratching a wound on the outside of 
the body. So long as it is done the wound will 
not heal. Let a person when tempted to cough 
draw a long breath and hold it until it warms 
and soothes every air cell, and some benefit will 
soon be received from this process. The nitro- 
gen which is thus refined acts as an anodyne to 
the mucous membrane, allaying the desire to 
cough and giving the throat and lungs a chance 
to heal. At the same time a suitable medicine 
will aid Nature in her effort to recuperate." 

Are Asphalt Fumes Injurious to Health? 
In the Circuit Oourt at Buffalo, N. Y., a few 
weeks since, the trial was begun of an action 
brought by Michael Kavanaugh against the 
Birber Asphalt Company. The case is the re- 
sult of the agitation on aocount of the odor 
arising from the asphalt works. Residents of 
the West Side have complained of it for a long 
time. Mr. Kavanaugh lives with his family at 
347 Fourth street, and claims that the smell is 
injuring their health. He alleges, too, that it 
caused the death of his daughter. Dr. F. W. 
Birtlett was a witness, and his evldenoe was 
directed to show how the odor from the works 
might have led to consumption, the disease of 
which Mr. Kavanaugh's daughter died. Resi- 
dents of the vicinity were called to the stand to 
testify concerning their experiences with the 
same odor. Richard H. Ferguson of 105 Mary- 
land street swore that it had a suffocating effect 
on him. Mr. Kavanaugh demands $10,000 

The European Epidemic. — Telegraphic re- 
ports say that a frequent sequel to cases of in- 
fluenza at Vienna is an attack of inflammation 
of the lungs. A number of persons in the hos- 
pital lately suffering from influenza have been 
stricken with inflammation of the lungs and 
several of them have died. The influerjza has 
made its appearance in a Jesuit school at Kales- 
burg, the pupils of which are ohildren of con- 
servative aristocrats. Sixty-eight scholars have 
been attacked. At Brussels, according to dis- 
patches of Dec. 24th, the epidemic is rapidly 
spreading. Thirty per cent of the school 
children were then suffering and the schools 
were all closed. The disease has spread to all 
the Government offices and many officials are 
prostrated. In Paris at the above date, influ- 
enza reigned supreme. There wera said to be 
over 300,000 persons in that city alone suffering 
from the epidemic. 

A Possible Cause of Sleeplessness. — A 
physician, writing to the Medical and Surgical 
Reporter, says: " From some experience in 
my own family I am led to suspect that quite 
often sleeplessness may be due to a closely fit- 
ting night-dress. I observed in the case of 
my own child, that whenever the night-dress 
was buttoned tightly about the throat, she was 
sure to have an attack of night terrors; and 
that she never had them when the throat was 
left free and open. In certain positions of the 
head, the neatly fitting band would occasion 
constriction of the throat, whence arose me- 
chanical congestion of the brain, which gave 
rise to the * terrors.' A night-dress closely fit- 
ting around the throat is a vicious thing, and 
gives rise to cerebral congestion, which may 
suddenly explode in a convulsion, but much 
oftener, I apprehend, take the form of night 

Excessive Humidity and Health. — It is 
consoling to Calif ornians just at this time to 
learn from good medical authority that exces- 
sive humidity is not injurious to health. The 
human race, like the wheat plant, can stand 
almost any quantity of water. It is bad for 
that class of maladies which physicians group 
under the head of rheumatism, but it is not 
necessarily injurious to delicate throats or 
lungs, and it is positively beneficial to persons 
who are liable to disturbances of the stomach. 
We believe that the death rate in this State 
has not apparently been increased by the exces- 
sive rains of the last few weeks. 

Disease Germs, according to Medical elas- 
tics, are very tenacious of vitality, and their 
destruction is not always easy of accomplish- 
ment. The researches of recent years show 
that many of the substanoes thus far relied 
upon as disinfectants have no power to destroy 
disease-causing baoteria. 

A "Hoop Snake." — A scientist says that 
there is such a thing as a hoop-snake, but that 
it doeBn't roll like a hoop. It simply makes a 
succession of loops, like the inch-worm, but so 
rapidly that it seems to roll around like a hoop. 


f A0IN£ ^UHAb f RESS 

[Jan. 4, 1890 


W. B. KWEK. 

Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Office, 220 MarketSt., N. E. cor. FrontSt.,S. F. 
gr Take the Elevator, Ao. It Front St.~Wk 

Our Subscription Rates. 
Our AKmuL Sobdcriitioh Rats is tiirub dollars a 

Sear. While this notice appears, all subscribers pay- 
ig is in advance will receive 16 months' (one year and 
13 weeks) credit For 1*2.00 In advance, 10 months. For 
$1.00 in advanoe, five months. Trial subscriptions for 
three months, paid in advance, each 80 cents. All 
agents and olerks are required to adhere to these terms. 
No new names entered on the list without payment in 
advance. Our premium offerings are subject to these 

Advertising Rates. 

I Week. 1 Month. S Montht. 1 Tear. 

Per Line (agate) $.26 $.60 $1.20 $ 4 00 

Half Inch (1 square). . . 1.00 2.60 6.60 22.00 

One inch 1.60 6.00 13.00 42 00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
In extraordinary type, or in partioular parts of the paper, 
at special rates. Four Insertions are rated in a month. 

Registered at S. F. Post Office as second-olassmail matter. 

DEWEY & CO., Patjrt Solicitors. 

A. T. DIWBT. W. B. EWER. ». B. 8TR0KG. 

pall the injury. Let all prepare to be benefit- 
ted and profited by a good year and to give 
California a good posh forward. 


Saturday, January 4, i8co. 


EDITORIALS. —The Week; An Old Orange Tree at 
Oroville; Co-Operative Fruit-Planting; The Holiday 
Aftermath; The Northern Citrus Fair; The Orange 
Product, 8 

ILLUSTRATIONS-— Old Orange Tree. 1. Washing- 
ton Navel Orange; Irrigation of Orange Trees, 9. Flor- 
ida Nurseries of the W. It. Strong Co., 14. Orange 
Monument, 16. Fashions, 18. View of the Site of 
Palermo, Butte Co., 30. 

HORTICULTURE. — Orange-Growing in Central 
and Northern California, 2. 

THE APIARY.— Apiarian Notes; San Bernardino's 
Honey Crop. 3 

THE STOCK YARD.— The Shorthorn Association; 
The Beef Combine 3. 

D sk; " Waterbound;" San Jose Grange; Grange E ec- 
tions; Welcome to Bro. S. C. Carr; An Address to 
Farmers; Maine State Grange; Single Tax; Adjourned 
Meeting of the Executive Committee; Hydraulicking 
Virtua ly Ended; Postal Telegraphy, 4-5. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— Kitty Clovers Outing; A 
Package of Old Letters; Real Worth; Minor Morals, 6. 
" The B oomer Costume," 7- 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.— The Boy Who Helps 
His Mother; Tit for Tat; A Warning, 7. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.- Various Rec'pes, 7. 

GOOD HEALTH. —A Novel Cough Remedy; Are 
Asphalt Fumes Injurious to Health; The European 
ELiJemic; A Possible Cause of Sleeplessness; Excessive 
Humidity and Health, 7. 

AGRIOULTUBAL NOTES. — From the various 
counties of California, 10 

FLORIST AND GARDENER. -California Winter 
Blooms; Star Tulips; Cactus as Cattle Food: Largest 
Flower in the Woild; California Flowers at the East, 1 1 . 

ENTOMOLOGICAL. —The Introduction of the Aus- 
tralian Ladybird, 11. 

THE TOUkIST .—Californians in Holland, 12. 

THE DAIRY. — Bogus Butter, 16. 

Business Announcements. 

(NBW this isbcr.] 
Agricultural Implements— Truman, Hooker & Co. 
Agricultural lmpl*inents--S. L. Allen, Philadelph'a, Pa. 
Bees— I. A. Root, Medina, Ohio. 
Carriages — M. P. Henderson £ Son, Stockton. 
Cattle— L. L\ Scott, Fresno. 

Cultivator— San Jose Agricultural Works, San Jose. 

Cultivator — B. l.riswold, San Jose. 

Farm Machinery —Stanton, Thomson & Co., Sai'to. 

Gang Plow— D. N. & C. A. Hawley. 

Harrows— D. M. Osborne &<Jo. 

Horses — H. Wilsev & Co , Petaluma. 

Horses— L. V. Willets, Watsonville. 

Horses — " Warner," Oakland. 

Land for Sale— E. B. Perrin. 

Live Stock — H. Mecham, Petaluma. 

Lotion— Lvnde & Hough 

Olive Trees— H. J. i ucker, Trenton, Sonoma Co. 
Orange Trees — Reed & Van Oelder, Sacramento. 
Piows— H. C. 8haw Plow Works, Stockton. 
Real Estate — Mi Is & Hawk, Sacramento. 
Sacramento Railway — Edwin K. Aleip, Sacramento. 
Seeds, Etc. — Dingee & Conard Co., West Grove, Pa. 
Seeds, Etc. — Hill & Co., Richmond, Indiana. 
Sugar Mills — Blymyer Iron Works. 
Trees--W. R. Strong Co., Sacramento. 
Thermalito Colony Co. — Oroville, Butte Co. 
Washing Machine— E. W. Melvin, Sacramento. 

VT See A dvertisiny Columns. 

The Week. 

As we write on the evening of the last day of 
1889 the promise is that the New Year will 
open under olear skies. This is the best New 
Year's gift which Nature can make to the peo 
pie of California, and there will be gratitude 
proportional, Everything now augurs a grand 
year for the first of the last decade of the cen 
tury. Telegraphed prophecies from the East 
describe a good mercantile outlook for the com- 
ing year, and as business is, so is the country. 
In California we count upon a year of unequaled 
productiveness, for we have had rain enough to 
make fruitful even our arid lands, and wher 
ever there has been too generous supply, nature 
1 the arts of the husbandman will Boon re 

The Holiday Aftermath. 

We are still far away from that millennial 
age so long heralded in prophecy and song. No 
better evidence can be fonnd of our halting and 
limping civilization than the way so many peo- 
ple use the holidays. Christmas, that should 
remind us of the birth of the World's Redeemer, 
and the New Year, that should summon all to 
serious retrospect and renewed life, have be- 
oome largely a Beason devoted to unseemly 
revels and the most vulgar bacchanals. The 
past week in this city has been no exception. 
Every morning our police courts have been 
thronged vith sodden, blear-eyed men, wretch- 
ed, disheveled women, souls soaked with ani- 
mality and rum, upon whose eyes it would 
seem no twinkle of the Star of Bsthlehem has 
ever come. No holiday passes without produc- 
ing an increase in the orop of crime. Perhaps 
it is a husband who has kicked and beaten his 
wife to death in the fervor of his rejoicing over 
the dawn of the new year. It may be a boozy 
friend who shoots or stabs his comrade in a 
moment of delirious exaltation. But many who 
go no further than self-stupefaction or mandlin 
garrulity manage to destroy all the brightness 
and happiness of the day for families and 

Of course it is a mere platitude to say that no 
man can make a worse use of Christmas or 
New Year's than to get drunk or even 
hilarious, for the same statement holds good of 
every day in the year. Still it is a burning 
shame and scandal that so many intelligent and 
really worthy people so manage to hoodwink 
and opiate their consciences as to see no harm 
or impropriety in drinking themselves stupid 
and blind on these holidays, and that any num- 
ber of polite and respectable people should still 
regard it as necessary to celebrate the passing 
year with wine, eggnog, whisky punch and etc. 

We may have some cause of thankfulness 
that this custom is confined to so small a 
minority that seems to be decreasing with each 
passing year. There was a time within the 
memory of many when those who favored the 
social glass were in the majority. They were 
the leaders of society. The President's man- 
sion was often a scene of revel on New Year's 
Day. Even our Puritan forefathers, real good 
people, sturdy in orthodoxy and valiant in 
prayer, could see no impropriety in plenty of 
hot rum and apple-jack at weddings, house' 
raisings, log-rollings and the festal seasons. 

But now all this has changed; and let us be 
thankful for the change, for -it is undoubtedly 
the promise and earnest of still better 
things. The toleration of the saloon belongs 
to the civilization of the period, but is a sur 
vival of the drink habit of a former age, that is 
destined ultimately to disappear before the silent 
law that makes for the survival of the fittest 
and best. But aa a step toward a higher view 
of our duties and responsibilities, we cannot as 
members of society too speedily begin to recog 
nize the startling incongruity of the regular 
holiday aftermath as a state of things both 
beastly and barbarous, and the more firmly and 
promptly to hold on to the highest ideal of our 
civilization and persuade others to do the same. 

An Old Orange Tree at Oroville. 

As pertinent to the holding of the citrus fair 
at Oroville, we place upon our first page a 
photoplate of one of the older orange treeB of 
the town which now adorns the street-front of 
the residence of S. S. Boynton of the Oroville 
Register. Like others of the old trees, its value 
and significance were not peroeived in its early 
years, and no effort was made to give it sym 
metrical form such as our best growers strive 
for. The uncultivated roadside is not a very 
favorable situation for a tree to make good 
growth. These facts should be kept in mind 
in judging the growth of the tree. Its consid- 
erable size and full fruiting in spite of these 
drawbacks oertainly show that the situation 
favors the tree. The visitor to Oroville will 
find many other indications pointing to similar 

The Olive.— There was an interesting die 
cussion on the olive at the meeting of the State 
Horticultural Sooiety last Friday afternoon, of 
whioh we expect to give an outline in next issue 

The Orange Product. 

The holding of a citrus fair at Oroville the 
coming week and the prospect of another In 
Los Angeles in the spring will naturally draw 
attention to the orange production, if, Indeed, 
the presence of the grand fruit in our markets 
in such profusion does not of Itself draw the 
productive thought in that direotion. Orange 
production is now one of our most satisfactory 
resources. The free and profitable Eastern 
demand, the progress which is being made in 
reducing insect peats and the general thrift and 
prolific bearing of the treeB naturally give the 
orange-growers good . heart and elevate the 
values of their bearing trees aa well as increase 
the market value of land suitable for orange 
planting. The product of the year just closed 
ie estimated by experts at 3000 carloads of 
286 boxea to the car, which at an average valu- 
ation of $1.75 per box gives an aggregate value 
of $1,501,500 for the year's crop. This is a 
grand figure for a single fruit produced in a 
comparatively small area of the State, for thus 
far only Southern California has produced 
oranges in any notable marketable quantity. It 
is natural, then, that Southern Californians 
ahould glory In this branch of their productive 
enterprise and that orange-planting should be 
rapidly increasing on lands found by experience 
to be best adapted for the purpose. 

Southern California has thus set the example, 
which is now being followed largely in other 
parts of the State. It is well for locations 
adapted to the crop to follow so good an exam- 
ple, but we cannot but apeak a cautionary word 
in this matter, as we always have done, against 
losing head and wasting time and money in 
orange planting in doubtful or wrong situations 
They have learned to avoid such mistakes at 
the south, for even in the region which now pro- 
duces a million and a half dollars' worth of 
oranges annually, new groves are planted with 
wise circumspection in choice of soil and situa- 
tion. Although it is true that orange trees are 
growing and bearing good fruit at many places 
at the north, new planters ahould profit by 
southern experience and proceed cautiously and 
wisely. We are aware that the present dispo- 
sition is somewhat different, and that writers 
too apt to be swayed by enthusiasm or business 
interest sometimes make generalizations which 
are apt to be misleading, even though the facts 
tbey base them upon be absolutely true. 

The orange tree will endure quite a low tem- 
perature, and if it have well-ripened wood, 
will pass unharmed through quite severe frosts; 
but the frnit is injured by a temperature which 
will not harm the tree. 

The orange tree will grow and bear fruit in 
situations where the lack of adequate heat pre- 
vents the full development of flavor and 

The orange tree will grow well to bearing 
age without irrigation in places where the nat- 
ural moisture will not meet the requirements of 
the tree when well laden with fruit. This con- 
sideration involves the character of the soil 
and the customary rainfall, and both must be 
considered together, because a very heavy rain- 
fall may not oarry the tree on a leachy soil, 
while a less amount will perhaps suffioe on a 
retentive toil well cultivated to prevent evap- 

All these matters are influenced more or less 
by situation and environment. There have 
been large losses by orange-planting in wrong 
places. The temperature records should cover 
as long a period as possible and the existence 
and character of old trees in the neighborhood 
will often serve in the place of thermometries 
measurements. In judging from old trees, how- 
ever, do not forget to allow for the protection 
which nearly all garden trees enjoy by sur- 
rounding objects and do not (conclude because 
such trees are fonnd that the whole neighbor- 
hood is fitted for orange-growing. 

These are only a few hasty considerations in- 
stanced for the pnrposeof drawing the planter's 
thought to the fact that he should proceed 
cautiously and wisely. We believe the orange 
product of California will vastly increase, and 
that many regiona newly planted will become 
notable contributors to the product of the 
State. We like to hear of plantations and en- 
terprising work in promoting them, both by in- 
dividual investment and co-operative or colony 
effort. But do not rush after oranges as Cali- 
fornians are perhaps too prone to rush after 
things generally. Let the intellect guide plant- 
ing rather than the emotions. If this be the 
manner of our progress in orange-planting, 
we shall have to chronicle great achievementa 
and few disappointments. 

The Northern Citrus Fair. 

It is but a trifle over two years since — in De- 
cember, 1887 — the Citrus Fair first pitched its 
tent in Oroville. The enthusiasm and success 
which attended both that initial effort and the 
second exhibition of the kind, held twelve 
months later, are already matters of Butte 
county history; and the displays were distinc- 
tively Butte oonnty affairs. 

At the last session of the California Legisla- 
ture there was appropriated "for purpose of 
holding citrus fairs the sum of $10,000, one- 
half to be expended in the Sixth Congressional 
District, and one -half In that part of the State 
outside of said diatriot, the location, manage- 
ment and control of said fairs, and the expendi- 
ture of said sum, to be under the direction of 
the Directors of the State Board of Agricul- 

The Directors having decided to apply the 
funds thus appropriated, in two suooessive sea- 
sons, in installments of $2500 each, there 
sprung up warm rivalry between Marysville 
and Oroville as to which should be the scene 
of the first Northern Citrus Fair nnder State 
auspioes. Oroville won, and on Tuesday next 
— Jan. 7, 1890 — the tent in her court-houae 
yard will, for the third time, witness the open- 
ing of a citrus display, yet one that differs 
from its foregoers in being no county matter 
merely, but grown to the dignity and import of 
an affair of State. All the counties north of 
Monterey, San Benito and Fresno are In a field 
of competition, and Los Gatos, Knight's Ferry, 
Newcastle and Auburn may vie with Redding 
and Thermalito. 

The pavilion, which was 165 feet long last 
winter, has now been lengthened to 250 feet, 
but at last accounts very little space was left 
for disposal; and when the yellow fruit is all 
in place and glowing under the electric lights, 
it will present a picture whose like, perhaps, 
has never been seen before. 

That no storm-pelting possible may Intrude 
to break the charm of the display and mar the 
pleasure of the visitor, the aore of canvas cov- 
ering the pavilion has been treated to succes- 
sive coats of glne and of boiled oil, which it is 
thought will render it impervious to any 

The fair is citrus predominantly, but not ex- 
clusively — as appears from the premium list, 
given in condensed form below — and the offer 
of lesser prizes for other than citrus products 
inaurea a pleasing variety in the features 
of the display and will enhance the general 

Premium List. 

The premiums are limited to producers with- 
in the State of California, but outside of the 
Sixth Congressional Diatriot, and are offered, 
unless otherwise specified, for " beet individual 

Best County Exhibit of citrus and semi-tropic 
fruits— 1st, $250; 2d, $100; 3d, $75; 4th, $50; 5lh, 

Oranges. — Best individual exhibit — 1st, $100; 2d, 
$90; 3d, $80; 4th, $70; 5th, $6o; 6th, $50; 7th, $40; 
8th, $30; 9th, $25; 10th, $20; nth, $15; 12th, $10; 
13th, $7.50; 14th, $5; 13th, $2.50. H;st exhibit of 
budded canges by grower — 1st. $50; 2d. $30: 3d, 
$20; 4th, $10; 5th, $5. Best 12 budded, grown r>y 
one person— 1st, $10; 2d, $7.50; 3d, $5; 4th, $3; 
5th, $2.50. 

Lemons. — 1st, $25; 2d, $20; 3d, $15; 4th, $10; 
5th, $5. 

Limes. — 1st, $20; 2d. $15; 3d, $10. 
Bananas. — 1st. $5; 2d. $2.50. 
Shaddock and Pumalos.— 1st, $5; 2d, $3; 
3d, $2. 

Olives.— ist, $10; 2d, $7.50; 3d, $5. 
Olive Oil.— 1st. $20; 2d. $15; 3d. $10. 
Persimmons. — ist, $5; 2d, $3; 3d, $2. 
Pomegranates. — ist, $3; ad. $2; 3d, Si. 
Grapes —ist, $5; 2d, $3; 3d, $2. 
Raisins.— ist, $20; 2d, $15; 3d, $io; 4th, $5; 
5th, $2.50. 
Dried Figs. — ist, $15; 2d, $10; 3d, $5. 
Dried Prunes.— ist, $10; 2d, $7 50; 3d, $5. 
Dates. — ist, $5; 2d, $2 50. 

Dried Fruits, other than raisins, figs and prunes 
— ist, $25: 2d, $20; 3d, $15; 4th, $10; 5th. $5. 

Preserved and Canned Fruits. — ist, $50; 
2d, $25; 3d, $20; 4th, $15; 5th, $10. 

Apples. — ist, $15; 2d, $10; 3d. $5. 

Pears. — ist, $10; 2d, $5; 3d, $3. 

Almonds —ist. $10; 2d, $5; 3d, $3. 

English Walnuts.— ist, $10; 2d, $5; 3d, $3. 

General Exhirit. — Largest and most varied 
individual exhibit— ist, $50; 2d, $20; 3d, $20. 

Minerals. — ist, $20; ad, $15; 3d, $10. 

Natural Woods, dressed or polished — best 
exhibit— ist, $iq; 2d, $5; 3d, $3. 

Floral.— ist. $15; 2d, $10; 3d, $5. 

Most Tastefully Arranged exhibit of citrus 
fruits, by individual — ist, $50; 2d, $30; 3d, $20. 

Nuts.— General exhibit by individual — lot, $25; 
2d. $10. 

Special premiums and diplomas, $275.50, 

The railroad will give excursion tickets to 
Oroville and return at three-fourths of the reg- 
ular rates from Sacramento on the south, Dutch 
Flat on the east, Rsd Bluff on the north and 
intervening stations. At the time of going to 
press we are not informed that any reduction 
will be made in favor of visitors from beyond 
those limits, but the coming occasion is one of 
so increased interest and importance, we are 
oonfident that the number and enjoyment of 
those attending will more than oome up to the 
reoord of the first and second Oroville fairs. 

Jan. 4, 1890.] 

fACIFie I^URAb press. 


The Farmers on the Defensive. 

The Farmers and Laborers' Union at its re- 
cent convention in St. Louis formed an offen- 
sive and defensive alliance with the Knights of 
Labor, and they propose to co-operate here- 
after in their efforts to secure certain legislative 
reforms. Precisely on what basis this consoli- 
dation was effected, we are not inform- 
ed, but it would seem, at one point at 
least, there could be no hearty harmo- 
nious action. The Knights of Libor, 
representing the vast mass of wage-earn- 
ers throughout the country, demand a 
reduction of working-time to eight hours 
per day. As an economic question, it 
does not appear that the labor organi- 
zations have made any serious effort to 
ascertain whether the work absolutely 
necessary to the maintenance of society 
oan be done in eight hours per day. 
Then it does not appear that the equities 
of all classes have been fairly and ade- 
quately considered in this demand. It 
is undoubtedly true that in many occu- 
pations the change could be easily made 
and perhaps with benefit to all concerned; 
in some the difficulty would be embar- 
rassing, while in the farmers' occupation 
it would be utterly impracticable. Na- 
ture is capricious, and the farmer must 
work early and late when she is in a 
olever mood. There are times and sea- 
sons when oertain kinds of work must 
be done, and every moment is precious. 
The corn must be planted, the wheat 
harvested when ripe, and the produots of 
the orobard and vineyard gathered in 
their season. It is certain the eight- 
hour law could not be made arbitrarily 
to work on the farm. Now just how 
the Farmers' Union and Knights of Labor 
have bridged over this point of diver- 
gence we are not advised, but most likely they 
have agreed to keep eaoh other company so long 
as they both traveled the same road, and when 
their paths diverged, part as friends to meet 
farther on. 

However this may be, this alliance is one of 

vast army moves in separate divisions, under 
different captains, the result has been partial 
and unsatisfactory. The oldest and most thor- 
oughly organized movement among the farmers 
is the National Grange of Patrons of Hus- 
bandry. The immediate cause of this organiza- 
tion is quickly told. The Order was born in a 
spasm of agony for self-preservation. In the 

fleecing the toilers of the field and orchard. 

Then came the Farmers' Alliance, organized 
in Texas in 1879, which was originally in- 
tended to operate against land monopolists and 
oattle speculators, but soon grew into a wider 
and more permanent organization, closely 
modeled on the lines of the Patrons of Hus- 
bandry. On the 17th of January, 1887, this 


language of W. A. Peffer in an excellent article 
in the current edition of the Forum, "Agri- 
culture had made substantial progress, the 
cultured area had greatly enlarged the number 
of farms and their value, and product had in- 
creased; but estimates based on the census re- 

association effected a union with the Farmers' 
Union, a body of farmers who had organized 
for similar purposes in Louisiana, forming what 
is known as the Farmers' Alliance and Co- 
operative Union. Then the Agricultural 
Wheel, a kindred Order that began its work in 

Now, as the objects of all these i 
tions, though variously worded, are subbtan- 
tially the same, and as they are all secret Or- 
ders banded together under solemn vows and 
pledges and ritualistic work, it would seem 
there would be no difficulty in orbing all these 
bodies into our system. Such a host of voters 
moving in solid phalanx would be practically 
Invincible and would no doubt ultimately be 
able to bring the producers and consumers into 
oloser relations than they have hitherto en- 

Irriga'ing Orange Trees. 

There are various ways of irrigating oracge 
trees praoticed in this State, as is described in 
detail in our book " Oalifornia Fruits and How 
to Grow Them." The choice of method is de- 
termined by the character of the soil and sub- 
soil and the amount of water supply The 
method employed in Riverside, San Bernardino 
county, and which is applicable to soils of sim- 
ilar mechanical character in other parts of the 
State, is well shown in the handsome engraving 
which we give on this page. It consists in 
plowing fresh furrows for each irrigation, and 
in these furrows water is allowed to flow until 
the ground is well saturated. 

Eaoh irrigation is followed in due time by a 
surface cultivation. Some irrigate by perma- 
nent ditches, some by making basins and some 
by flooding. In any case the water should not 
be allowed to come in direct contact with the 
trunk of the tree. There may be exceptional 
places, where the orange will not need irriga- 
tion, but the rule for bearing trees must be 
enough water wisely applied. 

The Navel Orange. — We give herewith a 
picture of the Washington or Riverside Navel 
orange, the king of orange varieties grown in 
California. When well grown in a suitable lo- 
cation, it can be rated as simply magnificent 
by whatever standards of judgment may be 

Burning Out Sorrel. — W. A. Sears of 
Wrights writes to the University Experiment 
Station that he has succeeded in destroying 
small patches of sorrel in his vineyard and 

m. s it Ft a c?7< ttfi? 


deep significance, as it may be considered the 
herald and earnest of one grand defensive 
movement on the part of the farmers in this 
country. If the farmers and Knights of Labor, 
a body of men whose passions and interests are 
not exaotly identical, can, for their mutual pro- 
tection, merge all personal and class feeling 
into one grand combination, surely it onght to 
be very easy to negotiate a consolidation 
among various bodies animated by the tame 
spirit, aims, and purposes. There can be no 
doubt of the desirability of such an alliance. 

Of the 4,500,000 farmers in this oountry, 
about 1,000,000 are now organized, but as this 

port of 1850 show that during the 38 years fol- 
lowing, the railroad interest increased 1580 per 
cent, and the banking interest 918 per cent, 
while the farming interest reached only 252 per 
cent." This, too, during a period of increas- 
ing acreage and improved methods in farming. 
Why this disparity ? Because of the oppressive 
exaotions of the railroads in freight, the enor- 
mous interest charged for money loaned by 
banks and money exchanges, the vast combi- 
nations of middle-men, stock and grain dealers, 
on the Board of Trade, pork-packers, elevator- 
men, and, in short, the whole army of specu- 
lators and curbstone brokers, who lived by 

Arkansas and extended its operations into Mis- 
souri, Kentucky and Tennessee, wheeled into 
ranks. In 1877 the National Farmers' Alliance, 
started in Cook county, Illinois, soon spread 
over that State, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, 
Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri, 
having for its object the protection of 
farmers against elate legislation, encroach- 
ments of conoentrated capital and the 
tyranny of monopoly. Then came the Farmers' 
Mutual Benefit Association, having its origin in 
Southern Illinois in 1887, but rapidly spreading 
its members into Kentucky, Missouri and 

orchard, by throwing over it small branches, 
straw, etc., during the winter, letting it grow 
upward into the mold thus formed until in 
bloom, then burning the pile. One burning, a 
good hot fire, killed it, as it has not shown itself 
for three years. 

Agricultural Directors. — Governor Wa- 
terman has reappointed F. W. Loeber of St. 
Helena and L. W. Buck of Vaoaville Directors 
of the 25th District Agricultural Association; 
and has appointed R. McKay of Placerville a 
Director of the 8th District Agricultural Asso- 
ciation, vice A. T. Leaohman, term expired. 



[Jan. 4, 1890 

Agricultural J^otes. 


Volunteer Potatoes. — Livermore Herald 
Deo. 26 : Thomas Coffoian, superintendent of 
the Oiivina, begins digging potatoes this week 
on an acre field on the mesa. The crop is vol- 
unteer, but an excellent one, and the potatoes 
are aB large as hens' eggs, with plenty in the 
hill. Mr. Coffman will have new potatoes on 
the market next week. 

Fruit-Grow ers in Council —A large meet- 
ing of the fruit-growers of Alameda county was 
held at Haywards Deo. 14th. Fruit-growers 
from Haywards, San Leandro, San Lorenzo, 
Niles, Sunol and Danville were in attendance. 
The meeting was addressed by L. Coates, A 
T. Hatch. A. P. Crane, R. Hickmott, and 
others. Plans for shipping and drying the 
product of this county were presented for the 
coming season. The meeting wns held under 
the auspices of the Haywards Fruit-Growers' 
Association. All present were satisfied that 
co-operation is the only means of disposing of 
the large product of this county, which will be 
done through the association. 


Superb Shorthorns. — Colusa Herald. 
Among Peter Peterson's fine herd of thorough- 
bred Shorthorns, out in Antelope valley, is a 
cow which gives as high as 62 pounds of milk 
in 24 hours, and she is only a trifla ahead of 
others of that magnificent breed. The ooinion 
is common among farmers that short horned 
cuttle are superior to all other breeds for taking 
on flesh and for the beef market, and that they 
are not so good aB some other strains for milch 
cows. Mr. Petersen's stock demonstrates the 
error. The Herald't stock reporter has nit 
Been a finer bull East or West in the last 15 
years than the animal now at the bead of this 
herd of some 35 head, and the cows and 
heifers are hard to beat. 

Contra Costa. 

Bad for the'Ground-Squirrels.— Martinez 
Gazette., Deo. 25: Not such a good opportunity 
to destroy squirrels has occurred for years as at 
the present time. The rains have driven them 
all from the low ground to the knolls, where 
they are congregated by thousands. Every 
seam and crevice in the ground has been sealed 
up tightly by the excess of moisture, and 
prisonous fumes introduced into the crowded 
holes will do wonderful execution. Smoke, if 
it is ever effectual, will be so now. Carbon- 
bisulphide, just at this time, will not leave one 
chance in a thousand for a rodent to escape, 
and the golden opportunity now presented 
should hi taken advantage of to the fullest 
extent. A comparatively small amount of labor 
now will accomplish more than weeks of steady 
work will do when the pests enjoy the freedom 
of the entire country, and scatter about at will. 

Improved Raisin Press — Fresno Expositor, 
Deo. 25: Frank Douglas of Washington Col- 
ony is an eduoated machinist, and he has re- 
cently completed a raisin press which has sim- 
ple and valuable improvements. The chief in- 
convenience with presses in general use is the 
necessity of using blocks, boards, tin and other 
trumpery to fill the space between the movable 
block attached to top cross-beam and the 
•"\isins, when the box is smaller than 20 pounds. 
Variations in temperature between morning 
and afternoon also add to this difficulty, as cool 
raisins spring from the place where the press 
leaves them, making it necessary to press them 
deeper into the box, while the warm raisins re- 
main where the press leaves them. Mr. Doug- 
las' improvement is simply a hand screw on top 
of the cross-beam, and two wedges fitting be- 
tween the lower edge of the beam and shoul- 
ders on the block. These can, with the slight- 
est possible exertion and loss of time, be adjust- 
ed to suit boxes of every size and raisins of 
every temperature. Mr. Douglas will not pat- 
ent his device. 


Cheese Pays Better than Butter. — Last 
spring A. Matlick of Bishop determined to try 
making cheese. He found that from the milk 
of a given number of cows the yield of cheese 
was equal to four times the amount of butter 
that could be got. His cheese sold readily a* 
15 cents a pound when butter was selling at 25 
cents per pound. This made the account stand 
at 60 cuts for cheese against 25 cents for but- 
ter. Mr. Matlick had never before made 
cheese, consequently he labored under a good 
deal of disadvantage. Yet he had orders for 
cheese faster than he could mnbe it, and got 
coin on delivery. He milked 38 cows on an 
average and says they gave him more net profit 
than all his general farming. He owns 320 
acres of good land, and will increase his herd 
and oontioue oheesemoking. 


Plenty ok Peppers.— Bikersfield Calif or- 
nian. Dae. 28: From a 12x16 patch of sweit — 
bull — peppers, a mess of ten, a household of 
six, and all the neighbors who wished, have 
had abundant supply throughout the season, 
and the good wife has, in addition, stowed away 
a barrelful for winter use. And to-day both 
blossoms and fruit can be seen upon the vines. 
It is found that if care is taken to pick the 
peppers before they ripen, the vine will con- 
tinue in bearing, but if the peppers are allowed 
to ripen the plant will o"ie. 

Winder Tokens — Kern Oazelte, D.o. 28: 

Mrs. X. YauOrman Tuesday presented this 
office with a handsome bovquet of roses, grown 
in her yard in Bakerefield, and they ornamented 
our editorial table Christmas morning. They 
embrace all colors and many varieties. . . .Mrs. 
E. C. Palmes presented n« with I dish of nice 
strawberries on Christmas Day. There are few 
editora who can sit in their sanctum, Christmas 
Day, and fa 1 ; luscious strawberries, while bou- 
quets of delicate Mowers adorn the desk. But 
such is life in Southern California. 

Robins in the Umbrella Tree.— Qiite a 
number of robins have made their appearance 
in our town this week, and are apparently 
making themselves comfortable. They have 
perhaps been driven from the mountains bv the 
cold. A choice repast for the robin is the berry 
of the umbrella tree. But they never appear 
to know when they have enough, and as the 
berry has intoxicating properties it is not an 
unusual sight in the Southern States to see 
hundreds of robins under the trees, staggering 
around in utter helplessness. 


Money in Coyotes — L L. Preu, D.'c. 21: 
H, O. Riwlett, a hunter livirjg in the southern 
part of the countv, was in town on Monday, 
and brought in five coyote scalps, some fox 
skins and other furs. The scalps will bring 
him $75. It seems to us that it would be more 
profitable to raise coyotes at $15 a head than 
grain or potatoes at the ruling prices. 


From the Ranges — Alturas Independent, 
Deo. 19: Last Wednesday, the day alter the 
big snowBtorm, the cattle came swarming into 
the valley from the plateau by thousands. L. 
C. Estes informed na that the country between 
A I tuns and the XL ranch was alive with cat- 
tle, and on Thnrsoay there was a " round-up," 
and the several owners appeared and drove 

their animals to their respective ranches 

B. F. Cloud, who resides near Pine oreek ('he 
State line) in Goose Lake valley, 'ays the 
storm last week left the snow about 16 inches 
deep on an average in bis neighborhood. The 
stock owners are all feeding, and the ranchers 
are all provided with plenty of hay, and the 
only cases where any shortage is likely 
to occur is with some of the large cattle- 
owners who were compelled to commence feed- 
ing at least three weeks earlier than usual. 
Mr. Cloud says the ranch cattle are, without 
exception, in good fix, but a great many of the 
range cattle that have rec°ntly come into the 

valley are very thin J. A. Wanzer of Cen- 

terville was telling us the first of the week that 
already a few head of cattle have died in bis 
neighborhood. They were old cows which had 
become very thin, and being left without either 
food or water, when the cold snap came on 
th»v soon pave up the ghost. 

Goose Lake Yalley borders the lake on the 
south, east and north for a distance of some 60 
miles, varying in width from one to four miles 
from the lake shore to the foothills. On the 
western side, for the most part, the mountains 
descend to the Dke shore. The main traveled 
road from the Sacramento valley to Eistern 
Oregon and Idaho parses throughout this val- 
ley The wool clip of the immense bands of 

sheep that are ranged in the country here- 
about and to the north, aggregating some 
2 000 000 pounds, is hauled over this road, 
affording employment to freighters, who in 
turn cinsume a great Dortion of the barley 
raised by the farmers along the route Cat- 
tle and horse raising has been the principal 
business, bnt the farmer and orchardist are 
coming to the front. The lands are about all 
taken and fenced; the plow is anrually furrow- 
ing the former cattle pastures. Along the east 
side, near the foothills, are a continuous suc- 
cession of farms devoted to grain, an t in moat 
cases to general farming. Oats, wheat and bar- 
ley are the principal grains, while hay, tim 
othy, redtop, clover and alfalfa are the staple 
crops, a number of fine young orchards, just 
coming into bearing, are also to be seen, the 
fruit of which is of the finest flavor and qual- 
ity. One nursery alone has Bold, in the past 
three years, some 30 000 trees, and now carries 
about 40,000 more in stock. 


Street Adornment — Orange Post, Dec. 21 : 
The El Modena Agricultural and Horticultural 
Club met last Monday night and effected a per- 
manent organ'z itiou as fcllowB: N. D. Ellis, 
President; O. E Way, V. P.; Ira Carter, Sec ; 
Abel Frazier, Treas. Constitution and by laws 
were adopted, after which the subject of street 
tree planting was ably discussed by Abel 
Fraizer, G. H. Blount, and others, most of 
whom favored the pepper tree as the best for 
street planting. The president then appointed 
a committee to see what can be done by way 
of planting trees on their respective Btreets and 
report next Monday night. 

San Bernardino. 
Sugar Beets Analyzed. — Chi no Champion .- 
A few davs ago beets grown by MeBsrs.. Craw- 
ford & O'Donnell on the western part of the 
Cbino ranch were taken out of the ground and 
accurately tested. The seed was planted April 
1st, and the beets nndoubtedly matured in less 
than five months — perhaps in four — the exact 
time was not noted. But allow the time to 
have been five months and the beets tested re- 
mained in the ground 100 days after maturity. 
The analyses give these results : Total solids, 
16; cane sugar, 13.2; purity, 82.5; glucose, 
8 100 of 1 per cent. Although there is a large 
loss in sugar, yet it is less than 1 ner cent be- 
low the standard, with purity 2 5 per cent 

above standard, and the glucose less than con- 
tained in beets from the same planting Jtested 
several weeks ago. There are facts which may 
explain these unexpected changes, but the sci- 
entific may apply them. A very gratifying 
fact seems to be proven : That sugar beets 
may remain in the ground here 100 or more 
days without enough deterioration to injure 
them for successful manufacture, and this tact, 
considered with the other one that seed may be 
p'anted over a period of four or more months, 
assures a very long season for both grower and 
manufacturer — two points of great value. 

San Diego. 

Wattle Tree — San Diego Sun, Deo. 20: 
J. P. Jones has contributed to the Chamber of 
Commerce exhibit a "Golden Wattle" tree, 
a species of acacia. It came from the seed of 
trees in the San Bernardo district, which wss 
planted at " Siver Terrace" June 18, 1888, 
and has had no irrigation. It had r- ».-is i a 
light of fifteen feet when dug up Dec. 9 b, 
but a section has been lopped off. No soil is 
too dry and barren for this tree to thrive in, 
provided the seed is planted at the beginning of 
the rainy season. Mr. Jonea eays it is abso- 
lutely necessary before planting the seed to 
pour boiling water over it and let it lie for 
24 hours. In Australia this species is consid- 
ered best for firewood, while its bark is the 
"mimosa bark" of commerce, its present rating 
at S F. being §65 a ton. In that country the 
tree is largely grown for its bark. 

San Joaquin. 
Consolidating Reclamation Districts — 
St"kton independent. D o. 29: The members 
of R-cl»m>tieo Districts No-. 209 110 and 302 
met at the effiee of Smith, Lane & Burns yes- 
terday for the purpose of consolidating the 
three di-tri..t- into rn°, to be known as Recla- 
mation District No. 524. The new district em- 
braces all that portion of Roberts Island lying 
southeast of the cross-levee which extends to 
8i. Catherines. By-laws, prepared by W. B. 
Nutter, were ad-pted and signed by farmers 
representing 13,000 of the 19 000 acres of land 
In the district. The meeting at which the 
first Board of Trustees will be elected was set 
for Feb. 15th next. The fa r merB think that the 
levees will stand anything in the shape of water 
that comes along this year, and that the crops 
will be large, as the seeding has been extensive. 
No material damage has resulted yet from 

Santa Cruz. 
A Daring Cougar —Surf, Deo. 21: Tues- 
day morning, as Luther, son of L. L. Evans, 
went to the field for his team on the Barber- 
Dirling place, near Srquel, he discovered an 
animal which he supocsed was a dog worrying 
one of the horses. As he drove nearer he siw 
that the animal was not a dog, but an exceed- 
ingly lively specimen of the California lion, 
who was making a vicious attack upon the 
horse, biting and scratching it with leonine 
ferocity. The horse was making the b^st de- 
fense possible, rearing and kicking, and was 
aided by hiB mate, but the lion was evidently 
getting the beet of the fight an 1 wruld Boon 
have secured an equine breakfast. As young 
Evans, who was on horseback, rode up, the 
lion crouched on the ground for a moment and 
then ran off to the v-oods. The horse hsd been 
1, idly bitten on the flanks, neck and belly, and 
was nearly exhausted from loss of blood, but 
under proper treatment is expected to reoover. 

Reclamation Project. — Ind> x- Tribune : 
VV. B. Piess, the civil ergineer, who has the 
contract for reclaiming 19 500 acres of marsh 
lands a few miles southeast of Sonoma, informs 
us that the work of reclamation will comment 
iu earnest early in the spring. Senator J. P. 
Jones, the owner of the pro-erty, expect to 
expend between §135 000 and $140,000 in put- 
ting the land in shape for farming and dairying 
purposes. The levees to be constructed will be 
broad enough to permit the passage of two 
vehicles coming from opposite directions and 
will be used for road purposes. Tne land will 
be leased for a term of years to actual settlers 
in tracts of from 20 to 160 acres. Seed and 
machinery will be furnished settlers the first 
year and they will be assisted in various other 
ways in order that the venture may prove a 
success both to the farmer and the owner. 
About 4000 acres of the tract ia the finest of 
dairying land. Thia will be subdivided into 
five or six farms and be ready for ocoupanoy 
early in the spring. The entire work of re- 
clamation will take about five years, but as the 
land will be reclaimed in sections, by far the 
greater portion wi'l be occupied by dairymen 
and farmers long before that. This tract has 
communication with S. F. by both rail and 

Citrus Crops.— Oakdale Cor. Modesto Her- 
ald, Dec. 26: Thed"olay of o-anges from t*e 
grove of J. Dolling, Knight's Ferry, at W. H. 
Cook's store, excla anything of the kind ever 
before seen in Oakdale. In addition to the 
huge boxes tilled with the luccious fruit is a 
beautiful tree with spreading branches, from 
'vhich is suspended a mass of golden clusters. 
It attracts the attention of every passer-by. 
The writer found by aotual measurement sev- 
eral of tlvse beautiful specimens to be 15 inches 
in circumference. Mr. Dolling is justly proud 
of his success, and says he has wagon-loads 
• qua' in rvery respect to his delivery of to-day. 

.The Knight's Ferry lemon crop thia season 
shows up a good yield. Specimens are now on 
sale at our fruit stands, and are the largest ever 

brought to this market. Yet it has been said 
that the climate and soil of this section is not 
adapted to the production of citrus fruits. 

The Knight s Ferry Fig Trees. — Modesto 
Herald, Deo. 26 : A visitor there is at once 
struck with the magnitude of these remarka- 
ble trees, which abound on every hand. We 
measured one tree which was over 11 feet in 
circumference at the base, and more tban nine 
feet around at a distance of three feet from the 
ground. Higher np the trunk divided into 
eight large branches, eaoh of which was over 
five feet in circumference. At 30 feet from the 
ground the limbs are seven and eight inches 
through, or as large round as the trunks of 
ordinary fig trees. A gigantic Adriatic fig-tree 
in Mr. Collins' orchard produced $100 worth of 
figs in one year (two crops) and also $45 worth 
of cuttings the same season. This may seem 
incredible, but nevertheless it is true. One 
grove of fig-trees near town mingle their 
branches so overhead that when the trees are 
in folisge not a single beam of light can find 
its way to the ground below. Beneath their 
boughs at midday a heavy twilight prevails, 
and a person passing into their shade from the 
light without experiences the sensation of en- 
tering a darksome cave. The fig? are not 
picked from the trees, but fall to the ground 
during the night, and the following morning 
the ground is covered several inches deep with 
the ripe fruit, which is then carried out into 
the sun to dry. The trees, both white and 
black, produce two crops which are always sure. 
A third crop sometimes matures, but not 


Results of the Flood. — T. B. Hull of Yuba 
Ci y, an extensive wheat-grower, said to a Call 
reporter the other evening: "There is one vast 
sea of water in the tule basin, but of the culti- 
vated land very little will be damaged. Around 
my place there has been no material damage 
done, and the most that I know of is done to 
District Xo. 70, on the east side of the Sacra- 
mento, between the river and the Buttes. It 
is a very rich alluvial tract of about 7000 acres 
and has suffered considerable damage by the 
breaking of the levees and the destruction of 
the crops now planted. But the flood has 
drowned out tbe equirrele and the gophers, and 
will leave a rich deposit of silt — nature's fertil- 
izer — and should the waters now subside there 
will be plenty of time left for wheat-planting, 
as much wheat is seeded in that district as late 
as February. The soil there is so heavy that 
early planted wheat runs rankly to straw. I 
believe that if the storm is now over, we will 
find that we are not the dreadful eufferera that 
the exaggerated accounts published have repre- 
sented us as being. Ridding the land of the 
pestiferous rquirrels and gophers is certainly a 
great benefit, and will go a long way in the 
general account as balancing the damages." 


Orange Trees in Visalia — Delta, Dec. 26: 
A number of our citizens have their orange 
trees just now fairly resplendent with bright 
yellow fruit, a pleasant sight for this time of 
year. The number of orange trees in town is 
steadily growing. 


Ambitious Oats — Woodland Democrat, Dec. 
26: Mr, Diggs shows a specimen of oats grown 
on his place near town which are five feet six 
inches high and already headed out. He says 
he wants to begin cutting his 1890 hay crop on 
New Year's Day. 


Yuba River Oranges —Nevada City Tran- 
script, Dec. 25 : R McDowall of Sioard Fiat, 
on the Yuba river, three miles below Smarts- 
ville, was in town Monday with some sample 
oranges from his orchard of 40 trees. Only a 
portion of the orchard has come into bearing, 
bnt that is heavily laden. Oietree is estimated 
to have 1500 oranges, and in size, fineness of 
texture and flavor they compare favorably with 
any seedlings raised in the State. Mr. Mc- 
Dowall has been raising oranges at Sicard Fiat 
for several years and never missed getting a 
crop good both as to quality and quantity. 
Even in the cold snap two years ego his trees 
did not suffer material irijury. Some of the 
oldest ones had their tops nipped, but recovered 
entirely the next season from the setback, and 
though a few of the yonngest were cut off at 
the surface of the ground, they rallied in the 
following summer and attained a growth of over 
six feet. 


Cotton. — Ptoeiix Herald: A cotton bush 
was brought in the other day by A J. Straw, 
for the Chamber of Commerce. Planted last 
April, on S. C. Bartlett's fig ranch northwest of 
town, under the Arizona oansl. it has yielded 
two crops, while the third is still on the bush. 
Tbe fiber spreads ont from tbe seed, like first 
quality Southern cotton It r/rew from seed of 
seeds furnished by the U. S. Government some 
years ago. No cultivation was expended on 
it. W. T. Hanna also raised quite a orop this 
vear which was entirely a volunteer growth. 
From 25 roots Mr. Straw has picked two floor 
sacks of cotton. 

Beeves in Yavapai. — Presoott Courier: 
Stephen Ross, of Girland & Ross, stock-raisers, 
have two large ranches in this county, one in 
Big Ch<no valley, tbe r' her in the mountains, 
near Williams. Mr. Ross will, this season, 
ship 1000 bead of beeves from the mountain 
ranch. He has already shipped several hundred 

Jan. 4, 1890.] 

f ACIF1G f^URAb f RESS. 

head. Taking the weight of the entire lot, 
they average 1600 pounds, which is oretty good 
for rangers. He shipped some 350 from the 
■"alley, including 50 cows. Average weight of 
100 steers and 50 cows, 1000 poanHs A car- 
load of beeves shipped by C. E. Biyce of 
Williams, for William Crowell, averaged 1400 

A Cattleman's Complaint. — Kingman 
Miner: Thos. Halleck shipped, some time 
since, two carloads of cattle to Lis Angeles, 
and he wished the stockmen of this county 
to know how he was treated hy the butchers 
and stockyard management at that place. His 
contrait was for 2£ certi delivered, and he was 
paid 1^ cents. His 1200-pound steers phrunk 
on the stockyard scales 850, and his 53 fine 
beef steers netted him $450 He was detained 
by one e xouse and another for eight days before 
he was finally paid for his cattle. 


The First Apple Tree.— J. H. McM'llen, 
the well-knowD pioneer, sends the Oregonian 
the following note: I wish to correot a mis 
take in the issue of the 25th, in regard to the 
first apple tree plant" 1 in Washington Terri- 
tory. In October, 1845, Dr. John MoL^ughlin 
sent on board the schooner Calapooia, Captain 
Cook commanding, some two bushels of seed- 
ling apples for distribution to the emigrants on 
their way down the Columbia river. I was 
chosen to divide the fruit equally to all on 
board. Now the facts are thpse, these apples 
were grown at Vancouver from seed planted 
some vears before on land occupied by the Hud- 
son Biv Company. 


California Winter Blooms. 

There has been a friendly contest between 
several places near the coast, in the oentral 
part of California, as to which would bring for- 
ward the largest collection of garden flowers in 
bloom in December. The movement was started 
by the Santa Crnz Surf, which received a 
bouquet containing 41 varieties from Miss Hat- 
tie Curtis. Larger collections were then an- 
nounced from E ist Oakland, North Temescal, 
Fetaluma, and finally Salinas City claimed the 
rank by enumerating 120 varieties in bloom in 
a garden in that place. The original colleotor, 
Miss Curtis, now plaoesthe Surf in the position 
of victor with 151 varieties, of which the fol- 
lowing aocount is given : 

At 8 o'clock a. M. Friday, D o. 20th, the 
rain-gauges had recorded two inchei of rain for 
the 24 hours preceding. It was in the face of 
this heavy downpour, enough, one wonld think, 
to beat the petals from every flower that ever 
bloomed, that Mies Hattie Curtis again went 
into her garden to see what the rains had 
left. Miss Curtis had in mind the 120 
varieties reported from Salinas, and hardly 
hoped to eqaal it. since her garden con- 
sisted of only about 300 feet of narrow border- 
ing, while the Chestnut garden, in Salinas, 
from which the 120 varieties oame, is a large 
and handsomely cared for place, to which the 
owner devotes nearly all his time. Thb is a 
delightful thing to do, and one that repays the 
amateur in a score of charming ways. Yet, as 
an evidence of what Central California soil and 
climate will do, almost unaided, perhaps the 
score now made by Miss Curtis will tell a still 
louder story. It should be remembered that, 
on the first ocoasicn, Miss Curtis was not in 
rivalry with any one. only seeking to brighten 
a dingy cffiae. Yesterday she searched her 
garden through to test its ability to oompete 
with the whole State. The city office of the 
Surf is the fortunate recipient of the result — 
151 varieties of flowers In the outer edge of a 
D cember rainstorm. These have been oare- 
fully counted in the presence of witnesses — not 
because Miss Curtis' word was doubted, but be- 
cause she desired to have a " fair field and no 

O je of the most wonderful things in the face 
of the dark and dismal downpour of the past 
month is the cheery aspect of the 32 varieties 
of roses. Two great rich "Cloth of Gold" 
buds were cut from the vine over the doorway. 
A duster of dainty pink "Souvenir d'un Ami" 
give forth the delicate fragrance of nectarines. 
The " S*frano," that queen of tea roses, is 
always with us. 

Then there are " baby " roses and bridal and 
Binksia and all the others. Of chrysanthe- 
mums there are four sorts, with a little yellow 
summer variety besidep. An interesting feat- 
ure of the collection is 12 varieties of fuschias, 
all choice, and especially fine in foliage. There 
are six kinds of geranium and one superb 
pelargonium. There are four sorts of oarnation 
besides the mullein pink and Indian pink. A 
light and a dark heliotrope are here and three 
kinds of hollyhock. Of the "flowers that 
bloom in the spring," and in most countries 
only then, there are in this collection, the 
flowering almond, bridal wreath, deutzia. 
quince japonic?, three sorts of violets, two of 
primroses, three of oxalis. white lilac, single 
and double Narcissus, St. Peter's wreath, and 
the great white callas that, in the Eist, never 
bloom at all save with the greatest petting. An 
oddity is the flower, fruit and foliage of the 

Indian strawberry, whioh is a persistent creep- 
er. Then, here is a tomato plant with ftuit, 
fl >wer and foliage, which is a dwarf orna- 
mental varietv. There are two sorts of begonia, 
one of the dainty darlings of Etstern hothcuses 
growing here outdoors. Of the others, these 
are noted : Amaryllis Johnsonii, tiger lily, 
veronica, eight varieties of calendula or mari- 
gold, two kinds of abutilon, yellow jessamine, 
laurestinus, dew plant, forget-me-not, two sorts 
of salvia and three of larkspor, two kinds of 
stookgilly, a fine passion flower with its large 
and ugly -lookirjg fruit, lantanna, mignonette, can- 
na,coreopsis. black-eyed Sueao, oestrum, twosorts 
o' solanum, Job's tears, bloom and foliage of ami- 
lax, Australian c-eeper.two varietiesof Marguer- 
ite, cosmos, a " johnny-jump-up" ortiny pansy, 
"twelve o'clock," floribunda, German ivy, 
sweet alyssum, a cultivated dandelion, two 
kinds of periwinkle and five sorts of verbena, 
nasturtium, lavender, two colore of bachelors' 
buttons, and six varieties not yet named, which 
will be reported to-morrow. 

Santa Cruz aga ; n challenges the ftnateur gar- 
dens of the S ate ! A professional fl ^-ist of this 
city Friday plucked and named 121 varieties 
of flowers, but the Surf desires especially to 
keep this strictly an amateur competition, as 
there is nothing but knowledge and fame (and 
are they not much ?) to he e«i«ie<l 

Star Tulips. 

[Written for the Rukal Press by Carl Purdy ] 
Though they both belong to the same genus, 
Calochortus, the Mariposa or Butterfly Tulips, 
and the Star Tulips are distinct enough in gen- 
eral appearanoe to be thought quite separate. 
While the Mariposa Tulips are marked by a 
stiff, erect stem, and erect cups of flowers, 
brilliantly oolored, the Star Tulips have a 
drooping, flexuous habit and flowers more deli- 
cate in form and color than brilliant. In these 
attributes, delicacy of flower and grace of 
form, the Star Tulips are excelled by no other 
flower in cultivation. The general appearanoe 
is similar to the well-known snowdrop. 
They have only one leaf, a glossy green, lance- 
shaped leaf, often a foot long, proceeding from 
the bulb. The flowering stem is slender and 
drooping, branched in most species into many 
flower pedicels, with no leaves, and the bracts 
often colored like the flowers. The strongest 
growing species are as muoh as a foot high, in 
good specimens, while some of the smill spe- 
cies are at perfection at three inobes. Most of 
the species find their most congenial home in 

In describing the spee'es they can best be 
grouped. Calochorlui alius and C. pulchellus 
are strong-growiDg species, bearing numerous 
blossoms. The petals ourve together and close, 
forming a flattened globe, which hargs pendu- 
lous. On the exposed edges of the perils io a 
fringe of silky hairs. The blossom of C. albu* 
is of a pearly white. The inside is filled with 
silky white hair. It has sometimes been called 
the "Lantern of the Fairies." A well-grown 
nlant of this pp oies will bear from ten to 
twenty or thirty flowers, one to two inches in 
diameter. Calochortus pulchellus, differs from 
the preoeding in its blossoms, being a golden 
yellow and hardly so large. Both speoies grow 
in dry, loose soils in open woods and are easily 

In another group can be placed C. Benthamii, 
C. Maweannus, C. elegant and C. cceruleus. In 
all of these the average specimen Is quite low 
and the flowers wonderfully delicate. A well- 
grown spec men is three to five inches high, 
but the single-root leaf is often much longer. 
The slender flower-stem bears a few pendulous, 
open, bell shaped flowers, filled with long silky 
hairn. All nre plants of the cool woodlands. 
C Bentharnii is golden-yellow, the others from 
white to blue, and tilled with hairs of the same 

Ia my last group of Star Tulips I would place a 
few species of plants growing in wet places, hav- 
ing the same long, glossy root leaf, but a stouter, 
more erect stem, and open, cup like flowers in 
solid onlora, and but slightly hairy. These are 
Tolmeii, lilac flowers, and stem afoot high; 
G. nudus white, and a few to 10 inches high; 
C lilarinut, pale lilac and strong grower, and 
G. uniflorut, lilac, and low. 

In cultivation most of the Star Tulips will do 
well in a clay or sandy loam, with a little mold, 
and dryness, shade or moisture, as I have here- 
inh«'or<> ind'ra'.ed. 

Ukiah, Cal 

The Electric Light on Plants — Fresh ex- 
periments bave lately been carried out at the 
Winter Palaoe, St. Petersburg, which tend to 
show the fatal influence of the electric light on 
plants. It was observed that a single night's 
lighting was sufficient to oause the plants to 
become yellow and desiccated, wbioh was fol- 
lowed by a fall of the leaves. The sudden 
passing of northern plants, used to sunless days 
and the weak light of the conservatory, into 
the dazziing light of drawing rooms, must be 
regarded as the principal cause of this phenom- 
enon. The rapidity and intensity of the per- 
nicious influenoe of the electric light increase 
with the brightness of that light; the plants 
which are not attacked directly by the luminous 
rays do not appear to snffdr. The foregoing 
fusts agree absolutely with those which were 
observed in the experimental conservatory at 
the exhibition of electricity in 1881. It is also 
remarked that the effects vary much with the 
nature of the electrical apparatus employed. 

If aro lamps be used, which give a light much 
charged with violet radiation*, the injurious 
eff cts will be quickly observed; if, on the con- 
trary, incandescent lamps, which give a more 
yellow light, be employed, it is probable that 
the hurtful influence will he small, or not 
noticeable. — Electrical Review. 

Cactus as Cattle Food. 

Editors Press: — I have just been reading 
the description of the giant cactus, in last num- 
ber of the Rural, and see therein that it is not 
known in Arizona that the white pulp, or as 
one might say, meat, of the cactus is put to any 
use, and thinking it might interest some of 
your readers, I will state what I know about it: 
I used to live in the northeastern part of Texas, 
where the prickly pear grows in abundance, 
and in winter if the hay was scarce and the 
grass all killed by frost, we used to cut a lot 
of those prickly pears, build a good fire in 
some sheltered place and burn all the thorns 
off, by taking a bunch of cactus on a hay-fork 
and holding them over the fire; the thorns would 
burn ai though they were saturated with ooal 
oil. Afterward we would distribute them 
around in the pasture, where the cattle would 
eat them with great relish, and even fight each 
other for the bunches, whioh clearly showed 
that they like them. A. Vinther. 

Santa Cruz. 

[The use of the flashy leaves of the oaotus 
for cattle food was described in the Rural 
some months ago, perhaps before our corre- 
spondent became a regular reader of our journal. 
His note may interest other reoent readers of 
the Prpss ] 

Largest Flower in the World. 

In the farthest southeastern Island of the 
Phillippine group, Mindinao, upon one of its 
monntiina, Parag, in the neighborhood of the 
highest peak on the island, the volcano, Apo, 
a party of botanical and ethnographioal ex- 
plorers found, recently, at the hight of 2500 
feet above the sea-level, a colossal flower. The 
disooverer, Dr. Alexander Scbadenberg, oould 
scarcely believe his eyes when he saw, amid the 
low growing bushes, the immense buds of this 
flower, like gigantic brown cabbage-heads; but 
he was still more astonished when he found a 
specimen in full bloom, a five-petaled flower 
nearly a yard in diameter — as large as a carriage 
wheel, in fact. This enormous blossom wa« 
borne on a sort of vine oreepicg on the gronnd. 
The native who accompanied Dr. Schadenberg 
called it bolo. 

The party had no scale by which the weight 
of the flower could be ascertained, but they 
improvised a swinging soale, using their boxes 
and specimens as weights. Weighing these 
when rpportunity served, it was found that a 
single flower weighed 22 pounds. It was im- 
possible to transport the fresh flower, so th 
travelers photographed it, and dried » number 
of its leaves by the heat of a fire. Dr. Scba 
denberg then sent the photographs and dried 
specimens to the Royal Botanical Gardens, 
Breslau, where the learned director immedi- 
ately recognized it as a species of Rifnaeia, a 
plant formerly discovered in Sumatra, and 
named a f ter the English Governor, Sir Stam- 
ford Rfllf, The new flower was accordingly 
named R ffl sia Schadenbergia. 

The five petals of this immense flower are 
oval and creamy white, and grow areund a 
oenter filled with oonntless long violet hued 
stamens, thicker and longer in tre fertile flower 
than in the infertile. — The Qardentr. 

California Flowers at the East. 

Of all the agencies oaloulated to impress the 
winter-worn E isterner with the glorious winter 
olimate of California, the sending of out flowers 
by mail is one of the most worthy of encourage- 
ment because it oan be done by every one at a 
oost so small that it cannot be a burden even 
to a child. These eloquent missionaries, our 
winter flowers, have done muoh for the Skate 
in the past, and can do muoh in the future. 
The way they do their work oan be learned 
from the following notes whioh we happened to 
see this week: 

Last Thursday'a mail brought to Mi's Leo- 
nora Barton a box of lovely flowers and roses 
beyond description — such only as the sunny 
land of California oan produoe. The trip had 
not marred their beauty much; they were al 
most as fresh as our June roses when plucked 
but a few hours. They were sent to her by 
her aunt, Mrs, D'. Jo»hua Griffith of Merced. 
— Wither {Neb ) Republican. 

In one of Anderson's show-windows there haB 
been an unusually handsome sight several days 
past. It consists of three large vaBes of many 
colored and gorgeously hued chrysanthemums. 
Thev were a present to the fi'm from Mrs. Lib- 
bieZirtman (formerly Miss Libbie Colvin) of 
Tulare, Cal., and came all the way from that 
f .vorrd land of fl iwers, having been picked in 
Mrs. Zirtman's flower-garden. Thev have at- 
tracted much attention. — Tecumieh {Mich.) 


The Introduction of the Australian 

Editors Press: — My attention has just 
been called to Professor Riley's article in your 
paper of the 21st inst. I am not, I regret to 
say, a regular reader of the Rural Press and 
have not seen the matter to whioh the Professor 
refers, but I can assure both him and you that 
I am wholly ignorant of the authorship of the 
dispatches, whioh he says were sent to the 
Eistern press — especially the New York 
Tribune — touching the introduction of the 
Vedalia or Australian ladybug, into this State, 
and further, I never heard of said dispatches 
until this moment. I have not the pleasure of 
knowing Professor Riley personally, have 
never seen him to my knowledge, and have 
bad no occasion to ever write him a single 
word upon any aubjeot whatsoever. I am 
therefore at a loss to aooount for his labored 
attempt to patronize me in the manner he has 
done in the oolumns of your paper. I have no 
objeotion to his glorifying himself, as he seems 
to delight in doing, or to his thanking a whole 
lot of persons for performing very email and 
subordinate parts under him, but I beg to be 
left out of the list. The Professor owes me no 
thanks, nor do the people of this State require 
his certificate in my behalf. 

I shall now give you the true history of the ' 
introduction of the Vedalia into California, and 
I think you will find it differs in many essential 
particulars from the one which the Professor 
has written. You will see from the accompany- 
ing official correspondence, whioh has never 
been nnblished, that Mr. De Birth Shorb was 
th* Jirst to suggest to me the importance of this 
suhj ot to the orange-growers of California. 

Second: The State Department did not re- 
commend Professor Riley's proposals. 

Third : There was no arrangement between 
the D pnrtments of State and Agriculture upon 
this suftjeot, as Mr. Rives' letter to Mr. Col- 
man shows. Mr. Rvves left the whole matter 
to my discretion and approved of all my ar- 
rangements in regard to Professor Riley or his 
assistants goiog out to Australia. 

Fourth : It is not true, as Professor Riley 
says, that "one of the gentlemen sent out was 
to work under Instructions from him, and the 
other to assist Mr. McCoppin in the Exposition 
work from the agricultural standpoint." Who- 
ever oame, the Professor rimself, or his assist- 
ants, was to be subordinate to the Commission- 
er and had to report direct to Mm. [Sen my 
first letter upon this subject to Mr. Rives.] 

And right here is the cause of all the Pro- 
fessor's perturbation. He wanted to have Mr. 
Koebele report to him, contrary to the original 
understanding, and later on he, as a special 
favor, would let the Commissioner have a copy. 
This conld not be permitted — Mr. Koebele made 
his report to the Commissioner direot, and 
not to the Professor, and therefore the latter 
errs in saying "His (Koebele's) report, now in 
my hands, will show how faithfully be did his 
work." Unless the State Department furnish- 
ed him a copy, the report is not in his hands. 

The letter wbioh Professor Riley attempted 
to ir jeot into my report was so at variance with 
the fact" (I serd a oopy herewith) that Lieut. 
Marix, U. S. N»vy, who had super v sion of 
the publication, rejeoted it peremptorily, and 
hence, in the language of the latter, the Pro- 
fessor has had " blood in hi* eye " ever since. 

Frank McCoppin. 

San Francuco, Dec. 22, 1889. 

The Official Correspondence. 

Washington, D. C, Oct. 15, 1889. 

Hon. Frank McCoppin— -Dear Sir: Your letter 
was received some days ago, and the following day 
the method that Prof. Riley wanted adopted was 
sent from the printing office in galley form. 

I at once wrote to him and told him that you pre- 
ferred to have the repert go in as it was originally 
submitted; and furthermore, that although a plain 
letter of transmittal by him might have been ad- 
missible, I could not possibly put in what he had 
written, as it stated the case totally different from 
the way I understood it to be. I also offered to 
hold the report two days more, in case he had any- 
tbirg to say. 

Yesterday he appeared with blood in his eye, and 
the interview was very unpleasant, as also was he. 
After some talk, I requested him to come and look 
at your letter to the Secretary, which would show 
plainly how you understood the case, and under 
what conditions consented to the whole affiir. This 
letter took him aback a little, but even then he said 
that it did n^t stipulate the report should not go 
through his Department. 

This I denied, and he said that you had acted 
wrong in the whole matter, and implied that you 
were capturing what did not belong to your credit, 
etc. He said if Mr. Rives were only there, it would 
b: fixed, and vowed to publish the whole corre- 
spondence between the two Departments to show 
how you had acted. 

The result of the interview is that the report will 
go in submitted to you by Koebele, and Prof. 
Riley entirely left out. 

Knowing you would not desire to go against the 
wishes of the Department, 1 examined the corre- 
spondence he referred to, and found that it fully 
sustains you, If Koebele was directed to report to 


pACIFie f^URAlo f>RESS, 

[Jan. 4, 1890 

them, as Prof. Riley asserts he was, it was a breach 
of faith, and I can hardly believe it. 

As you may hear from all this again, I will arm 
you with copies of the correspondence: 

A. First letter from Secretary of State to Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 

B. Letter from Commissioner of Agriculture to 
Secretary of State. 

C. Second letter from Secretary of State to Com- 
missioner ol Agriculture. 

D. The form of submittal and transmittal as de- 
sired by Prof. Riley. 

The report is getting on. and will be finished on 
time, at the end of this month. It contains over 450 
pages. Very respectfully, W. MABIX 

Exhibit "A ' 

Department ok State, \ 
Washington. June 22, 1888. J 
.V. /. CoJman, Esq., Commissioner 0/ Agricult- 
ure— -MR: I have just received from Mr. McCop- 
pin, Commissioner of the L'nited States to the Mel- 
bourne Exhibition, a letter, from which I quote the 
following: " Lieut. Marix has handed me a memo- 
randum from Mr. C. V. Riley, U. S. Entomologist, 
with reference to an insect brought hither from Aus- 
tralia, which is very destructive of the fruit and 
shade trees in Southern California. My attention 
had already been called to this subject by Mr. 
DeBarth Shorb of Los Angeles, who thinks it is of 
the first importance that the enemies of this pest 
should be introduced into this State. Therefore, not- 
withstanding the limited means at ^your] my disposal 
for all these purposes, I am in favor of having Mr. 
Riley and his assistants sent to Australia at the ex- 
pense of the Commission ($2000), provided he will 
come as an aid to the Commission to the end that 
his report shall be made a part of the final report of 
the Commissioner to the Secretary of State." I am, 
sir, your obedient servant, G. L. Rives, 

Assistant Secretary. 
Exhibit "B." 
U. S. Department ok Agrici i.ture, \ 
Commissioner's Office, I 
Washington, D. C, ( 
June 23. 1888. ) 
(,'. /.. Rives, Esq., Assistant Secretary of State — 
Sik: I have your favor of the 22d inst. , informing 
me of the receipt by you of a letter by Mr. McCop- 
pin, Commissioner of the United States to the Mel- 
bourne Exposition, and giving me the contents 
thereof. There can be no question as to the im- 
portance of the investigation alluded to, and 1 know 
of nothing to prevent my complying, with the pro- 
viso that the party or parties I may send to do this 
work will go as an aid or as aids to the Commission, 
and make a report which shall be part of the general 
report to the Secretary of state. I will therefore 
take steps at once to carry out the investigation, and 
I take it that the accounts should all be made to the 
State Department, as of other members of the Com- 
mission, and that the report is to be transmitted by 
me through the President of the Commission. Please 
inform me if I am right in these conclusions. I 
have the honor to remain. Yours respectfully, 
Norman J. ColmaN, 


Exhibit "C." 

Department ok State, ) 
Washington, June 26, t888. )" 

Xorman J. CoJman, Rsq., Commissioner of Agri- 
culture — Sir: I have to acknowledge the receipt 
of your letter of the 23d inst., in which you state 
that you will at once take steps to send one or more 
persons as assistants to Mr. McCoppin, Commis- 
sioner of the United States to the Melbourne Ex- 
hibition, and you ask whether the accounts of the 
persons so sent should be made to the Department 
of State, and whether their report should be trans- 
mitted bv you through the Chief Commissioner. 

In reply, I have to inform you that the matter of 
employing and compensating subordinate assistants 
has been left entirely to the discretion of Mr. Mc- 
Coppin, subject, of course, to the eventual control 
of the Secretary of State. In the present instance, 
the Department approves of Mr. McCoppin's ar- 
rangement, but the details of the accounts of the 
persons you may designate to be associated with 
him should be submitted to Mr. McCoppin, who 
has ample funds to pay them. The reports in re- 
gard to the matters with which these persons may 
be specially familiar should be also submitted to 
Mr. McCoppin direct, by whom they will be trans- 
mitted to this Department with his final report. 

In brief, the gentlemen whom you propose to 
send, so far as they represent the United States in 
any capacity at the Melbourne Exhibition, will be 
entirely under the direction and control of Mr. Mc- 
.oppin, who will audit and pay their accounts, and 
to whom they will report. I am, sir, vour obedient 
servant, G. L. Rives, 

Ass't Secretary. 

Exhibit "D." 



Dkak Sin :- The following report has been submitted to 
me by Mr. Koebele on the res-Its of his late m'sniou to Ant* 
tralia. I'pou presentation of the case you "were ki'd and 
appreciative enough to enter into an arrangement witu me, 
with the sanction of the Secretary of State and the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture, which involved the payment of the ex- 
peuses, outside of the United States, of two of the agents 
of the Department of Agriculture whose salaries In work for 
the Division of Entomology were to be continued. Accord- 
ing to this arraugeinent Mr. Albert Koebe'e was sent out 
uuder special io- tractions to investigate with a view of in- 
troducing the Australian enemies of the Fluted Scale iuto 
California, and to report to me the results; while Mr. F. M. 
Webster was to make a report to you on some of the agri- 
cultural aspects of the Melbourne Exposition. The arrange- 
ment has, 1 telieve, proved mutually natisfactory, and Mr. 
Koebeles efforts have resulted so favorably that in accord- 
ance with my promise, I send you a copy of his report, in 
case you should deem it of sutlk-ieut interest to use in your 
report to Congress, for while it has little relation to the 
Exposition and is purely entomological, the results are and 
ever will be connected with your Melbourne work, anil I de- 
sire to thank you for the aid you have given Mr. Koebele 
ami myself in carrying on this investigation. If I am not 
mistaken, the people of your State will also forever thank 
you for your part in helping to rid them of one of their 
most pernicious insect euemies. I have the honor to re- 
main, yours respectfully, C. V. Rilkv, 

U S. Entomologist. 

Hon. Flank Mi Copimn. 

TJ. S. Commissioner, Melbourue Exposition. 


Al.AMEDA, CAL., , . 

Sir :— I herewith submit my report upon the study of 
/"'■• '•ira purchasi in Australia and New Zealand and the in- 

troduction of its parasiteB and enemies into California, 
undertaken by your direction and in accordance with your 
letter of instructions. Respectfully yours, 

Albert Koebele, 

Special Agent. 

Pruf. C. V. Riley. 
1*. S. Entomologist. 

Closing Letter of Lieut. Marlx. 

Washington, Oct. 31, 1889. 

Hon. Frank McCoppin — Dear &IR: This is 
my last day here, and I am about through. The 
Report has not reached the Department yet, but 
will in a few days. Hatwell will send you a copy 
at once, and as soon as they are ordered by Con- 
gress, as many as you like — better let him know. 
There is a final surplus of $10,570.27. 

After I sent you copies of that bug correspond- 
ence, I had another letter from Prof. Riley, which 
looked as if the two Departments might gel into 
trouble. So I thought I had better have some 
authority back of me. Mr. Wharton is sick, so the 
next secretary was Odel. He looked over all the 
correspondence careuilly. and told me to go ahead, 
as I was right. He also told me to send Riley 
copies of the correspondence and to tell him that if 
he should not be content with the manner the re- 
port was issued, the Department of Agriculture 
could submit the case to the Department of Stale. 

That settled the matter, I think. Riley merely 
wrote that he had never seen the last letter from 
Rives, and that it could not be found there on file. 
Very resptctfully. W. Marix. 

(5he (5 


Califorman8 in Holland. 

Editors Press: — We left Heidelberg at 3:50 
p. m. for Mayence, arrived at 5:30 and put up 
at the Hotel de Rhine. 

The country from Heidelberg to Mayence is 
similar to that from Munich to Heidelberg — 
level, with green fields and compact little vil- 
lages every few miles, and hundreds of small 
hop patches. No pasture-fields, no good large 
barns for storing their crops, and it is a mystery 
to me what they do with their hay and grain. 

I think, without exaggeration, I have not 
seen 200 head of loose stock ont in the fields 
since I left France, and I am now in the fourth 
different country — Switzerland, Italy, Austria 
and Germany. 

We ohanged cars at Darmstadt, and there 
met a gentleman and wife and son from Los 
Angeles — Matthay, I think, was bis name. 
We were as pleased to see them as though they 
had been old friends, and we had a good Ameri- 
can talk, and put up at the same hotel in May- 

This is quite a town, with some very old 
buildings. A tall tower close by the hotel they 
claim to be from 800 to 1000 years old. A fine 
bridge spans the Rhine, which is a little wider 
than the Sacramento. Here tourists take and 
leave the boat for a trip up or down the Rhine. 

We take the boat at nine o'olock on the 15tb. 
A wet, gloomy, cold morning, with, perhaps, 
50 passengers. The country is very level here, 
and the voyager does not get into the hills for 
an hour or so. The wind is blowing a hurri- 
cane, all but the cane, and this is the third 
time I have worn my overcoat since I left Cali- 
fornia — once at sea, once off the coast of Ire- 
land and to-day on the Rhine. Not over half 
of the ladies can stay on deck, and it seriously 
interferes with the pleasures of the trip. I 
have read so much about the Rhine, heard it 
discussed by persons that have made the trip, 
and as some did not speak in flattering terms, 
I made up my mind to have no prejudioe 
against it at starting. Some people get too 
exalted an opinion from others, and conse- 
quently they are disappointed when they come 
to view it. A person should see the Rhine be- 
fore he sees the Alps or Switzerland, or he is 
liable to be disappointed. It is entirely differ- 
ent Bcenery and will bear no comparison. It is 
good and well worth the trip. The hills are 
well terraced with stone walls and grape-vines; 
the high peaks contain old castles and ruins and 
strong fortifications. We pass Bingen.Coblentz, 
Bonn, etc., etc., all famons in history or song. 
There is a railroad on either side with numer- 
ous tunnels. At the mouth of each tunnel 
there is a fancy wall, put up in imitation of 
towers or castles. The roads seem to do an 
immense business, from the number of trains 
we saw passing to-day. A great number of 
canal-boata were being towed up and down the 
river. There was not muoh farming, except 
grapes, until we got out of the hills and pretty 
well down toward Oologne. 

Cologne is a much larger place than I antic- 
ipated. It has a very fine double iron bridge; 
one side for the public, and the other side, 
double traok for cars, high enough for steam- 
boats without lowering funnels. It has a 
pontoon bridge, with 42 pointed soow-boats, 
anchored in the stream, and a great deal of 
travel. The pontoon bridge waB quite a nov- 
elty to me. When steamers want to pass, three 
of the boats were dropped down and behind 
the others and then pulled back in place by 
machinery. The streets of the old town are 
narrow, dirty and crooked. The new part is 
being built up in fine style. They claim the 
finest Gothic cathedral in the world. It cost 
away up in the millions. I am about tired of 
such luxuries, and I suppose I did not give it 
that consideration its mechanical merit de- 
serves. Iam tired of feeing these idle loafers 
in their black robes, to see something their 
grandfathers did. 

They make everything work, eat or drink, in 
this country. The idle do most of the eating 

and drinking. They get more work out of 
their dogs than any place I have seen yet. 
One and two dogs are bitohed to nearly every 
cart, and tbey pull with a will. I saw a three- 
tandem team. The man at end of shafts, one 
dog hitched to axletree, walking on the man's 
heels, the other dog hitched to the rear of the 
cart and walking behind the axletree, all doing 
good work. 

They have some very old buildings, the arch- 
itecture whereof must have been planned in 
some diseased mind. I took one of them to be 
the first handiwork of Adam when winter was 
approaching, and the other built from the 
wrecks of the ark by Noah. I would give a 
good price for one of these country wagons to 
drive in a procession on Fourth of July. 

We took the cars at Cologne at 1:30 and 
arrived at Amsterdam at 8 r. M. The country 
is well tilled, and shows a good growth of sec- 
ond crop of clover in blossom, alfalfa, grain, 
and an abundance of vegetables. Before we 
crossed the Rhine, we passed over very level 
bottom land, used mostly for grazing purposes. 
And here we begin to see stook out to pasture, 
and most of it is the black and white HoUtein 
or Dutch cow. Occasionally there is a fence 
or hedge, but the land is mostly divided by 
ditches with small bridges and bars and gates. 

We crossed the Rhine on a single-track iron 
ferryboat. String wire cables are fastened to 
either bank, passing over or around large 
wheels on the boat, whioh are revolved by 
steam pulling the boat. There are two boats, 
each boat carrying eight or ten cars. From 
here to Amsterdam is a level country, and 
water almost on the surface; feed was in abun- 
dance and thousands of cattle enjoying it. 
Nothing but the Holstein cattle are seen. The 
village system of farming is disappearing, and 
I occasionally see a farmhouse with barns, 
stacks, etc. 

Amsterdam is built upon a site like that 
which might be found between Suisun and 
Benicia, on the tules. The map of the city 
looks like the three sides of a spider's web, the 
streets and canals running like the threads of 
the web, converging gradually toward the cen- 
ter. With all my reading about the city of 
Amsterdam, I had a very imperfect idea of It. 
I could hardly realize that there were as many 
canals as there were in Venice, and much bet- 
ter arranged, Ntarly every street of impor- 
tance has a canal in the center, with streets or 
roadway on either side. Some canals are 30, 
40 and 100 feet wide, and some few narrower. 
There are 90 islands and 300 bridges that cross 
these canals from one street to another. 
Canal-boats are going and coming with their 
loads, like truck teams. Small steamers bnilt 
low down ply up and down the largest canal, 
some as tow-boats and others for passengers. 

The old houses are narrow and high, and not 
one in ten stands plumb. They look as though 
they would topple over very soon. There are 
some nice buildings here. It must be expen- 
sive to get a proper foundation In such a wet 

I belitve they claim 300,000 population, 
should hardly think it would justify such fig 
ures. We took carriage and rode around the city 
and out to see the dikes. Failing to get a 
proper map, I found it difficult to obtain the 
desired information in regard to reclamation 
There are so many dikes, canals, levees, etc, 
that I could not inform myself as I wonld 
like to. 

We found a young man who could speak 
good English and willing to Impart anything 
that he knew, but the trouble was, he did not 
know much about the business and was liable 
to mislead. 

We found another bright young man, appar 
ently an assistant engineer, who had the in' 
formation, but spoke indifferent English, and it 
was hard for him to explain. On the outer 
levee they were doing a fine piece of stone- 
work. From what I could gather and see, I 
think they are putting in gates to let ont the 
stagnant water of the city at low tide and let 
in new water at high tide. They hare re- 
claimed a good deal of land from the inland sea 
and have it in a fine state of cultivation. They 
have been most determined and persevering in 
building up this city and reclaiming its lands. 
It has cost an immense amount of money, 
thought and experiment. 

I took the little steamer and went up to the 
town or city called Ztandam, that claims a 
population of 12,000. I had hardly got ashore 
when I was solicited by a native to be my 
guide. I made arrangements with him and we 
took carriage and started. The first thing he 
showed me was an old house that had cut over 
the top of the door, "Anno 1654." We left 
the carriage and walked through a narrow lane, 
where stood a modern house, 1825, over an old 
house built in 1632, and in which Peter the 
Great lived in 1697, when he worked at ship- 
building in this town. The chairs and table 
that he used were there. I had to stoop down 
to go through the door from one room to 
another. The boarding on the outside was over 
a foot wide and the whole thing had the ap- 
pearance of quite an ancient house. I also 
walked through the Bhip-yard where he worked 
at his trade. 

I went in and inspected one of those large, 
four-armed windmills that we see pictured out 
so much in the old country. Each arm must 
be at least 30 feet long and they go with tre- 
mendous power. This one was pumping water 
from the land side into the canal. An old man 
and bis wife were living in it and attending to 
it. Their three sons were at home at the time. 
The mills are worked with wooden cogs, and 

have a turntable, so as to be faced to the wind. 
There is a powerful brake they apply when 
they wish to stop the mill. They stopped it to 
show me how it worked. They seemed as 
pleased to show me the mill as I was to see it. 
I loaned the old lady a small reminder until I 
call again. The old gentleman seemed pleased 
at my attentions to his frau, for he put on a 
very broad smile, and gave a strong whiff to his 

We drove several miles np a narrow street 
close to a small canal nearly on a level with 
the land. Houses were built on both sides, 
and nearly every house had to have a small 
bridge to get over to the street. 

I called at the dairy of Mr. Jacobus Slooten, 
who makes cannon-ball cheese, and sometimes 
butter. The dwelling, dairy, cow-barn, hay- 
barn and swine-pens were all under one roof, 
and for cleanliness it will challenge the best of 
housekeepers. The cows are out at pasture 
now, but are kept in the place where they are 
making cheese in the winter. They opened 
the doors and showed me the hay for winter, 
took off weights from the round cheese, showed 
another room where they kept cream, butter 
and cheese, went into their parlor and had a 
pleasant ohat, through the interpreter, with the 
nice old lady with her oap, registered my name 
in a book for that purpose, had a drink of gen- 
nine Holland milk, opened doors and showed 
their bedroom or sleeping-room. Their sleep- 
ing, room is like taking a dry-goods box and 
setting it in a partition flush with the wall, 
closed with two doors, without dressing-room 
or ventilation. The ladies have a peculiar cap 
they wear on oertain occasions, and some ro- 
mantic American had his daughter rigged out 
in this cap and her pioture taken. There is a 
good deal of jewelry about it, and a wide, thin 
gold band passed around the back of the head 
to the temples. The old lady fitted the cap 
and trappings on the daughter's bead the same 
as when the picture was taken. She looked so 
nioe, modest and clean that if I had been a 
widower, I think it might have led to further 
inquiries in regard to profits and future 
prospects in the dairy business. 

I am very sorry I cannot stay here at least 
one week and make a thorough investigation 
of this old city, with its remarkable history, 
its dikes and processes and extent of reclama- 
tion. Any account I can get of this city. I 
shall read with greater interest than ever. For 
want of time I have not visited its museums, 
art galleries, or zoological gardens, which are 
said to be good. D. Flint. 




EXCELS in J purity 

Always gives a blight natural color, never 
turns rancid. Will not colorthe Buttermilk. 
Used by thousands of the best Creameries and 
Dairies. Do not allow your dealer to convince you 
that some other kind is just as good. Tell him the 
BEST is what you want, and you rnu*t have Wells, 
Richardson A Go's Improved Bctter Color 
For sale everywhere. Manufactory. Burlington, Vt. 


A Portfolio of beautiful baby pic- 
tures from life, printed on One 
plate paper by patent photo 
process, sent free to Mother of 
any Baby bom within a year. 
Every Mother wants these 

Sictures ; send at once. Givo 
aby's name and aire, 


'aciflc Coast 


A CRKAltl SEPARATOR that makes 2 per cent 
more Butter than any machine yet introduced and 10 per 
cent more than pans. Send for Circulars, 

203 F emont Street, San Francisco. Cal. 





Sewing Machines, 

Simple in Construction, Light Run* 
1 sj SSi D * n 8i Host Durable and Complete. 
^J^^ Visitors always welcome. 

108 a. 110 POST ST., S. P. 

Jan. 4, 1890.J 



Sole Agents for California for the Celebrated 



4-foot a-incli Cut. 
4= " & " Cut. 
5 " Cut. 

e " cut. 



Hundreds in use and all 
giving Perfect Satisfaction 
in every way 





Unquestionably the Best Mower and Reaper Sold on the Coast. 

361, 363, 365, 367, 370, 389 AND 391 EL DORADO STREET, 


Orange Trees! 

Budded Trees of the Best Varieties, grown on Sour 
and Sweet Stocks, in both California and Florida; 
also Tahiti Sweet Seedlings, Lemons and Limes. 
Trees from 3 to 5 feet high. Send orders at once 
and secure good Trees at Low Prices. 

Washington Navel, Maltese Blood, Mediterranean 
Sweet, Jaffa, Magnum Bonum, Homosassa, 
Parson Brown, Tardiff, Beach's No. 5, 
Tangerine, Emperor Mandarin, 
Satsuma (Oonshiu); also, 


L E 1VE O N 8 : 

Villa Francha, Eureka and Sicily. 

Reed & Van Gelder, 



308 to 312 J Street, Sacramento, Cal., 





GiDDs Imperial and Ohio Chilled Plows. 




Myer's Force Pumps, 


Farm Machinery. 



[Jan. 4, 1J90 

The W. R. Strong Co.'s Branch Nursery 
in Florida. 

Daring the seasons of 18S5-86 and 1S87 there 
was qnite a demand for orange trees in Califor- 
nia, and, the supply being very limited, the 
W. R. Strong Co. of Sacramento oonoeived 
the idea of getting trees from Florida to supply 
the defioit. In 18S6 the firm oommenoed cor- 
responding with parties in Florida and early in 
1887 made arrangements with Gillett Bros., 
Buuth Lake Weir, to bud some orange trees to 
order, and to be sure that the right varieties 
would be secured, they bought the buds of 
Hon. B. B. Barney of Riverside, Cal., and had 
tnem forwarded to Florida to be set. These 
buds oost frcm $15 to $25 per thousand, and 
then at least half of them were lost in transit, 
so that it made the bare buds oost the firm 
about five cents apiece laid down in Florida. 
Tais was a very expensive operation, but the 

the growers stake every budded tree and tie 
up to the stake, as may be seen in the engrav- 
ing. The photograph from whioh the engrav- 
ing was made was taken in April, when the 
trees were small. These same trees, we are 
told, now stand from four to stven feet high, 
and have been forced to grow perfectly straight. 
The trees are grown on sandy soil, where they 
have to fertilize heavily, but that soil is n.uob 
easier cultivated than the black hammock land 
and makes much finer roots. Some years ago 
it was supposed in Florida that oranges would 
only sucoeed on the hammock land, where they 
grow naturally, but of late it has been discov- 
ered that the sandy land where the pine trees 
grow not only prodaoes the finest nursery trees, 
but the best quality of fruit, and is much leas 
liable to frost than on the hammock land, 
which is usually a cold, heavy, sticky soil. 

W. R. Strong Co. ship these nursery trees 
from Florida in carload lots, paoking them in 
moss. Those on the sour root seldom ever get 
heated or injured enough to prevent them from 

Native Woods of Humboldt. 

In the course of a somewhat lengthy article 
on the native woods of Humboldt county, the 
Eureka Timtt remarks: 

This section is noted for its redwood alone; 
bnt valuable as are the extensive forests of that 
timber, it is possible that the aggregate value 
of all other forest trees will exceed it. The 
county in its vast extent and varying altitudes 
seems to include not alone the border land, 
where conifers mingle with the deoiduous trees, 
but actually possesses the fairest portion of the 
realm of each. Nature has almost pitted Hum- 
boldt against a half of the continent in the 
struggle to see which shall deck her surface 
with the greatest variety of beauty in leaf and 

It is a great pity that some move is not 
made by which a collection of our woods might 
be made and plaoed on permanent exhibition in 
this city, with a map of the section, showing 

not yet of any commercial importance, will, upon 
the advent of manufactures, be utilized in mak- 
ing various tools and implements. 

A New Thing on Rats.— A Nashville drug- 
gist prepared a rao paint made of a preparation 
of phosphorus. Catching a rat, be painted 
him with the preparation, and after dark, when 
the rodent was gleaming like a fireball, he 
turned him loose to mingle with fellow-rats. 
Dire consternation came upon them when he 
appeared, and they incontinently fled, the 
phosphorescent rat bringing up the rear. Would 
it not work equally well with squirrels and 
gophers ? 

To Make a Whetstone. — It is easy to make 
a stone lor sharpening toots and to make it suf- 
ficiently hard, and give it the "bite" desired. 
Take gelatine of a very good quality, which 
melt in an equal quantity of water. The operation 
should be performed in darkness, as daylight is 
injurious to gelatine. When melted, add ] <■ 


expense was incurred in order to be sure that 
they would get the genuine Washington Navel 
and other desirable varieties cultivated at 
Riverside. The spring of 1887, Mr. Robert 
Williamson, the nurseryman ot W. R. Strong 
Co., went to Florida and investigated orange 
culture there very thoroughly, and among other 
things became perfeolly satisfied that the 
wild Florida orange tree was the very best 
scook on which to work the sweet orange. The 
company then entered into an arrangement with 
G.ilett Bros, (who are one of the most respon- 
bible nursery firms in Florida), by which they 
were to grow citrus trees down there on jaint 
account, and from that time to the present the 
W. R. Strong Co. have kept a branoh nursery 
tbere on joint account with the parties above 

Toe average Florida nurseryman takes but 
little paias to train his trees np. They are all 
in favor of low-trained trees, and they have 
gone to an extreme in thac rtspeot. Most ot 
them just bud the tre« and then let the bud 
grow with but little or no oare,more like a bunch 
of shrubbery than anything else; but the Cali- 
fornia trade wants a straight, nice, well-trained 
tree, and in order to supply the desired style 

growing, as it is exceedingly hardy. They 
sometimes have some on sweet root and they 
do not stand the trip near so well. The fact is, 
as Mr. Williamson believes, these sour roots 
will stand more hardship and exposure than 
will the apple or pear root, and he has been 
perfectly astonished at its hardness. Large 
numbers of these trees have been planted in 
California and have made a very thrifty growth. 
Some of them are already fruiting well, as 
was shown by samples of the fruit from Butte 
county, which we recently noticed in the 

Harrowing Alfilerilla. — The Bikersfield 
Echo speaks o( some one wno believes it would 
pay stockmen in the mountains to occasionally 
harrow or oultivate all the alfilerilla land that 
is free enough from brush to admit of it. Hia 
theory is that a very large per oent of the seed 
never beoomes, under ordinary circumstances, 
luffijiently oovered with earth to cause it to 
gro w. 

The Ladies' Annex to the San Diego Cham- 
ber ot Ccmjieroe snipped a box of citrus frui: 
to Mrs. Harrison for the New Year's dinner at 
the White House. 

the approximate area covered by eaoh, and ta- 
bles of statistics relating to the same. As it is, 
it would be difficult for one to enumerate all 
our valuable timbers without visiting the dif- 
ferent sections and taking a census of them, as 
it were. 

We have the redwood, sugar pine, Oregon 
pine, hemlock, spruce, fir, cedar, laurel, wil- 
low, maple, several varieties of oak, myrtle, 
yew, a species of iron wood, madrone, crab-ap- 
ple, ash, and probably as many other varieties 
that do not ocour to us at the moment. Bat 
we have named a score, all of which are known 
to have special uses for which they are valu- 
able. The redwood, laurel and maple are 
among the moit beautiful woods for cabinet- 
making and paneling, and the two last are 
adapted to any use where strength is required. 
The pines are valuable for flooring, bridge tim- 
bers, ehip-bnilding, etc. The sprnoe, fir and 
cottonwood are adapted to use as materials for 
boxes and barrels. 

The bark of the oak is one of the most valu- 
able of our reaouroes, and the timber of this 
tree is adapted to many nses. The myrtle is 
said to be the best kind of wood for the manu- 
facture of oharcoal. The other woods, though 

per oent of bi carbonate of potash previously 
dissolved. Then take about nine times, by 
weight, the quantity of gelatine employed of 
very fine e.nery and pulverized flintstone, 
which mix intimately with the dissolved gela- 
tine. Mold the obtained paste according to the 
desired lorm, and press it in as hard as possible 
to consolidate the mass well. After it has been 
dried in the sun, you will have a first-class 
atone for sharpening. 

Holsteins Burned — A dispatch from Cleve- 
land, Ohio, reports that a fine herd of Holstein 
cattle, valued at $50,000, belonging to D. P. 
Eels, a well-known banker, was burned in the 
barn Mr. K.'a summer residence on R cky 
river, Christmas night. 

The Louisiana Lottery is polluting the 
morals of the entire S.ate, and there does 
not seem to be inherent virtue enough any- 
where to stop it. — Stockton Mail. 

Rainfall — Correction. — in th» table of 
I rainfall at Sacramento, on r»ge 810 of last 
week's Rural, the inches for Ooc. 1880 should 
I read 6.020. 

Jan. 4, 1890.J 

fACIFie f^URAlo jp RESo. 



We beg to call your attention to the illustration on this circular, representing CLARK'S CUTAWAY DISC HARROWS OR CULTIVATORS, arranged with Weight Boxes and 
Clod Breakers. These machines are also furnished with Seed Sower Attachment, which are designed for general use in Orchards and Vineyards and all kinds of Farming. 







$1.50 to $2.00 per Acre Saved 

In the Cultivation of Your Orchard or Vineyard 


The blades of the CUTAWAY HARROW OR CULTIVATOR enter the ground easily, and while the blades are revolving they move sideways only a portion of the earth. 
With each revolution, 72 shovel blades enter the earth, making nearly a quarter turn, and swings sideways over 4 inches. This action thoroughly stirs and pulverizes the soil. For all light 
sward and sodded lands, fields that have been plowed for several months, or wheat, corn, oats, or other stubble lands, which cannot be penetrated with the Solid Disc or any other Harrow, 
the„Cutaway will put into perfect condition for seeding down. 

The HARROW or CULTIVATOR is made almost entirely of steel and refined gray iron. The draught is 25 per oent, lighter than the solid Disc Harrows. Upward of 6,000 
have been sold the first season. 

We have seven sizes: No. 3 — 3 ft. in width for use in the garden ; No. 5—4 ft. in width for one horse ; two gangs of four 16-inch Steel Cutaway Discs to each gang. No. 6^ — 5 ft. 
wide, two gangs of five 16-inoh Steel Cutaway Discs to each gang, and No. 7—6 ft., two gangs and six 16-inch Discs. No. 8 — 8 ft., two gangs and eight 16 inch Discs. No. 10 — 10 It., two 
gangs and ten 16-inch Discs, and No. 12 — 12 ft., two gangs and twelve 16-inch Discs to each gang. 


No. 3 LIST $18 00 1 No. 8 LIST $ 75 00 

No. 5 " 45 00 No. 10 " 100 00 

No. 6h " 55 00 I No. 12 " 120 00 

No. 7 " 60 00 I 

Write for discounts and don't fail to procure one of the best and only successful and satisfactory Harrows or Cultivators ever invented. One trial will convince you that the cost of one, 
two or three, as you may want, can be made three or four times over in one season by the saving that is made in the cost of your cultivation. 
For further particulars, write for special circular devoted to the Cutaway Harrow and Cultivator. 

Agents wanted in every city or town on the Pacific Coast. Don't fail to secure this valuable agency. Full particulars and terms made on application. 

We are also General Agents for MITCHEL WAGONS, MOLINE PLOWS, and a Full Line of FARMING IMPLEMENTS. 
BURGrE dte DONAHOO, General Agents, 




Owing to the Rapid Sale of these Plows, we have been compelled to 
order a new supply, which has just arrived from the East. 

Orders for all Sizes of the 


The BestChilled Plow Made, 

Can No-w Too Promptly Filled. 



San Francisco cfc Sacramento, Oal, 


21 & 23 Spear St. 

211 Se 213 J St. 



Lightest in weight and draft of;any Gang ever made; constructed of steel throughout; steel 
wheels, beams and frames. 

It weighs about 550 lbs., whioh is much lighter than other Sulky Gangs. 

The Plows are nicely balanced on the axle, so that the entire weight rides on the wheels. 
This makes it extremely light draft and very easy to operate, 

The Pole is pivoted, allowing the lead horses to swing off at the ends of the field, so the 
rear team can be driven to the end same as on a Walking Plow, 

It has an improved Land Gauge, which enables the driver to give the Plow more or less 
land while in motion. 

JAY-EYE-3EE GANG PLOW, with Steel Beams, Steel Wheels, Steel Frame, Whiffie- 

trees, Neck- Yoke Eveners and Draw-Rod, 
With two lMneh C'lpper or Stubble Bottoms, Land Gauffo and extra Shares, weight B45 lbs $ Off 00 

• c ■• 14 « « •« •< '« • '« '< " " 690 •• 100 00 


f ACIFK3 f^URAlo fRESS. 

[Jan. 4, 1890 



JIJhe X)a |RY - 

Bogus Butter. 

EDITORS Press: — In looking over the butter- 
market report in one of the city dailies, a few 
days ago, I was surprised to note that the 
market appeared to be in a demoralized condi- 
tion, and that further, the paper stated, that 
some sections that had been drawing largely on 
Sin Francisco are being flooded with butter- 
ine and oleomargarine. If this latter is true, 
the condition of the market may be easily ac- 
counted for, and there should be some means 
at hand whereby the sale of the bogus stuff can 
be checked. The United States law is amply 
sufficient for that purpose, if it were enforced. 
Tbe manufacturers of the stuff comply with the 
law, take out the necessary license, and brand 
the packages; but who knows whether the re- 
tailer, or evtn the commission merchant, has 
taken out the required license, and whether the 
brands have not been erased before the product 
is offered to unsuspecting customers ? It is 
quite d tluult to sell bogos for genuine butter 
in many of the Eift rn Stites, for they have 
provided a Dairy Commissioner, who watches 
vigilantly for any infraction of the law. 

While there is a State law prohibiting the 
sale of butterine and oleomargarine, it is not 
self-operative or self-enforcing, and usually 
such laws remain a dead letter on tbe statutes 
for those reasons. Why does not tbe Produce 
Exchange of Sin Francisco make an effort to 
have both the State and National laws en- 
forced, and thna stop the sale of these base 
compounds 1 

I do not believe one person in ten would bay 
either butterine or oleomargarine if they knew 
how the product was made, or the questionable 
fats that are used in its production. In mak- 
ing either butterine or oleomargarine, the fat« 
are rendered at so low a temperature that if 
they oontain any parasites they are not killed, 
but are taken into the human stomach with 
positive injury to the eaters, as has been fully 
demonstrated in the Paris hospitals, where 
their use as an artiole of food has long since 
been prohibited. 

Honest and legitimate competition in trade is 
commendable, but when a man, or set of men, 
willfully combine to drfeat a wholesome law b> 
fitting a vile onmpound on the public they 
<k .rve the exec ation of all hone*t people. 
Pare butter is a legitimate article of commerce, 
while the spurious compounds are tabooed by 

law and the seller of the same is hedged about 
by severe penalties, which too often, alas, are 
only so many scarecrows. 

The Internal Revenue Collector, or some of 
his deputies, would oonfer a favor on tbe pub- 
lic if they would take a trip through the dis- 
trict and ascertain how many of the retail 
grocers have taken out a license to sell but- 
terine, and if not, and they do sell it, of which 
there seems to be little doubt, let the offenders 
be punished to the full extent of the law. If 
guilty of a violation of the law, they not only 
rob the Government of the amount of the tax, 
but they also rob the people by selling a bogus 
article for a genuine one. The man who utters 
a spurious coin is no more guilty of a fraud, 
nor quite as contemptible, as tbe one who sells 
fraudulent food; for in tbe latter case, too often, 
the health of the consumer is jeopardized. 

With the S tate laws in many of the States, 
and aided by the National law, manufacturers 
o f butterine find it difficult to sell their product 
Kist, so make this coast a dumping place for 
the stuff, with the hope that they can hoodwink 
people and officials, and successfully carry on 
their nefarious business. How long will Cali- 
fornia dairymen and consumers of butter per- 
mit themselves to be robbed by these men 
whose greed for gain prompts them to violate 
law and decenoy ? Few, if any, industries have 
been so persistently assailed as the dairy indus- 
try, and it is time for all who manufacture or 
desire to use pure butter to demand that pro- 
tection from fraud which the law designs they 
should have, and the only way to seoure that 
protection is to demand a rigorous enforcement 
of all tbe laws bearing upon this subjeot. If 
the dairymen of this State were as well organized 
as »hey are in many of the Eastern States, the 
difficulty of securing an enforcement of the law 
would, in a measure, be obviated, and until 
they are so organized, I presume they will have 
to depend upon tbe press of the State and their 
own individual efforts to secure justice. Let 
a fight be made all along the line and a com- 
plete and sweeping victory will be the result. 
Who will lead in the fray for honest batter ? 

R. P. Mt'tiLINCY. 

-San Jose, Cal , Dee. IS, 1880. 

Hornless Stock.— Ssme people believe in 
dehorning. Mr. H. Mecham of Petaluma pre- 
fers to breed those naturally hornless. His ad- 
vertisement in this issue makes an attractive 
announcement of R d-polled cattle, famous 
dairy animals; al«o hornless merino sheep—* 
breed which Mr. Mechum has developed by 20 
yeirs' breeding A: a fu'.nre time we expect to 
give a fuller aocount of Mr. Meoham's exten- 
sive breeding farm and breeding methods. 

Thermalito Colony. 

Northwest of Oroville, the county seat of 
Butte county, and on the opposite side of 
Feather river, lies the prosperous colony of 
Thermalito. No tourist in search of wonders 
can help admiring the skill, ability and excel- 
lent taste of the projectors of this enterprise. 
It is tbe gem of our many colonies. No stranger 
or visitor in search of a beautiful home can 
afford to pass by this marvel of Northern Cali- 
fornia. Here is a large tract of land upon 
which Nature has bestowed her choicest bless- 
ing in the shape of soil, water and climate, 
with a liberal hand. One may form some idea 
of the extent of this enterprise from tbe fact 
that its northern boundary is at the old Miocene 
dams fully 35 miles away, and that about 75 
miles of ditches have been constructed, carry- 
ing about 4000 inches of the purest mountain 
water tn a reservoir at the base of Table mount- 
ain, sufficient to meet all the wants of the col- 
onists, and abundantly supply for irrigating 
purposes 10 000 acres of land. About 50 
miles of streets and avenues have been laid out, 
and a quarter of a million of orange trees 
planted. Special attention has been given to 
shade trees and ornamental shrubs, and the 
effect is exceedingly fine and picturecque. 
When we consider the advantages of this col- 
ony, its accessibility to railroad accommoda- 
tions, which opens up a market in Oregon, 
Washington, Nevada, Chicago, and the E«st, it 
is evident that the grand future of this enter- 
prise is assured. 

And then the soil and climate, while produc- 
ing all the semi-tropical fruits peculiar to Cali- 
fornia, is undoubtedly adapted to the culture 
of the citrus variety. This was triumphantly 
shown in the magnificent display made by this 
oolony at the citrus fair held at Oroville the 
past year. This at the first glance may teem 
strange in a colony so recently started, but is 
explained by the fact that about 40 acres had 
been planted so far back as to be in a high 
state of maturity and give satisfactory proof 
that this portion of the northern citrus belt 
was capable of producing as choice a quality of 
citrus fruit aa the moat favored spots of Cali- 
fornia. At this fair, besides oranges and limes 
might be seen bananas, pepper trees, palms, 
century plants, and other varieties too numer- 
ous to detail, in such a state of maturity and 
beanty as to evoke the opinion of such judges 
aa A. T. Hatch, Hon. W. W. Camron of Oik- 
land, W. A. Rogers of Los Angeles, Hon. A. 
Yell of Mendocino, and a host of others, that 
Thermalito by Nature's decree is the true home 
of the citrus family, and one of the most desir 
able spots in California for beautiful homes and 
profitable vineyards and fruit productions. 

A Verdict from the South. 

The Pomona Progress says: Tho Pacific 
Rural Press, published in San Francisco, 
should be read by every one who is interested 
in the products of the soil in California. It is 
the best journal for the grain-producer, the 
fruit-grower, vineyardist, honey-bee rancher 
and poultrier on the Paoifio Coast that could 
be published. We have never seen a number 
of this publication, which comes weekly, that 
was not brim-full of practioal ideas for all 
who earn their livelihood from the earth. The 
Press is edited with exceeding oare in each of 
its many departments, and is more than worth 
its annual subscription price, three dollars a 

Orange Displays. 

The orange contributes gloriously to the ef- 
fects aimed at by the decorator, as our citrus 
fairs for the last decade show. Many not- 
able designs have been presented, as our col- 
umns in past years have shown. A vary beau- 
tiful and yet very simple one is the orange 
monument shown on this page. It was ten feet 
high and contained over 1900 oranges grown by 
George E. Pinder of Los Gitoa. L^t the imag- 
ination add tbe green and gold and the beauty 
of the structure oan be partly realized. 

Mills & Hawk.— We take pleasure in intro- 
ducing to our reader s by advertisement in this 
issue of the Rural Press the real estate firm 
of Mills ft Hawk of Sacramento. Mr. J. E 
Mills of the firm has for many years been con- 
nected with the National Bank of D. O. Mills 
ft Co. of that city, and is a nephew of D. O. 
and Edgar Mills. Ciptain E. L. Hawk, the 
other member of the firm, is a successful fruit- 
grower of Placer county, and is conversant 
with all the lands of Placer county. He can and 
will give reliable information. He has been in 
attendance at the Placer Citrus Fair held in 
this city Dec. 17th to 27th. We bespeak for 
this firm a successful oareer. 

Don't Pail to Write. 

Should this paper be reoeived by any subscriber who 
does not want ft, or beyond the time he intends to pay 
for it, let him not tall to write us direct to stop it A 
postal card (costing one cent only) will suffice. We will 
not knowingly serjd the paper to any one who does Dot 
wish It, but It it is continued, through th» (allure of the 
subscriber to notify us tc discontinue It, or eome Irre- 
sponsible party requested to stop It, we shall positively 
demand paymentfor the time It la aent. Look oaairtrbLf 

By applying at once to H. F. D., at this office, 
any responsible party wishing to obtain an improved 
farm at very moderate cash rent can learn the par- 
ticulars. It is a good chance. 

for Qf Out, 

batke.~the parts af- 
fected freely With 
Terry 3^viS ; 

"taking 6\so oJtics\ioon. 
fa\ in sugar and Water 
3 times a day, and 
you'll 6 et rgKfcf at 
once, and •% 

Cure , 

after fa\1\\U\ use of 
ih is re.rnQ.d y. 


Two-Year Old 


Apply to 

Trenton, Sonoma Co., Cal. 


Petaluma, Oal. 

Importers of French and Eng- 
lish l'rlze Stallions. 

Hiil-Class Stock: For Sale. 


One San Leandro 2-Garjg Flow (Myers 
Bros,' and Shares, for $40.00. . 

D. N. & C. A. HAWLEY, 214 Bush St. 

E. L. HAWK. 

i f uir r a J Notary Public and 
■ M1LLS - \ Com', of Deeds. 


301 J St., cor. Third, Sacramento, Cal. 

Loans Negotiated. Rents Collected. Taxea Paid. 


The German Sayings and Loan Society. 

526 California Street. 

For the half-year ending Dec. SI, 1889, a dividend has 
been declared at the ratn of five and forty-hu dredths 
(5 40-100) per cent per annum on Term Depoaits,** nd four 
and one-balf (4 1 2) per cent per annum on Ordinary 
Deposits. Payable on and after Thursday, Jan. 2, 1890. 

GEO. TOURNY, Secrerary. 


cor. Webb. BRANCH, 1700 Market St, cor. Polk. For 
the half-year ending with the Slat of December, 1889, a 
dividend baa been declared at the rate of Five and Four- 
Tentha (5 4-10) per cent per annum on term depoaits and 
Four and One-Half i ) per cent per annum on ordinary 
depoaits, free of taxes, payable on and after Thursday, 
the 2d of January. 1890. LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 




Send 10 cents 
for three select 
sample copiee of 
the Literary Ed- 
ition of II. 1. 1 -i- 
form of Harper's Weekly, 24 pagee, if y*u wish to see 
The sunny sine of America as it is. A e'ean, chaste, fresh, 
bti k a> d handsome monthh home paper at $1.20 a year, 
60 cents for d months. Lone established. ILLUSTRATED 
PUBLISHING CO., 220 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Jan. 4, 1890.] 

f ACIF16 r^URAb f RESS, 


The Pasadena of the North! 

Represent our 


Represent our 

500 Acres to be planted in 1890 by A. T. Hatch and 
John Rock and Other Purchasers. 

At the Second Annual Citrus Fair held in Oroviile in 1888, Thermalito took the 



We challenge comparison for beauty of location, cipicity of soil for production, and water power and supply, 
3,500,000 gillons hourly flow of water. 

From date and until after the State Citrus Fair, Thermalito will make the following 

Unparalleled Terms to Purchasers! 

20% cash, 20% in one year, 20"' in two years, 20% in three years, 20% in four years, with 7% per annum interest 
on deferred paj ments. 5% discount for cash. Acre property, $60 to $100 per acre. Town lots, ¥100 to $250 each. 
Special prices on large purchases. Free use of water for three years. 


Oroviile, Butte County, California. 



Celebrated Studcbaker Wagons and Buggies, Farming Tools of all kinds, Buggies, Wagons, Carts, Backboards, 
Harness, Garden To ils, etc 

57 to 63 SOUTH MARK ST S V., SAN JOSE, GAL. Wholesale and Retail Importer and Dealer 



Is now manufactured and sold only by R. S. CHAPMAN, he having purchased ail rights for 
same. These Pumps have been greatly improved in material and workmanship, and are the 
best and most economical machines in the market to-day. The 

New Climax No. 2 

Is a double pump mounted on a 50-gallon barrel and equipped complete with two lines of 
hose, spray tips, extensions, shut-off valves, etc. This outfit has just been perfected for 
the season of 1889-90, and is especially desirable in large orchards where economy in 
material and labor is necessary. Address all communications to 


18 California St., Snn Francisco. Cal. 








Write for illustrated circular. 

Mention this paper. 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., Agents, San Francisco, Cal. 


• 133 Post Street. 

It is a fact universally con- 
ceded that the Knabb sur- 
passes all other instruments 






and Farmers with no experience make 82.30 an 
boiir (luring spare time. A. D. Bates, 164 W. Rob- 
bing Ave., Covington, Ky., made 821 one day. 
8*1 one week. So can you. Proof* and cata- 
logue free. J. I '.. Shepard A Co.. Cincinnati, O. 




As an external remedy it will be found uneqaaled for application to sprains, sores (new or 
old), bruises, galls, swellings, scratches, thrush, grease heels, rheumatism — it has no equal for 
restoring weak knees and ankles to their original condition — oow's swelled udder, barbed wire 
wounds, sore lips, mouth and throat, iutl uned eye-lids, mange, itch, skin diseases, etc., prevent- 
ing the earmarks and brands from becoming fly-blown during the branding season, and it has 
proved a sure cure for swelled heads and blindness in chicken and fowl — also has proven to cure 
alkali sores. To those who want their horses to carry fljssy mines and tails, we recommend 
this lotion (»s a wash) to do the work finely — also valuable addition to the water in cleansing 
sponges, cloths, etc. It is a positive remedy for garget, sore teats, cow-pox, etc. 

We, the undersigned, have used DR. FISHERMAN'S CARBOLTZBD. 
ALKALINE LOTION for a long- time, and have no hesitation in recom- 
mending it to be a Medicine of Great Merit for Stable and Farm: 

PANY, San Francisco, Cal. 

Z. BIRLSALL, Supt. Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Stables, San 
Francisco Cal. 

PETER SiXE & SON, Importers and Breeders for the 
past 17 years, Lick H->use, S. F. 

R. E. HYDE, President Bank of Visalia, VisaHa, Cal. 

B-iYDEN & HINCKLEY, Teamsters, 401 Front St , S. F. 

J. S. SPAULDING, Mavfield, Cal. 

ALEX AVEKS, Saddler, San Jose, Cal. 

B. H. WEAVER, Agent Prescott Transfer Co., Prescott, 
A rizona. 

JUDGtf N. M. CLACK, Supt. and Foreman W. Ford's 
Stables, Prescott, Arizona. 

WILLIAM CLUFF & CO., Wholesale Grocers, Front St., 

Sin Francisco, Cal. 
JAMES J. GIBSON, Foreman Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Stables, 

San Francisco, C*l. 
CHAS. BURNS, Black's Station, Yolo Co.. Cal. 
FELIX TRACY, Agent Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Stables, 

Sacramento, Cal. 
WILLI »M B. CLUFF, Grocer, 19 Sixth St., S. F., Cal. 
PIERCE B OS., Teamsters, 21!) Davis St., S. F. 
S. C. CHRISTIANSEN, Teamster, with Wieland Bros., 

210 Davis St., S. F. 
J. B. COLE, Drat man, cor. Main and Mission Sts., S. F. 
LOS GATOS ICE COMPANY, San Francisoo, Cal. 
FARNSWORTH & RUGGLES, Teamsters, Davis St., S. F. 

LYNDE & HOUGH, Proprietors, 

116 California St., San Francisco, Cal. 


Orchard &Vineyard 

Two-Horse Gang 

Now is the time for Orchardists and Vineyardists to be looking for the right kind of implements for the plowing 
of their Orchards and Vineyards. The BILZ PLOWS stand at the head of all Orchard and^ Vineyard Plows in the 
market, and are without rivals. One man with two horses and this Gang can do nearly as much and better work 
per day than two men and four horBes with Single Plows, and can plow close to the tree or vine without the single- 
tree touching them. In Vineyards, the One-horse Plow is generally used with the Gang, for plowing out the center 
between the vines. Remember that these are the Best Plows, and every Orchard and Vineyard Man wants one. 

J. A. BILZ, Pleasanfon* Alameda Co., Cal. 

AGENTS: TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., and PRANK BROI., San Francisco; M 
KIRSCH, Walnut Creek, Contfa Costa Co.; A. FATJO, Santa Clara, Cal. 

Importers and Dealers in 


Horse and Mule Shoes, Putnam, Globe and Northwestern Horseshoe Nails, HARDWOOD LUMBER AND WAGON 
MATERIALS, Blacksmith and Carriage Makers' Supplies. 

Specially manufactured for use in Artesian Wells, and for conveying water charged with Salts and Minerals, Acids, 
Gases or other substances of a corrosive nature. In building it takes the plaoe of either black or galvanized piping 
or gas, water-waste, etc. Catalogues and testimonials, from large users in the United Slates, sent on application. 




[Jan. 4, 1890 

Fashion Notes. 

Ladles' Costume. 
Fig. i. — In the present instance golden- 
brown camels-hair and watered silk are 
combined with velvet of a daiker shade, and 
the garni.ures con-ist of velvet and Kur- 
sheedt's Standard ornamental points of braid. 
The skirt is fashioned in the popular four- 
gored shape, and the front-gore is visible in 
inveited V outline between a plain panel 
hanging at the right side and a front-drapery 
that laps upon the panel at the top and cov- 
ers the left side-gore. The fullness of the 
drapery is disposed in graceful folds and 
wrinkles by a group of side-plaits laid in the 

seam and in two forward-turning plaits at 
each side-back seam. The coat-sleeves are 
lull at the top, and each is finished with a 
cuff facing of velvet. A standing collar of 
velvet is at the neck. 

Ch.irming contrasts of shades or colors 
may be effected wiih the simplest materials ' 
in this costume, which will also make up at- 
tractively in combinations of silks, brocades, 
embossed and embroidered woolens and 
other costly fabrics. Silver-gray ficelle 
lady : s-cloth is combined with velvet of a | 
darker and armure of a lighter shade in a 
picturesque and stylish costume; the pane', 
sleeves and chemisette and the notched and 
standing collars are of velvet and the vest 

from the belt toward a pointed lower outline 
and is ornamented with curving sections of 
passementerie and a row of jet fringe. 

The waist is suggestive of the Old English 
styles. The fronts are arranged over closely 
fitted fronts of limn?, and their fullness is 
collected in several shirrings about the neck 
and drawn in soft folds toward the center at 
the lower edge by shirrings at each side of 
the closing. Under-arm and side-back gores 
and a curving center seam complete the ad- 
justment. The waist is cut short over the 
hips and pointed at the center of the back, 
and the lower part of the front is crossed by 
a wrinkled girdle of velvet that is fastened 
at the right side beneath a small rosette. 

the side to the back where it crosses the 
brim and is fastened underneath. 

Girls' Dress 

Fig. 4 — Golden-brown cashmere and tan 
Surah are here combined, with lace, Surah 
and two widths of ribbon in the same shades 
for decoration. The full, round skirt is en- 
circled above the hem by three parallel rows 
of ribbon and is drawn by gathers at the 
upper edge to hang in graceful folds from 
the body. Plaited surplice fronts and backs 
flaring from a little above the waist-line to- 
ward the shoulders disclose in V outline a 
full yoke that is fitted by a seam on each 
shoulder and closeiy drawn by shirrings 


wmi" 'iimiiwiitimw 



upper edge at each side, and a row of orna- 
mental points of braid is arranged on the 
lower edge with handsome effect. • A deep 
lap extends from the belt upon the panel and 
is decorated with s milar points. 

The over-dress has a long back that en- I 
tirely conceals the back-breadth of the skirt. | 
The Ironts, which are of basque-depth and I 
closely fitted by single bust darts, open all j 
the way down from the shoulders and are 
finished with a rolling collar that is notched 
below the shoulders to produce the effect of 
lapels. Between the fronts is revealed a 
stylish vest, that is lapped and closed in 
double-breasted fashion and cut out in V 
shape at the top to disclose a chemisette 
ovtrlaid with one of the biaid points. To 
the neck edges of the vest are joined collar- 
shaped revers that lap ike the vest with 
shawl-coilar ttfect. The adjustment is com- 
ple.ed by u.ider-armand sid -back gores and 
a wel. -curved center seam; and extra fuliness 
at the middle three seams of the back is un» 
'olded in a double box-plait at the center 

and front-gore of armure, and the cloth is 
used for the remainder of the costume. 

The brim of the large hat is faced with 
velvet, and its low crown is trimmed with a 
bow o/ ribbon in front and ostrich plumes at 
the back. 

Ladles' Costume. 
FlG. 2. — Black cashmere and velvet are 
here shown united, and the garnitures con- 
sist of a rosette of velvet and Kursheedt's 
Standard jet passementerie bands and fringe. 
The lour-gored skirt is concealed by long 
front ai.d back-drapeiies. The front-drapery 
falls at the left side in a broad box-plait be- 
tween deep side-plaits and is trimmed at its 
side edges with bands of jet passementerie, 
two other bands added in front of the right 
side edge extending to different depths from 
the loner edge. The full back drapery is 
hemmed at its lower and side-edges and 
gathered across the remaining upper edge, 
Hanging with waterfall effect to the lower 
edge. Between the draperies at each side is 
inserted a slender panel of velvet that widens 

The fullness of the sleeves is picturesquely 
disposed over the upper part of each arm by 
three tiny plaits caught together just above 
the elbow, and a band of passementerie en- 
circles each sleeve at the wrist. At the neck 
is a standing collar overlaid with passemen- 
terie, and a narrow niching is worn at the 
neck and wrists. 

The felt hat is trimmed with velvet ribbon 
and ostrich plumage. 

Ladles' Felt Hat. 

FlG. 3. — This hat, which is called the 
" Sure-go," is of a light shade of brown felt. 
The crown is low and the brim is narrow at 
the back, widens at the front and is bent in 
a unique manner. On the edge a band of 
brown galloon is applied as a oinding and is 
outlined on each side by narrow brown velvet 
ribbon. A band of brown velvet is arranged 
loosely about the crown, and near the front 
are placed breasts of the golden pheasant; 
above these stand loops of brown-and-mode 
striped ribbon, and one end is drawn over 

about the neck; the yoke and surplice por- 
tions are arranged upon a fitted front and 
backs of lining, and three straps of ribbon 
pointed at their upper ends are applied to 
the lower part of each surplice front back of 
the plaits. At the top of each coat-sleeve is 
placed a full puff that is turned under and 
shirred to form a frill at its lower edge, and 
the wrist is trimmed with a small shirred 
puff of silk and a bow of narrow ribbon. A 
standing collar is at the neck, and a row of 
lace edging is turned over it from the upper 

The mode may be simply and tastefully 
developed in one material, but a contrast 
between the yoke and the rest of the dress 
will usually be preferred. China silk, peau 
de soie and other soft silken or woolen faorics 
are most suitable for the yoke and puffs, and 
any fanciful arrangement of the same mate- 
rial may finish the wrists. Velvet ribbons, 
fancy galloons, bands of velvet, silk or em- 
broidery, Vandyke laces, etc., will form an 
appropriate trimming for the dress. 

Jan. 4, 1890.] 

f ACIFI6 f^URAb p>RESS. 


Chilled and Steel Hand Plows, 

" Big Ingun " Sulky Plows, 

Orchard Gang Plows 



The Best and Cheapest 




3 Gang, 8 in., complete 
with extra share to each 
bottom, Price, $35.00. 

Genuine Repairs to be had only from Us or our Agents. No Old Goods on Hand. / 


Handles so 
easy any small 
Boy who can 
drive a team 
can do strictly 
first-class work 
with it. 

to handle this Plow. Made in 
either Steel or chilled Iron. 

Also full line of STEEL and 

ALLISON, GRAY & CO., T^V^l^: San Francisco. 




Incorporated April, 1874, 

Authorized C»pll». »1,000,000 

Capital paid op and Reserve Fond 800,000 
Dividends paid to Stockholders.. 575,620 

A. D. LOGAN President 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 


General Banking Deposits received, Gold and Silver 
Bills of Exohange bought and sold Loans on Wheat 
and country produce a specialty. 

July 1, 1889 A. MONTPELLIER, Manager. 

The Celebrated H. H. H Liniment, 

The H. H B. Liniment Is (or the treatment ol 
be Aches and Pains of Humanity, as well as for the all 
meats of the beasts of the fields. Testimonials from 
importers and breeders of blooded stock prove its won 
derful curative properties. No man has ever used it (or 
an ache or pain and been dissatisfied. 
H. H. MOORE & SONS, Stockton, Cai., Proprietors. 
For Salr by >u Drtjooists. 




Broom holder 



* Nearly 60.000 sold 
Holds a Broom oither end up ; is never 
oat of order. After scrubbing hang 
your broom with brush down, and it 
will dry out immediately and not 
i mold or rot, and always keep its 
* shape. Sample mailed and perfect 
satisfaction guaranteed on receipt of 15c. Boys and 
girls can more thau double their money selling them. 
Qend 2c stump for terms, 1 doz. postpaid on receipt 
j>f9Uct8. Address EhCLE SPRINC CUN CO., 
■VanufrKturera of Patented Specialties, Hazleton, P£U 


We positively cum all kinds of Rupture 
and Rectal Diseases, no matter of how long 
standing, in from SO to 60 days, without 
the use of knike, drawing blood, or dk- 
tkntion FROM bu»inesh. Terinb: Mo Care, 
No Pay, and No Pay until Cured 
' If afflicted, come and see us or send stamp 
< >r pamphlet. Address: 

888 Market Street, ■ San Francisco. 

The "San Jose" all Iron & Steel Frame 

'~ — 

We take pleasure in palling the attention of the OrcharHiats and Vineyardists of the Pacific 
slope to oar NEW ORCHARD AND VINEYARD CULTIVATOR The most complete and 
easily handled machine in txistence. Weight, 335 pounds. The Cultivator is raised and lowered 
by m am <jf a foot and hand ltver, reducing the labor of handlirjg to almost nothing. 

It is the only Cultivator that can be handled successfully on a side hill. By means of the 
Shift ng Pole the tendency to crawl down hill can be overcome. This feature is of advantage 
on lev i\ ground as well. The pole is shifted by the horsf 8 and can be checked at any angle by 
means of a fc ot 1. ver. The Cultivator is increased from 7 to 9 tteth by arms into a 
groove! outing in the ends of the frame. We lack space for a further description. Writb for 
Circulars Address: 



Points of Superiority in the"McLE/\N ORCHARD & FIELD CULTIVATOR atiove Others: 

1st. — Manufactured of the best Steel, Refined and Nor- 
way Iron. 

2d.— Free from complication of levers; one lever only 
required to operate It to any required depth. 

3d.— Weight of Cultivator, 3oo pounds. 

4th.— Will stand the draft of 4 horsis in any reason- 
able soil. 

5th — The cheapne°s of an article is always determined 
by its cost, in connect on with durability and ad pr . ion to 

the purpose for which it is made. Thererare many lower- 
priced Cultivators in the market than ours, bu , when 
submitted to the true lest, none are found so cheap as 

Parties wishing lor said Cultivator should write for 
full particulars ti the Manufacturer, 


Watsonville, Santa Cruz Co. 



D. X. & C. A. HAWLET, 
S 14 Bush Street, - - San Francisco. 

I our goods by sample to tbe " ' . ■ ■ 
and retail trade. We are the largest 
tDaoafactarvrslaearHaetatne world. Liberal salary paid. Perma* 
em t po-Klnn. Bonf y arivanr*d for waste*, advertfulDK.etc for full 
tanuft4dresi.CeQtcauialurtf.Co. CMc»go,IU,,QrCiDO.aa*U*<)» 



Farmers Dairymen. Stoctmen & Machinists 

Blacksmith's Drill 
Press, Hand Feed: 
Weight, 85 lbs. 

Combination Anvil 
and Vise, hardened 
(ace, finely polished; 
weight, 60 lbs. 

Farmer's Forge, 
No. 6 B, will beat 
1J inch iron. 

Blac ksmith's 
Hammer and 
Handle, 2 lbs., 
solid cast steel. 

Blachsuutu 'a noi and (Jolu Chisel 
14 lbs ea< h; both solid cast steel. 

Bl • kMuitti's 1'onicfl, Wr u.'ht Iron, 18 inches. 

Ml — pQSQfl 

Strew f Utus, 3 Taps, 3 Set Dies, cut J. g and g inch. 

Farrier's Pincers, Cast Steel; 12-inch. 

Shoeing Hammer and Handle; weigh 

9 ounces. 


And we offer this complete 


Which is hardly half the regular prices, and none can 
afford to be without this set. Orders by mail promptly 
filled. Address, 

Nos. 3 and 5 Front at., San Francisco. 

Patented Mar. 23, 1886. 




This is an apparatus for 
Burning Straw and 

And forcing the Smoke and Oases 
down their holes, »hich kills them. 
Does away with poisoned wheat 
and all other dangerous methods. 

iC Every one guaraLteed or 
money refunded. 

Price, $3.00 

£*"Sond for Circular to 


44 S. Spring St, 
Lob Angeles, Cai. 




*7Fk Him TONa CAPACITY, rrc f)f\f\ 
i W,UUU 8torage at LoweBt Rates. » «-»,VAJU 

Oal. Dry Dock Co.. props. , Office, 803 CaL St. , room 13 


fACIFie f^URAb f RESS. 

[Jan. 4, 1890 


About two years ago the Palermo 
Lind and Water CompaDy, composed 
of D. K. Perkins and Henry Wise, 
well-known merchants of Oroville, 
and Ex-Governor George C. Perkins, 

C. W. McAfee and A. S. Bildwin, 
of San Francisco, purchased 6000 
acres of land five miles south of Oro- 
ville, on the line of the Northern 
California railroad. This body of 
land is wonderfully rich and adapted 
to all varieties of fruit and floral cult- 
ure. Here the citrus variety finds a 
congenial home. No finer oranges are 
grown in the State than in this part 
of the Northern citrus belt. 

About 250 acres of this tract has 
been surveyed into town lots, and 
about 1600 acres of the remainder 
have been subdivided into suburban 
tracts of one, two or five acres. Two 
entire blocks and part of two others 
have been set apart for a park, and 
two blocks on the crest of a gentle 
elevation are reserved for a hotel. 
This town site is now the property 
of the Pacific Improvement Com- 
pany, who are determined to make 
it one of the most inviting and 
charming towns in California. S) far 
the enterprise has been crowned 
with success. The sales have been 
surprising. Nearly all the one and 
two acre lots in the immediate vicin- 
ity of the town have been sold. The 
work of developing this site and 
these lands goes steadily on. A 
magical change has come over the 
spot where cattle roamed a few 

months ago. Broad avenues have 

been opened bordered with shade 
trees, miles of streets have been nicely graded. 
The eye is delighted by the increasing num- 
ber of beautiful homes garlanded in flowers 
and embowered in ornamental shrubbery , and the 
orange groves, orchards and vineyards give the 
place a most pleasing and picturesque appear- 

The water supply is abundant for all pur- 
poses of the town and colony, and of the best 
quality. It is brought from the north branch 
of the Feather river, a distance of about 2ol 
miles along what is known as the old Ophir 

D. tch to Oroville, and then distributed through 
five subordinate ditches, known as Sycamore, 
Slaughter-house, Planing-mill, Carpenter's 
Flat, and Wyandotte. The are also about 
five miles of branch ditches at Palermo, and 
rive of the old reservoirs of the mining days 
are being used by the company for catchment, 
storage and distribution. 

And we may add that buildings and improve- 
ments are rapidly advancing, that lumber is 
easily procured, the climate is genial and 




Central Street Railway, Sacra- 

Modern transportation facilities have succeeded in 
placing desirable suburban tracts within easy reach 
of the crowded city, and when a couple of years ago 
some ot our enterprising citizens here conceived the 
idea of running a railway by electricity, for the pur- 
pose of making accessible the highest ground in the 
vicinity of South Sacramento, they were only follow- 
ing the general Irend, and the result is worthy of the 
enterprise. The equipment of the road is second to 
none in California. The cars are made by the 
Stockton Combined Harvester and Agricultural 
Works, and are provided with electric bells and the 
latest appliances in use. 

The route has become so popular, and the service 
is so good, that whole families ride in and out to 
take in the many pleasures to be derived from the 

The company was organized in 1887. They have 
nine miles of street railway, the distance to Oak 
Park being 4 % miles. The parties promoting this 
enterprise have 300 acres at the terminus which they 

, v , ' ■ „ . .„.„„„ ,„!,,, ,(,:. j sell at from $125 a lot. up, and tike $10 down, the 

healthy and there is no good reason why this rest bei * aid 3 in mon[h r' install 

enterprising company miy not soon make 

Palermo in Northern California what Pasadena 
and Riverside are in the southern portion of 
the State. 

Wheke American Akt is Appreciated. — 
Some of the French artists at the Exposition 
range the foreign paintings as follows, with 
regard to their respective merits: The United 
States, Austria- Hungary, Holland. Belgium, 
England, Spain, Denmark, Italy. Politics may 
account for the poor representation of Italy, 
and perhaps the close imitation of French work 
performed with astonishing dexterity by our 
young aitists in Paris may have something to 
do with the place of the United States at the 
top of the list. Spain had a fine show and 
disputed the first place with the United States, 
but Spanish art is mainly the work of a few 
men, whereas from America many hail. But 
throughout all the foreign section, with the 
exception of Great Britain and Holland, all 
that was good showed the influence of France. 

M. P. Henderson & Son's Car- 
riage Factory. 

This factory was started in 1869, and by push and 
activity they have created a demand for their work 
and established a r putition second to none. From 
that primitive beginning an important establishment 
has been developed, in which is to be found all the 
latest invented labor-saving machinery in use in the 
manufacture of carriages and wagons, and where 
are now made all kinds of vehicles, from the heavy 
freight wagon still used in lumbering and teaming 
in the mountain countries, to the lightest tioiting 
sulky, and from the improved farm wagon to the 
elegant family carriage of the capitilist. From this 
manufactory vehicles are ordered Irom all portions 
of the Pacific Coast, and their durability and thor- 
ough construction make them popular wherever 
they are used. 

All kinds of vehicles or parts thereof are constant- 
ly on hand of their own make, and to supply all de- 
mands they have agencies lor the best Eastern car- 
riage work, so that intending purchasers need have 
no fear but that they can be suited at their own 
price. In all of their work the materials are kept for 
years ahead, insuring thorough seasoning. Skillful 
workmen are employed under the firm's immediate 
supervision to construct, and with the styles and 
finish displayed they have built up a coast-wide 
reputation. They are also importers and dealers in 
carriage materials, bodies and gearings; any part or 
portion of any vehicle and in such shapes and 
amo' "ts to suit. At the late fair their elegant dis- 
play traded all eyes, and on the excellence of their 
work they were awarded 14 premiums. About 30 
men are employed in this establishment. 

ments of $10 each, 
L. L. Lewis is the president of the railroad com- 
pany, and Edwin K. Alsip & Co., general agents 
for Oak Park. 

Already South Sacramento has become the resort 
of the elite of the city; its beautiful avenues will be 
thronged with wealth and fashion, and it will be to 
Sacramento what Golden Gate Park is to San Fran- 

Enterprises of this character in a large measure 
provide against the evils from overcrowded popula- 
tion in great cities. The growing desire of our peo- 
ple to " come to the city'' to live will find in such 
efficient transportation service a chance to build 
suburban homes without the inconvenience of that 
consummate nuisance "bobtail cars" and anti- 
quated arks|that have neither comfort nor pleasure as 
vehicles. The beneficial effect of this sagacious 
movement has already been felt in the Capital City 
in tradesman, artisan and mechanic in erecting 
lovely cottages and palatial dwellings where a few 
years since it was considered too far away from the 
business center to be convenient or attractive as a 
home. The promoters and employes on the Cen- 
tral railroad of Sacramento are active, polite and ac- 
commodating, and it is not too much to say that 
there is no better service on any street-car railroad in 


Now that the iDterest in the culture of the orange is 
extending so as to embrace nearly all parts of the State, 
a book giving the results of experience in parts of the 
State where the growth of the fruit has been longest pur- 
sued will be found of wide usefulness. 

" Orange Culture in California" was written by Thos. 
A. Garey of Los Angeles, after many years of practical 
experience and observation in the growth of the fruit. 
It is a well-printed hand book of 196 pages, and treats of 
nursery practice, planting of orange orchards, cultiva- 
tion and irrigation, pruning, estimates of cost of planta- 
tions, best varieties, etc. 

The book is sent post-paid at the reduced price of 75 
cents per copy, in cloth binding. Address Dswkt & Co., 
Publishers " Pacific Rural Press," 220 Market St., S. t. 

Injurious Insect* of the Orchard, Vineyard 
Field, Garden, Conservatory, etc., 


Remedies for their Extermination. 


Late Chief Executive Horticultural Officer of California. 
Illustrated with over 750 wood -cuts and 25 pages of clasel< 
fled illustrations. This book is designed for the use of 
orchardists, vineyardists, fanners and others interested 
in the subjects treated. It is designed to convey practi- 
cal information concerning some of the species of in- 
sects injurious to the industries of cultivators of th» 
soil, and those interested In earth produce generally. 
Price $4, postpaid. For sale by Dbwbt St Co., publish 
ers, 320 Market St., San Francisco. 

Inducements to Subscribers. 

To favor subscribers to this paper, and to Induoe new 
patrons to try our publication, we will furnish, to those 
who pay fully one year in advance of date, if requested 
the following articles (while this notice continues), at the 
very greatly reduced figures named at the right : 
2- — Beautiful Poetic Review, entertaining and instruc- 
tive; 35 pages (a handsome and pleasing pres- 
ent) 26 

3. — Dewey's Patent Elastio Binder (cloth cover), name 

of this paper Btamped in gilt 60 

4. — Niks' Stock and Poultry Book for Pacific Coast, 

pamphlet, 120 pages, Illustrated 26 

6. — Kendall's Treatise on the Horse and Diseases, 89 

pages, instructive illustrations 06 

8. — To New Subscribers, 12 select back Nob. of the 
Rural Press, " good as new " Free 

7. — Any of Harper's, Frank Leslie's and most other first- 

class U. S. periodicals, 15 per ct. off regular rates. 
Q. — Pacific Coast and Eastern Dailies and Period- 
icals, except special publications, we can usually 
give 10 to 15 per cent off advertised retail rates. 

10. — March of Empire, by Mallie Stafford 26 

1 1. — Life Among the Apaches, 322 pages, stiff cloth .26 
12- — $1 worth of choice seeds, to be selected from a list 

of 107 flower and 82 garden seeds, as previously pub- 
lished, or which list we will send on application .26 
14. — Dewey's Pat. Newspaper Fileholder (18 to 38 in.) .26 

16.— European Vines Described, 03 pages 06 

19.— Webster's Dictionary, 634 pages, with 1600 illustra. 
tlons; very handy and reliable ..... ». 60 

23. — Ogilvie's House Plans, 60 panes 15 

24. — Mother Bickerdyke's Life with the Army; patriotic 

and ably written; 166 pp., cloth, (1.00 60 

25. — Ropp's Commercial Calculator, cloth, 80 pp. . . .26 

26. — How to Tell the Age of a Horse 06 

27. — Percheron Stud Book— French— bound In 

leather, 192 pages (full price, $3) 1.00 

28- — What Every One Should Know; a oyclopedia of 
valuable Information; 610 pp.; cloth; (full price 
$1) 50 

29. — Knitting and Crochet, by Jennie June; 144 pp., 

200 Illustrations 26 

30. — Needle Work, by Jennie June; 12 pp. , 200 illus- 

trations 26 

31. — Ladies' Fancy Work, by Jennie June; 152 pp., 700 

illustrations 26 

82.— The Way to do Magic; illustrated, 80 pp 10 

33.— The Taxidermist's Manual; illustrated, 64 pp. . .10 

Notb. — The cash must accompany all orders. Address 
this office, No. 220 Market St., S. F. 

In writing correspondence, items of information, or on 
other business, please use a separate sheet. 

Sample copies of this paper mailed free to persons 
thought likely to subscribe. 

Send for free circular describing most of these pre- 
miums, and any further Information desired. 

Inform your neighbors about our offers and paper. 

What Every Subscriber Should Have. 

An Easy Binder. — A 
T. Dewey's Patent lilastir 
Binder, for periodicals 
music and other printed 
sheets, is the handiest, besl 
and cheapest of all econo- 
mical and practical fill- 
binders. Newspapers art 
quickly placed in it and 
held neatly, as in a cloth- 
bound book. It is durable 
and so simple a child can 
use it Price, size of Min- 
ing and Scientific Press. 
Rural Press, Watchman, 
Fraternal Publishing Co's. 
journals, Harper's Weekly 
and Scientific American, 85 
cents; postage 10 cents. 
Postpaid to subscribers ol 
this paper, 50 cents. Send 
>o this office for illustrated circular. Agents wanted 

Corn Fuel.— They are using corn for fuel 
in Northwestern Kansas. The market price of 
oorn is less than 15 cents, while coal is 25 to 35 
cents. The corn crop is immense and is caus- 
ing a transportation blockade. 

'Send Stamps for New Catalogue. 

Shot Guns, $5 to $300. 

Rifles, $3 to $50. 

525 Kearny Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

The Regular Annual Meeting 

Of the stockholders of the Grangers' Bank of California 
for the election of Directors for the ensuing year will 
take place at the office of the Bank, In the City of San 
Francisco, State of California, on Tuesday, the 14th day 
of January, 1 - hi. at 1 oMock r. U. 


ALBEKT MONTPELLIEK, Cashier and Manager. 
San Francisco, December 16, 1889. 



On Seven Simple Principles. 
I "Swift as Speech, Plain as Print, Easy as A. B. C." 

M | (6000 in prizes to students by mail. Outline, first 
lesson, specimens etc., 10c. No postals answered. 
Mention this paper. K. J. MARSH. A. M . B. I)., 
Pres. National Sch'l Phon., Columbus, O., or Santa 
Barbara, Cal. 

t ft 

£i7<§raui.7<5 Qo. 

Photo and Wood Engraving, 


Our New Photo-facsimile Plates, 

Matte Direct from Photographs, for fine newspaper, 
and fine Book and Job Printing, 

Stand next to Steel Plate Enorayings in finenex 
and perfection. tliey are produced quicker 
and cheaper than any other oood enokav- 
inoh, through the greatest invention 
yet made in photo-engraving. 

Photo- Electrotypes, 

Photo-Zi ncogr a phs, 

Wax Process Electrotypes, 
Lithographers' Transfers, 

Photographing on Wood, 

Stereopticon Views and other 

Special Photo Work, 

Promptly and reliably done by the approved processes 

Designs, drawings or photographs made to order. 

Engravings of buildings, Portraits, Maps and Scenery 
and Photo Samples for Salesmen are leading specialties. 

Send, as early as possible, with full description for any 
work desired, stating size and for what use plates are want- 
ed. Photographs and prints similar to those desired, will 
aid us in making definite estimates. W Agents wanted. 

Call and see specimens, or writs for samples, prioee and 
any further Information wanted, to the 

Dewey Engraving Co., 

A. T. Dewey, Manager. 
Office Illustrated Pacific States, 320 Market St., S. F. 

Jan. 4, 1890 J 

f ACIF16 f^URAb fRESS. 




I am now manufacturing the Celebrated REMINGTON TRACTION ENGINE OR 

STEAM PLOW, adapted to all kinds of heavy work usually done by mules or horses. A 
number of these Engines are now in use, giving entire satisfaction for plowing and pulling 
Combined Harvesters. I have also patented and put into the field a successful STEAM 
HARVESTER, which was run through the entire harvest, giving entire satisfaction to the 

Call early and leave your orders for Engines and Steam Harvesters; will be pleased to cor- 
respond with parties desiring to purchase. 

If you are interested in Steam Plowing and Steam Harvesting, go and investigate for 
yourself and be convinced. The following parties are using my Traction Engines and Har- 
vesters, who will take pleasure in showing them up: J. S. Butler, W. Fennell, Tehama, Tehama 
county; Henry Best, Yuba City, Sutter county; and W. S. Peters, San Lsandro. This last 
party is running a complete steam outfit, consisting of Traction Eogine and Steam Harvester. 
For further description, prices, etc., address 

Daniel Best Agricultural Works, 


— MADE OF — 


And Gilded With 



In G-x-e>£*/t Variety. 


Troemner Scales & Coffee Mills, 

National Cash Register, 

Store Trucks, White's Money Drawers, 

Molasses Gates & Dried-Beef Cutters. 

m B & £ < 

■\7SJ-. MELiVIN, 

Proprietor and Manufacturer for Pacific Coast. 

Office, 525 J St. SACRAMENTO, CAL. 

J. L. HEALD, Pres. C. B. MORGAN, Seo'y. 


Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers, 


Portable Straw-Bnraing Boilers k Engines. 


Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notice. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery, 

Including Grape Crushers and Stemmers, Elevators, 
Wine Presses and Pumps, and all appliances used in 
Wine Cellars. Irrigating and Drainage Pumps. Heald's 
Patent Engine Governor, Etc. 




411 & 413 Market St., San Francisco. 



Before Buying a Sewing Machine. 
It Is the leader in practical progress. Send for price list 
J. W. EVANS, 29 Post St.. S. P. 

The Home Benefit Life Association 

Non-forfeitable, Simple and Straightforward, Lowest Rates. 

LOSSES PAID, OVER $500,000. 

Home Offices, 101 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal. 




For This Popular 


Send for circulars and samples to 


42 Market St., San Francisco. 



<y Codling Moth Destroyed. 


New Codling Moth Trap 

Will entirely clean an Orchard in two years. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. Write to 

Winters, Yolo Co., Cal. 


HORSE HOli has a world-wide fame, and its hosts of friends 
will be delighted with its improvement* for J8JJU. Fi 
■ rwro ryPANnrR^i Instantaneous in action, firm, 
LLVLri LArnnuuw strong, simple, accurate, perfect. 
UAftini r fln HIQTMFNT Sidewise and for height. Quick, stiff, 
nnrtULC. nUJUO I lllfcil I pund for grapes, corn and in covering 
nanii i ci rniiur Standards intcrchuiiKeablc, STliOMi 
PARALLEL rKAWIL neB t, CONVENIENT, inimitable. . 
We absolutely guarantee our 18DO Horse Hoe and comoinations, 
and new patented features to pleaso every practical tanner ami - 
gardener, and their uioncv value to be far greater than ever. 
Look at it, and write us. Catalow frf. The "I*I,ANICT .lr"|*« 

Hand SEED DIMM.S, Double and Minnie Wheel Hoes;"" „-~ ■ --- ; ,^cr ,„, »,,;„,, 

"Fire Flv" I'lnw, &c , are indispensable tn farmers and ear. loners. Theysow with regularity any thick- 
ness and depth dillleult and easv seeds in small or large quantity, and without danger to vitality and with- 
out special care. In market gardening the Wheel Hwimm thrir co,t tl „ru, e w <!,,,,. The » • |re^y»Q»rden 
Plow is a delight m the family vegetable garden. The *' IManet ,lr," combined Seed Dnll.Wheel Hoe. Cultivator 
and Plow combin s in an admirable way the qualities of all the rest ; being delight ful as a •seed Drill, DoillMe 
Wheel Hoe while plants are small. Single Wheel Hoe, Cultivator— deep or shallow .and Garden Plow. 
All the blades of these famous hand tools have long been made of hardened polished steel. Keep them bright and 
sharp and you will save the full cost every few days. Send for full Descriptive Catalogue > o' a 1 our goods. 
Write us your wants. (S. 1.. ALLEN <fc CO., Solu Mantra., 1 tor Market SI 1'hlludelplill.. 

DEWEY & CO.,{ N m^o?iV»™ ItT" } PATENT AGENTS. 


Are the Best, 


Durability, Evenness of 
£oint, and Workmanship. 

Samples for trial of 12 different styles by mail, on 
receipt of lO cents in stamps. Ask lor card No. 8. 



" Greenbank " 98 degrees POWDERED CAUS- 
TIC SODA (tests 99 3-10 per cent) recommended by 
the highest authorities In the State. Also Common 
Caustic Soda and Potash, etc, for sale by 

Manufacturers' Agents, 
104 Market St. and 8 California St.. S. V. 

Cfin NA '' ll:v ' WO Expenses in Advance 

1 llJ .ill- ' month. .Steady employment at 

home or tra/eling. No soliciting. Duties, de- 
livering and makiug collections. No Postal Cards. Address 
with stamp. HAFKR & CO, Piqua, O. 

r. Vi- 

2 2 


(Jan. 4, 1890 

Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press U. 8. and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are 
worthy of special mention: 

Grain Separator and Cleaner. — M. N. 
Laufenburg, Stockton, assignor to the Stockton 
Combined Harvester i>nd Agricultural Works. 
No. 416 464. Dated Djo. 3, 18S9. This is an 
apparatus for more perfectly separating and 
cleaning grain. The invention is intended to 
separate from the grain as much as possible of 
the straw and lighter chaff so as to reduce the 
work of the supplemental cleaner. 

Feeding Mechanism for Combined Har- 
vester and TbbasHIS. — Benjamin Holt, 
Stockton. No. 416 618. Dated Dec. 3, 1SS9. 
T ii i is an imprtvement in traveling harvesters 
in which the grain which is cut by the sickle 
is transported by a carrying-belt called the 
"draptr " and discharged upon what is known 
as the s^lf-feeder, from which it is delivered 
to the cylinder of the thrashiog machine, piss- 
ing thence to the claauing apparatus. The 
present invention c insists of a device for assist- 
ing in the delivery of the straw from the draper 
to the self feeder and preventing the lodgment 
and clogging of the straw in its progress from 
the header to the thrasher. In the usual con- 
struction of headers and thrashers the grain is 
delivered from the upper end of the draptr no 
as to fall approximately upon the self feeder 
which del.vers it to the cj 1 nder; but a great 
deal of the straw and chaff fall down from the 
end of the belt and m-n become piled up and 
clogged in this space. Mr. H >lt's invention is 
designed to overcome this difficulty by provid- 
ing a constantly moving shaking-table inter- 
mediate betwpen the draper and eelf-feeder. 

Sickle Grinder. — Henry Thibault, Stockton. 
No.416,518. Dated Die. 3, 1889. This is a grind- 
ing implement specially adapted for sickle-grind- 
ing. The blade to b? ground is supported by 
flinges of a top-plate and presses down on the 
stone, which, by means of a treadle and inter- 
vening gears, 19 rotated. Toe pressure down 
upen the stone causes a spring to condense and 
bear upwardly so as to hold the stone constant- 
ly and with required pressure to its work. In 
grinding sickles it is of great importance that the 
pressure of the stone be nicely regulated. In 
this case this is effected permanently by a col 
lar by which the i . i , r accurately regulateB 
the tension of the spring. 

Orain Separator and Cleaner — Michael 
N. Laufenburg, Stockton. No. 416 464. Dated 
Dac. 10, 18S9. This is an apparatus for more 
perfectly operating and cleauing grain, and it 
consists of an oecillating-?hoe with screens upon 
which the grain is delivered by the carrier, 
which transmits it from the thrashing-cylinder, 
a superposed carrier by which the principal 
part of the straw is separated from the grain 
and carried away, and, in combination with the 
screens, of a blast and a series of backwardlv 
inclined plates or shutters by which the chaff 
and straw are prevented from falling through 
the grain and through which the blast frrm the 
fan is directed so as to discharge the chaff and 
straw and assist in separating them from the 

Carrying Pulley.— Anthony McLsan, 8. 
F. No. 416,943. Dated Die. 10, 1889. Thw 
improved construction of pulVys is specially 
adapted to pulleys which are employed to carry 
a rope in the tube or channel of a cable rail- 
way and for other similar purposes. Tne per- 
ipheries of these pulleys are rapidly worn by 
the friction of the traveling rope, and when 
they are worn through it is necessary to throw 
away the whole of the pulley. As a great num- 
ber of tbese pulleys are used on cable-railway 
lines, the loss is considerable. This invention, 
which is designed to remedy this d ffi;nlty, 
consists in the casting of the rim of the pulley 
of chilled or white iron, and the spider or center 
and hub may be made separately and removable, 
■o as to be placed in a new rim when the old 
one is worn out. 

Grain Cleaner. — Brnjanin HHt, Stockton. 
No. 416.916. Dued Die. 10, 18S9. This is an 
improved grain-cleaner, which is speoially ap- 
plicable for use upon thrashing machines, but 
may also be used for a separate and independent 
oleaner when necessary. It consists essential- 
ly of a device for producing a shaking motion 
of the shoes which carry the screens and a 
means for regulating and ar'j isting the shake. 

Sickle Bar for Harvesters. — John A. 
Swell, Wheatland, Yuba Co. No. 416,963- 
Dated Dac. 10. 1889. The rbjsct of this at. 
tauhment is to provide a simple attachment of 
the sickle guards or fingers to the bar — one 
which will not work loose and may readily be 
applied. The shanks or stems of the guards 
are made much heavier than if they had to pass 
through holes in the bar, for in the form adopt- 
ed tbey can project from their seats as much as 
may be required for the proper strength, and, 
being urdrrneath, tbey will not be in the way. 

Windmill. — Osoar H. Donley, San Jose. 
No. 417,549. Dated Deo. 17, 1889. The orank 
of the wh»el-shaft is connected with a lever in 
the ordinary way; but this lever iscuiv dso 
that each of it) holes is < q lidistant frr m the 

i.l center of the wheel-shaft, so that the link 
.nay be conneobed with any of the holes with- 
out changing the proper position of the piston 

in the pump, thereby rendering it practicable 
to vary the length of the stroke of the pump 
by setting the oonnecting-bolt in any of the 
holes. Tne connection of the lever with the 
pitman is such that this connection forms a 
sort of knuckle joint permitting the oscillating 
movement of the lever and effecting the verti- 
cally reciprocating movement of the pitman, 
and also providing for the swiveling of the 
entire turntable abont the pitman. 

Collar Stuffing Machine. — Geo. E Hoyt, 
S. F, No. 417 560. Dated Deo. 17, 1S89. This 
machine is intended to stuff the bodies of horse- 
collars with straw or filling, by which they are 
properly shaped. It consists of a vertical hop- 
per, a rotary and reciprocating auger by which 
the filling material is forced into the collar, and 
a mechanism by which the double motion of 
the filling auger is p oduced, and by which the 
material is properly stirred and loosened up. 

Collar-Stuffing Machine. — Calvin E »ing, 
8. F. No. 417.552. Dated Dec. 17, 1889. 
This is a machine for stuffing the rims of horse- 
collars with straw, and is an improvement on 
a manrine patented by the same inventor Sept. 
16 1884. 

Spray Nozzle. — John B'an, Lis Gatos. N->. 
417 464. Dated Djc. 17, 1889. This is a nozzle 
or tip specially adapted for spraying and used 
in the treatment of infected trees, shrubs, vines, 
etc. It consists essentially in a novel imper- 
forate packing-plate or sheet, controlling the 
nrzz'e passage and exit port. The nbj-rt is to 
provide a spray nozz'e capable of effective 
operation under a smaller pressure than usual 
and one which will not be affected injuriously 
in its ar j istable or working parts by tne liquid 
passing inroogh it. 



Cure BILIOUS and 
Nervous ILLS. 

25cts. a Box. 


?d$, Hants, ttc. 

Oar Agents. 

Our Friends can do much In aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but wurtby men. 

J. C. Hoao— San Francisco. 

R. G.— San Francisco 

M. D Siikadrr — Santa Clara Co 

W. W. Tn okalds - Los Angel' s Co. 

E. Fisciikr— Central California. 

Oio. Wilhok— Sacramento Co. 

E. H. SciiARFFi.R— Fresno Co 

C. Edward Robertson— Humboldt Co. 

Frank S. Chapin— Butte and Yuba Cos. 

Wm. U. Wh,lkart— Oregon. 

E. E. — Oregon. 

Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
quested to examine its contents, term of sub- 
scription, and give it their own patronage, and 
as far as practicable aid in circulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription 
rate, $3 a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 
iont8, if ordered soon enough. If already a 
sjbsoriber, pleas« «hnw the paper to others. 

Kohi.ek & Chase, established 1850. The lead- 
ing house of the 1'acific Coast. Any one wishing to 
buy a first-class piano for a low figure should write 
for illustrated catalogue. Each instrument repre- 
sented by this firm is of a high standard of work- 
manship. They have the largest assortment to se- 
lect from, and are sold on easy terms. Catalogues 
sent free upon application, and all orders by mail 
promptly attended to and satisfaction guaranteed. 
The Decker Bros., the leading upright, indorsed by all 
artists. Kohler & Chase, 137-139 Post street, S. F. 


Save Time and Wearisome Labor ! 



Invented bv E. M. T. Hilgard, one horse and a boy can 
do the work of eight or ten men in gathering and bunch- 
ing the p unings ready for burning or loading on wagon. 

It is strongly made and its construction is so simple 
that with ordinary fair u=age it shotil I last a lifetime. 
Its "-ost will oe saved in one seasoii's work on 66 acres of 
vines. Address, 

421-427 Market St., San Francisco. 


Backus Stationery and Printing Co. 

27 Main Street, San Francisco. 

Stationers. Printers. Bookbinders. Publish- 
ers and Blank Book Manufacturers. 

Wo pay spc ial attention to orders from the country. 
CATALOGUE* and all kinds of PAMPHLET work a 


1 hive used I>r Seth Arnold's Cough 
Kdler, and it is the ou'y medic n" 
wh ch relieve* mv couvb. Peter 
Kdel, Ulocernille. A. K. l'rice 
•ft«, SOc aim $1 per liotile. 




Handsome— 1 n des t r u ct i b le— Cheaper than Wood. 



[Factories: Beaver Falls, Pa.) 
This is not a netting, it is a Fence 
Our Lawn Kenre. the only Fence that protects a 
lawn without concealing it. 

Our ► leilrl KeiDce, the only good, cheap Fence that 
is hannletfft to xtock. 

Made 111 variouH stvles, he ghts and s'zes of pickets. 
BAKER & HAMILTON, San Francisco, Agents. 

J.F Mm <i s. Presldert, J. L X SlIEPARn, Vice Vrea 

Cuas. R. Story, 8ec'y, R. H. Mai. ill. Gen Ag't 

Home Mutual Insurance Company, 

216 Sansome Sfeet.San Francisco. 


Losses Pail Since ( irganizai ion $2,841,045 00 

Assets, Ja uary I, l&Ct 8I3.K3 70 

Capita', Paid t"ii in Hold 300,000 00 

NET HURP i US, oTer everything 287,531 

Japan Snowball. 



We have beeD for nearly 40 years 
shippers of ft ck* and Heeds to Cali- 
fornia au<l probably most of the long- 
heurioK fruit trees of the State are 
from our stocks. *»ur experience is 
worth snmethiug, while we belie Te the 
articles are as good and cheap as any. 
Send for prices and catalogues. 

Germantown. Philadelphia, Pa. 


Roseville, l'lacer County, CaL 

We offer for the season of 1889 and 1890 a One assort- 
ment of 

Fruit Trees, Greenhouse Plants, 

Evergreens, Trees a*d Shrubs, 

And Other Ornamental Stock. 

15,000 1'alini from one to three years old. 

10,000 Roses, one and two years old. 

A vast quantity of Dollar Collections sent through the 
mails. Catalogues on app ication. Address 

E. BOOTH, Roseville. Cal. 


are grown from our trees. The largest stock of 


'or Timber Claims in the world. 350 acres in 
Nu-serv Stock. All kinds of new and old 
Fruit, Forest, Ornamental Trees and Shrnbs, 

/"fTO A T>X'G and Sma " F rn ' f ° *t hard 
uJ*A l ii'J timed prices. 4iTA paper 
devoted to Fru !f -Orowing, 1 year nn i « n 
to all who buy $1 worth of stock. X M&titd 
Oar Nurseries are lo«-»t°d within fifty miles 
of the center of the United StateB, and our 
shipping facilities are nnexcelled. 

laTSend at on"e for Price List, to 
C A P V ' NTKR A G40ir, ralrhury. Nebraska. 


The famous H vey Seed flto-e 
of Bos' on, and Horey Nun r es 
of t 'am bridge. Mass , hare bt en 
moved to East Pasadeuu, Cali- 
fornia, wh re the business will 
be conducted as 
The' Ri.viiionri Flower 
and s<>«'<| .store. 
C H. Hovi;v, Manager, 
K»*t Panadena, * 
Rend for c jiuilete catatogue 



These Grapes m \ke the finest seedless raisins known. 
For sale by J P ON«T(>TT, Vuba Ulty. < tel. 

J. Seulberger's Descriptive Catalogua 

509-61 1-B13 Seventh Stroet, Oakland. Cal. 






VINES and SHRUBS, 5 sorts ci Dbl. Lilacs; 
B ECO N IAS. finest collection in the country, 

new family of sun proof bedders. 
CHRYSANTHEMUMS, all prize takine varieties. V 
best quality. All the good New sorts, and best 
old varieties. PLANTS post-paid by Mail. 
Satisfaction Guaranteed- s«-ml for our fhke 
Illustrated Catalogue, and n t ion this paper. 


_ _ _ . . Plants, Roses, Shrubs, 
prrnp Fruit and Ornamental 
Art 1 A Trees, Crape Vines, 
U L L U U Small Fruits etc. 



hciul ten cents for our illustrated catalogue of 
about 150 jiajres, containing a certificate good for 
ten cents in seeds, etc, Or send lor our KJ page 
abridged catalogue and price-list free. 
36 years. 24 greenhouses. 700 acres 

THE STORRS & HARRISON CO., Painesville, Ohio. 


Fig Trees and Oxittings for Salo. 

WHITK ADRIATIC, GENUINK SMYRNA, SAN PEDRO, and various other varieties. 
All kind.) ot GRAPE ROOTS and CTTTING3. 

M. DBNICKB, Fresno, Cal. 

Contract taken to prone Fijc Tre^s flci<*ntiflcalVv. Pox No 452 

If You Want 

Wild 0at(, Red CLver, Red Top, Timothy, Blue Grass, Etc., 

Send orders to "\^7" . XI. e*s CO., 

117 to 125 J 

II. WOOD efc 

Wholenale Dealers iu Field Seed*, 

Street, — Saor amen to. 



IMMhNSK STOCKS sri Penrs, Plums, Cherrie*. 
ndsnnd Quinces _Viirietit-_M Milliiblr to nil latitudcH. 

The lavgmt nursery of Fmit Trees in thei 
wmnen. Dun lent, nnd Market Orrhardists 
Pch. Ih-s Apriots. Nectarines. Alii 

SPECIALTIES: Lawsuit. Kierter, Le Cmte.'Early Harvest and Seckel Pears; Russian Peara. 
in. ludiiiK BrssetniMilta. Gnkor ka. and No 14"! ; Russian Apricots nnd Cherries; De Soto. Wolf 
P. Siinoni. Ke,M\v. IJotan and Bloon Plums; Peen To nnd Honey Poaches and their fmpTOfM 
seedlings Other new and famous sorts. Quirk truiihil* in llirouicli curs, free of I rrigut 
Charffea* toft. L.,hm, .»/«., CinHnrtati. O., AW,.-'*-,. .V. )*., /7m Wr//.Aei, / f*all,i+. T, x „ .la i. 
• Ftu, We can refer to customers in every State and Territory. Prices very low. Price 

List free. AdJress \V. I . Ill i K I - , .>Inuasera IluutHvillCy Alubaiua. 

TIM Mill I I., HI V\oi.PS A ALI.KN, 

DeaieiH in all ki ds < f Setd*. Being in the c nttr 
(•f the Clover a* d Tunothv ■ dUt let, we cad sell at 
lower prices than any other market. Write for 
prices. Send for Catalogue for 189 i. 1420.112f» 
Ml. I.onit Ave., Kannaii City, M*>. 


Jan. 4, 1890.] 



geeds, Mapts, fee. 

Nevada City, Cal. 


[\[uts, p runes \ Q rapes 

The Largest ana Finest Collection of " Nut- 
Bearing'" Trees to be f uud in the 
United States, and Excelled 
nowhere In B ut ope. 




Introduced into Ca'ifornia in 1871 by Felix ^il'et; and 
also of the great market walnuts of the world, 

Mayette, Franquette and Parisienne 

(Large, light-colored shell, beautiful ) 

All walnut seedlings pisitively "guaranteed'' to be 
"Second Generation" Trees, that i<, grown from nuts 
borne on the "original," as it is the case with Proper- 
turiens Trees, or on trees grafted from the Original, as 
are all the other kinds. 

One-year-old "Second Generation" Tree", with plenty 
of roots, of the following kinds: Prrepartnriens, 
Cluster, Mayette, Franquette, Parisienne, 
Chaberte. Ynurey an 1 Culoug, at $'}5 to $30 
per hundred, according to sizes. 

One-year-"ld 'Third Generation" Prreportu riens, 
or trees grown from nuts borne on "Second Generation" 
T,ees, at $12 to $1 5 per hundred. 

By mail, Second Generation Trees of all kinds, $5 per 
dozen; Third Generation Prrcparturieng $3 per 
dozen (these prices including racking rnd mailing). 

Walmt Trees grown from the Original, or trees grafted 
from the Original, or Second Generation Trees are too 
scarce to permit gi.iog special rales to the trade. 


Lot cV'rjte and Saint Catherine, propagated, 
"true to the root," from the prune districts in France. 
Also all other leading kinds. 

Two hundred and forty-one varieties of GHAPE' 
from all p^rts of the world, including the earliest table 
and market varieties known, sou.c as much as 25 days 
earlier than "Sweet Water." 

Sixty-one varieties of ENGLISH GOOSEBER- 
RIES, all shapes, colors and sizes. 

etc., French, E iglish, German and American STKA W- 

Bartlett P<ar Trees- one year "Id, at $15 to 
$20 per hunured; guaranteed to be genuine and free 
of insect pest-. 

Oranges and Lemons. 

Portugal Orange, BUdah (Algeria) Mandarin 
Orange, Corsica Lemon, Large- 
Fruited Lemon, 

Imported from the island of Corsica, on the Mediterra- 
nean coast, and expressly grafted for the California trade. 


By FELIX GILLET, of Nevada City. Cal., an essay on 
the different modes of Budding and Grafting the Walnut, 
so difficult to graft; il'ustrated with eight cuts made 
after nature and of natural size. Will be sent with 
Descriptive Catalogue, u <der the same cover, to any 
addiess on the receipt of 25 cents in postage stamps. 

i^Send for General Descriptive Catalogue, illustrated 
with 3f cuts, representing Walnuts, Chestnuts, Almonds, 
Filberts, Prunes, etc. 


I do hereby caution Nurserymen all over the United 
States that have been in the habit of stealing my Walnut 
and Chestnut cuts, and approp iating them to kinds 
that th y do not represent, that I hav« had all the cuts 
of my General Descriptive Catalogue and thoe of my 
Essay on Grafting the Walnut duly " copyrighted," and 
that hereafter I will prosecute any one guilty of such 
contemptible piracy. 

1 would also caution my California patrons against 
buying from agen's purporting to be mine, as I have no 
agents whatever throughout the State for the sale of any 
pf my stock. 

Nevada City, Cal. 


Trees and Seeds. 



Largest Stock of Peach Trees on the Coast. 
Extra Large Stock of Prune, Apricot, Almond and Pear Trees. 




CAPITAL NURSERIES, Sacramento. Cal. 



It coutnins description and price of Grass, Clover and Field SEEDS, Australian 
Tree and Shrub *>EK !»!■*, Native California Tree, Shrub and Flower SEElrN (the 
largest assortment of Vegetable and Flower SEEDS, offered in the United States), new 
\ arieties of Forage Plants, Grasses and Clovers especially recommended for the Pacific 
• oast. Holland, Japan and California Bulbs. Large Assortment of Palm SF.FOS. 
new and rare I'lants, new Fruit. Our stock of Fruit Trees consists of the best varieties 
of Prune, Plum, Apricot. Apple, Peach, Cherry, OUve, Fig and Nut Trees, Grape Vines 
and small Fruits. Address 


411, 413 & 415 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal. 

The Dingee & Conard Co s HOSES, HARDY PLANTS, 


Largest Rose Growers in America. 

OUR NEW G Li IDE, 116 pp., elegantly illustrated, is 
sent FREE to ALL who write for it. Ii describes and 
MUMS, New MOON FLOWERS, and the choicest 


s&v_ Goods sent everywhere by mail or express. Safe arrival guar- 
w anteed. If you wish Roses x Plants, or Seeds of any kind, it will 
*f>ay you to see our New Guide before buying. Send for it — free. Ad'lress 


Large "^HS? Is* 
Rose Houses. ^ 

THE DINQEE ^CONARD CO., K0S Ieed° S! and West Grove, Pa 

The Public Want 

Their seed fresh 
and true. 

Would they not be most likely to obtain such by buying 
directly from the, grower f I can buyseed at half 
what it costs me to raise it, but could not sleep sound 
should I warrant seed of this class. For the same 
reason I make special, effort to procure seed. stock 
directly from their originators. You will find in my 
new seed catalogue for 1890 (sent free), the usual 
xtensive collection (with the prices of some kinds lower 
than last season) ami the really new vegetable* 

(»f ( : I promise. You should be able to get from me, 

their introducer, good seed of Cory Corn, Miller Melon. 
Hubbard Squash, All Seasons and Deep Head Cabbages and 
many other valuable vegetables, which I have introduced. 

JAJftLES J. IX. GREGORY, MarbleUead, Mass. 

Roses™ Seeds 

THE DINGEE & CONARD CO'S Weoffer/W/Wat yourdoor, 

ROSES in America, all va- 
rieties, sizes and prices. New 
New GRAPES. Satisfaction guaranteed. OUR NEW GUIDE, 116 pp., handsomely illustrated. 
Write for it FREE. It will pay you to see it before buying. Goods sent everywhere by mail or express. 

THE DINGEE & CONARD CO.. Rose Growers and Seedsmen, West Grove, Pa. 




COMPANY, of Santa Ba>l>ara, off -ra for sale an ex- 
tensive stock of OLIVE TrtEES of different size and aje, 
as well as 

Budded Orange & Lemon Trees, 

ORANGE SEEDLINGS, PALMS, etc. For price list 
and particulars, apply by mail to 

1106 Broadway, « akland, Cal. , or 

C F. E * TON , Box R San'a B°rbsra. 


Nurseries & Greenhouses, 

Pomona, Los Angeles Co., Cal. 


Orange Seedlings, 1 year old; Mission & 
Nevad llo Olive; fdra ic & Smyrna 
Fig; Soft Shell Walnut; Guava. 




are those put up by ^* 


Who are the largest Seedsmen in the world. 
D. M- Ferry & Go's 
Illustrated, Descriptive and Priced ^ 

for 1890 will be mailed 1 litii t>J all ;ip- 
plicants, and to last season's customers. 
It is better than ever. Every person 
using Garden, Flower or lield 
Seeds should send for it. Address 
D. M. FERRY & CO. 

To the Farme s and Gardeners 



We wish to call your attention to our Peed Potatoo , 
now in our bins and ready for immediate shivment. We 
are the Large t Growers of t'.e Best and Mo t Popular 
SPED POTaTOFS of Fancy Varieties on this Coast; hav- 
ing had in over 200 acres of different kinds the past season 

Our Potatoes are all raised without irrigation and will 
keep well. We wi 1 ship on Short N ti e in lots from 
one sack to cailods. Send stamp for Catalogue and 
prices to JJALUWiJV & HASTINGS, 

Florence, Cal. 



2129 Tenth t-t, Sacramento, 
Has for sal,; a fine lot of O L, I V E S grown in the open 
g-ound, namely: Mat zaniilo or Queen's Olive, 2 to 3 ft., 
at $30 per hundred or §250 per thou- and; 12 to 18 inches, 
$20 per hundred or $175 per tl oussnd. Nevardillo Blanco, 
}25 i>er hundred. Picholine, 3 to 4 teet, $18. per hundred 
o- $140 per thousand; 12 to 18 inches, $8 per hundred or 
$60 per thousand. 


We have m"st of the leading fruits in June buds or 
dormant buds. I X L. and Golden State Almonds, 
Muir and Lovell Peaches; Winter Secke' Pear. 

Texas Umbrella, Crrolna Poplar, Locust, California 
and Eastern Black Walnuts. 

Leading varieties of Jrapes. including Catawba. 

Fruiting and fl'.wcri g Pomegranates, young Date 
Palms, Hedd ng Picholine Olive , etc , etc 

J. K. *P±4llNGEK & .i.Dh.L B E RT COX. 

Woodland, Cal. 


Grown without irrigation, aid especially suitable for dry 
land; growth guaranteed by special contract. 

Resistant & Vinifera V nes Roses, Palms, 

Etc., of all Varieties. 
For Catalogue apply: CANADA NURSERY, 
P O. Box 86 Redwood <~itv, Pan Mateo Co., Cal. 







San B'rnardinit, California. 


An opportunity to buy Fruit Trees and save money. 
On account of our lease on nursery ground being run out, 
we think it better t~ put prices below usual rates to parties 
about to plant s^^ner th n remove our stock and re- 
start, W« Mmply say, write for prices; or come and 
look at the tro s. All the favorite stauda'd varieties of 
Pears: a fine lot of Bartlett. Half pried at the Nutsery. 

T. < ORLEY. Eapt OakriaDd Nurnerv, 
Old County Woad, bet. 24th and 25th Ave's. 


A few thousand Genuine Cutlibert Raspberries ; 

Suckers of 1S89 growth, with youog Fibrous Roots 

"J L, ." Cordelia, Cal. 

Seeds, Etc., Continued on Page 30. 



[Jan. 4, 1890 

Tbe 'i *•«'> r, 'Q m liwerhlmae. 
WITHOUT ▲ TAIL, and so 

cad the 

National Wind Engine 

Th* beat and cheapest etisHoe 
ma- Ho* stood the tfHtofM'TeQ 

era. Notcfleou-db? ice.Blt-eiorKDow. 
all iron except the nails. Will not 
Will outla>l ao t two ewrlnr-s made. 
Tlie only engine that will not 
ruffltftilf ouiof gear in a bifch 
wind. 7 ft. will pump 30 to 40 
bis. water a day. Does not 
require an expert K\put it np. 
One Nafional Ene'oe in a 
township w ill insure taesaleof 
the National to three- fourths 
of future purchasers. Don't 
bay aujr other till you have re- 
cr-iVed our catalogue and 
prices. Wecarrr a llncof Der* 
ricks, Tauks. Pumps, Cylin- 
ders, etc. 

Steel Pulley & Machine Wka. 

Sole Makers, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

TRUMAK. HOOKER & CO., Ag'ts, 421 Market 8t. S F. 




Powerful and Durable 




Horse Powers, 
Windmills, Tanks 

and all kinds of Pump- 
ine Machinery built to 
order. Windmills from 
$66. Horse Powers from 
$60. Send tor Catalogue 
and Price List. 

F. W. KROOH * 
CO., 51 Beale St. 
nan Francisco. 


THIS ff 




rewrite un 
u w hat work 
you \vlnh to 
do wit li a well 


Drill drop*. 60 to DO time* 
ii minute • 




.ightiiing Well-Sinking Machinery. 

Makers of Hydraulic. Jetting, Kevolv- 
.rtesian. Mining, Liiamond Tools 
I & 1'rospeeting. Engines. Boilers, 
d Mill-, rumps, etc., Sold oh 
I.OO'J Engravings. Karl Ii S t ra t idea- 
tion. Peiernunati' nof.Miner- 
t_ aisaml Quality of Water. 

STY iv,-s Light, hndsGold. 
J**- _ Mailed f.,r 25 eta. 
;53<;..s l'.u..k 25cts. 

The American 
a -S Well Works. 


and on hand. Also Traction Engines, heavy and light, 
suitable for plowing. Well drilling a specialty. 
Address, with stamp, D. J. LYNCH, 

Kelaeycllle. Lake do.. Oat 


This is the neatest and most useful novelty on the 
market. Sold bv all Harness and Hardware Dealers. 
SAMPLES 26 CENTS. Manufactured by 

118 Fourth Street, - Des Moines, Iowa. 


A little book that every farmer ought to have 
is the "Sorghum Haml Book" for 1890, which 
may be had free, by addressing The Blvmyir 
Ironworks Co., of Cincinnati, O. Sorghum is a 
very valuable crop for synip-making, feed, and 
fodder, and this pamphlet gives full information 
about the different species, best modes of culti- 
vation, etc Send and get it and read it. 

f -a2g£l a Red Seal Granulated 98% Lye 

FOR ■ 


And other insects it has no equal. Use 6 gallons of water to 1 lb. of RED SEAL LYE. 

This Lye is powdered and packed in Sifting-Top Cans, and any desired quantity 
may be used and balance reserved for future use. One can will make 10 to IS lbs, 
best Hard Soap or 200 lbs. Soft Soap. Useful for Softening Water, Removing 
Ice, all filthy Matter and Foul Odors from sinks, closets, drains, waste-pipes, etc., and for 
I, _ ) u s^'l.Tlli Ueneral Scrubbing and Disinfecting purposes. 


i ssi i xmRM^Ar^Ka.— Mr. Johnson, who resides near San Jose, after consulting with many of the most prom- 
inent fruit-growers, has come to the conclusion that after using and trying many experiments (other than Pure Red 
Seal granulated 98 per cent Lye, free from any salt), that its use is to be preferred above all other preparations. 
Mr. Cooke says if coal oil is used it will enter the bark and kill it; on the contrary, if the alkali wash is employed 
it will form a coating through which the troublesome insects cannot penetrate, w hile at the same time it is perfectly 
harmless to the trees. 

Packed also in cms holding 35 and 50 lbs.; it comes much cheaper when bought in car lots. For sale by all 

grocers in the United States. Apply to 

M. LOVELLi, No. 116 California St., San Francisco , CaL 

FOR ENGRAVINGS Dewey Engraving Com- 
pany, No. 320 Market street, San Francisco. 



But what we can supply, or parts thereof, in Carriages 
Vehicles, Wagons. 
Specialty: Work Made to Order. Correspond. 


Stockton, Cal. 


Established 1856, 

Largest and Oldest Piano House West of tie Rockies. 





Sold on easy installments when desired. Write for 
illustrated Catalogue. 

Warerooms, 20 OTarrell St., Dear Market S. F. 


Buttrr in 10 minute*. Chili can 
ose It. No friction, ho oil or 
peasocan Ht in cream. Sollick- 
ing of butter to tides. Can bo 
cleaned easier and quicker than 
any other churn. Cheapest ur st- 
ela c a churn ever made. 

"Churn v. i accomplish alt 70a 
claim. : mo eight more." S. 
II. BtfflvaU. Ouiovillc. N. Y. 

"Chura Is first-class." Geo. 
Beatty, Lcoox, Mich. 

"Churn uniformly brlnr* butter 
In ten minutes." Q. h. Bradley, 
Saueatuuk. Conn. 

** We like tho churn verr much.** 
Barry Oilmore. Versailles, Ky. 

' I and my m-igbhors like th* 
churn very much." G«u. E. Head, 
BioghamtoD. N. T. 
'My girl, six yean oM, generally docs tbe churning with th* 

vlnn* in f.« Lf» rtffht niinlilj>«." J. Q. bchuUUOVcr, iLnliaPlr 

Crclone fa SIX to eight minutes, 
polls, Ind. 

Ask Your Dealer For It, and If he does not 
keep It, write to 

G. W. ARMES & CO., 

117 and 119 California Street, S. F. 


A Treatise on the Horse and his Disease. 

By B. J. Kendall, M. D. 

36 Fine Engravings showing 
the positions and actions of sick 
horses Gives the cause, symp- 
toms and best treatment of dU 
cases. Has a table giving tbe 
doses, effects and antidotes of 
all the principal n-edicinesused 
for the horse, and a few pages 
on the action and uses of me- 
dicines. Rules for telling the 
age of a horse, with a fine en 
graving showing the appearance 
of the teeth at each year. It is printed o . fine paper 
and has nearly 100 pages, 7 1x5 inches. Price, only 26 
cents, or five for fl, on receipt of which we will send 
by mall to »ny address, DEWEY St CO., 

HO Market St.. 8. » 


s. nd to the Largest Bee-Hive Factory >■> *• »»rid 



1*1 iUusl d aemi-montbljl, 
_J Ami a M pp illu«. Catalogue 


A B C of Bee Culture 

jis acyclopoliaoMOOiip. am!3O0cuu. Prlo ,1.25 

[Jfoufcm <a4t rfr. A. I. ROOT, Medina. O. 



An Instrument " * * a aTAa-pit,,,,,., treatment 
Cures All Diseases of the Rectum. New Invkntion 1 
Send lie for Pamphlet No. 8. Address M. E. T. Co., 
IM Sacramento St, Sam i'aajicioco, Calhokma. 

heal tjtate birectory. 


eral Real Estate dealers. See advertisement 62, 
Market St. 

BRTGGS, PERGUSSON & CO., City and Coun- 
try Real Estate. 314 California St. 

MCAFEE & BALDWIN, City and Country Real 
Estate. 10 Montgomery St. 

O. H. STREET St CO., General Real Estate Agents. 
416 Montgomery St. See advertisement. 

CHAS. HENDERSON St CO., City and Countrt 
Ilea] Estate Agents, 304 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

GEO. BEEBE & CO., 607 Market St. Large tracts 
Timber lands for sale. Government locations made. 


BENE r ICT. RUDOLPH St 0O.,City and Country 
Heal Estate Agts., Notary Public, 467 Ninth St. .Oakland. 

D. W. PRATT, City and Country Real Estate. School 
Lands a Specialty. 469 Ninth Street, Oakland. 

O. C. LOG A N, City and Country Keal Estate and Load 
Agent. Office, 4S1 Ninth Street, Oakland, Cal. 

GASK LL & VANDE H COOK, City and Country 
Real Estate, 468 Ninth St., Oakland, Cal. 

M. J. L A YMANl E St CO., Auctioneers and Dealers 
in City and Country Real Estate, 466 Eighth St .Oakland. 


HUTCHINSON St LE»VITT. Valley Alfalfa and 
Apple Land U . S. Locations made. Inquiries ans'd. 

Fresno and Merced County Lands 
to Rent and for Sale. 

000 Arroc of Wheat and Smj»r 
1 J,UUU Mtl CO Beet Land in the 
abovr Counties, to rent for a term of years. Also, 

100,000 Acres Alfalfa and Sugar 

Beet Land, with water for irrigation, for sale in 
tracts of from 20 acres to large traots suitable 
for colony purposes. For particulars apply to 


402 Kearny Street, San Ftanclsco 




Garibaldi Building;, 

P. O. Boi No. 7. 


in 10-acre tracts for sale, JIOO per acre. The same Is 
selling by other parties at (126 to $140 per acre. 
Address or call on 1 HE LAND INDEX, 

Kelseyvllle, Lake Co., Cal. 

inn in i 

Br«rrh- Loader 
$6.7 . 


A II kinds cheaper than 

elsewhere. Before job 
huv, aend stamp for 
Catalogue. Address 

180 Mala Street, 
~ CUaUaaM. »»!•• 



A Home Scbool 

Winter Term will begin January 6, 1890. 

Location delightful and healthful. Instructors experi* 
enced and competent. Influences, both moral and social, 
of the most desirable nature. Curriculum of studies em> 
braceB every branch of study needed In thorough prep- 
aration for business or for entrance to the best colleges of 
the United States. For particulars address the Principal, 

Santa Rosa, Cal. 


OalLlnncl, Cm.1. 

Next Term begins August 6, 1889. 

A first-class School. A beautiful, pleasant home. 
Send for Catalogue to 
W. W. ANDERSON, Principal. 


No Vacations. Dat and Evr.mnu Sbssiohs. 

Ladies admitted into all Departments. 
Address: T. A. ROBINSON, M. A.. President. 



24 P08T 8T., 8. F. 

V College instructs In Shorthand, Type Writing, Book- 
<eeplng. Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all tbe Kn- 
<llsh branches, and everything pertaining to business, 
(or six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
Individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school has 
its graduates in every part of the State. 


E. P. HEALD, President. 

0. 8. RALRV, Secretary 

The New 8 Year! 9 New Year 

New and True Music Books. 

CHOICE SiK KKII SOI. ON. St tine SOngl $1. 

( HOICK 8A«'KKI> SO I. OS. for I. .» \ 

SO.\« CLASSICS, Soprano and Tenor, SO 




CLASSIC VOCAL DUE rS, the very 1. st -! 


■AVE \ . Will I K S A I. Ill H, 
SI 1.1.1 \ A \ S VOI' A I. A I. It I 'I. :, i 
FOPI'LtK SOSH l'l)LI,i:<'TI»N, i 
GOOD OLD SONGS we u«ed losing, 115 songs. .$1. 

COLLEGE SONGS, 150,000 sold 10c 

COLLEGE SONGS for BANJO, for Guitar, ea.#l. 
RAVMES & TUN ES ; Osgood. Swt home music,?!. 


PIANO CLASSICS, Vol. 1. 44 pieces fl. 

PIANO CLASSICS, Vol. 2, 31 pieces $1. 

CLASSICAL PIANIST, 42 pieces 11. 

YOUl>G PEOPLE'S CLASSICS, 62 easy pes. fl. 

The above are all superior books. 

Any bock mailed for retail price. 


C. H. DITSON & CO., 867 Broadway. New York 

NOXKT heady : 


Bt F. 8. BURCH. 


81xty-four pages, doth 
bound, containing chapters 
on Milking, Milk Setting, 
Cream Raising, Churning, 
Working, Salting, Packing, 
Shipping and Marketing. 
A Hand Book for the Be- 
ginner. Full of useful in- 
formation and worth many 
times its cost Price, by 
mail, 30 cents. Address, 
DEWEY A CO., 220 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Jan. 4, 1890.] 


Queries aj^d Replies. 

How to Treat Fence Posts. 

Editors Press: — Can some reader of the 
Rural Press give us eorrect information as to 
which treatment makes a fence post the more 
durable — charring the end that sets in the 
ground or ooating it with boiling coal tar ? If 
any of your subscribers, or any one else, has 
an experience with these two processes, and 
will give it to us, the same will be gratefully 
received. H. C. Cone. 

Hlght for Chicken Pence. 

Editors Press: — What is the best hight for a 
chicken-yard fence for ordinary breeds ? Some 
say, "so high they can't fly over," others, "so 
low they won't want to." Can some one speak 
from knowledge? I'll be "right down" thank- 
ful for information. H. 

Napa, Cat. 

Grass to Prevent Washing on Hillside 

Editors Press:— Can some of your readers 
help me out of the following quandaries ? I 
have a " foot-hill " place in Shasta county, red 
gravelly soil, very friable. In the winter the 
heavy rains wash the surface badly, carrying 
down, often, much of the top-soil and occasionally 
washing out great furrows. Is there any grass 
that can be sown among the trees (it is all or- 
chard) that will not injure the trees, but will 
mat enough to afford sufficient protection 
against the washing away of the soil? Or can 
any one suggest something better ? R. H. 

Reed & Van Gelder's Nursery. 

The well-known firm of Reed & Van Gelder, 
nurserymen, depot 81.3 Second street, Sacra- 
mento, have established a new nursery at 
Acampo, San Joaquin county, and are prepar- 
ing to still further extend their business by the 
addition of another in some part of Sacramento 
county. They now have on hand at their nur- 
sery in Sacramento and Acampo over 1,000,000 
of the best deoiduous trees, 20,000 orange trees, 
besides large supplies of lemons, olives, figs and 
nut-bearing trees. Reed & Van Galder are 
well and favorably known in all portions of the 
coast, and no doubt all our readers will join us 
in wishing them all success in their enterprises. 

A Short Time for Work. 

" The recent heavy and continuous rainfall has so 
delayed and hindered farming work that all are be- 
hind as compared with other seasons at this period. 
It will be some time yet before the ground is in fit 
condition for plowing or seeding. Much ground has 
hennme so saturated, and in many instances sub- 
merged, that it will need rebuwing, while plowed 
lands have become so packed from the incessant 
rains as to need replowing. 

"Considering the lateness of the season, the sav- 
ing of time is a very important consideration to 
farmers. Now the ground must be stirred up, and 
the question is, Which is the quickest way of effect- 
ively doing it f 

" Plowing, without question, would be the best, 
but that means much additional expense and slow 
work. Admitting this, the next point is, which is 
the best and quickest substitute for plowing ? 

" There is no doubt but a spring tooth harrow 
loosens up the soil better than any other implement, 
a plow excepted. In the present condition of af- 
fairs it strikes us the advantage in favor of the har- 
row must be apparent to all. An eight or ten mule 
or horse team that draws a gang plow cutting Irom 
four to six feet can with greater ease draw a spring- 
tooth harrow cutting from 12 to 16 feet. This is an 
important point when time is limited, and the great- 
er amount of ground that can be covered in the 
same time is considered. 

" 1 his brings us to the consideration of the har- 
row point itself, and while there may be several 
varieties, one that is well made, durable and reason- 
able in price must commend itself to public favor 
just now. 

" The Stevens Steel Spring Tooth Harrow, manu- 
factured by D. M. Osborne & Co., Bluxome street, 
San Francisco, possesses all these essential require- 
ments. The frame is corrugated steel, the teeth be- 
ing secured to the top of the frame by malleable iron- 
holders. It has arched frame behind the teeth, to 
prevent clogging and insuring light draft. It works 
well in all soils and all conditions of ground; it 
adapts itself to any formation of ground by being 
hinged in the center, there being a variety of sizes — 
seven in all, the largest cutting eight feet; where a 
wider cut is desired, two can be coupled together. 

" For orchard and vineyard work this harrow has 
a steering rudder attachment, giving the driver per- 
fect control in guiding it close to the trees or vines 
without striking them.'' 

To those wishing roses, hardy plants, bulbs and 
seeds for home planting, we cordially recommend 
the old reliable house of The Dingee & Conard Co., 
West Grove, Pa. They are admitted to be tha 
largest rose-growers in America, and their roses and 
plants arc well and favorably known all over the 
United States and Canada. Their New Guide, no 
pages, handsomely illustrated, describes and tells 
how to grow more than 2000 varieties of the newest 
and choicest roses, hardy plants, bulbs and seeds, 
and is sent free to all who write for it. See adver- 
tisement in this paper, and address The Dingee & 
Conard Co., West Grove, Pa. 

Shorthand writers receive from $1000 to $3000 a 
year. Prof. Marsh's Practical Shorthand, advertised 
on page 20, is the best system. 


To loan in any amount at the very lowest 
rate of interest on approved security in Farming 
Lands. A. SCHULLER, Room 8, 430 California 
itreet, San Francisco, ** 

A Grape Brush Rake. 

We give herewith an engraving of the device 
for gathering grape prunings, invented by the 
late E. M. T. Hilgard, and for which a patent 
is pending through Dewey & Co.'s agency. It 
is designed to accomplish, quickly and cheaply, 
by aid of the horse, the gathering up of vine 
prunings, which has been hitherto a very 
tedious and expensive operation by hand labor. 
The machine has been tried in the vineyard 

and has done excellent work, being estimated 
to enable one man or boy and horse to do the 
work of eight or ten men in gathering and 
bunching prunings for burning or loading on 
wagons. The devioe L very simple and its plan 
can be well understood from the engraving. 
Its arrangement for gathering and massing the 
prunings is such that the objections to the ordi- 
nary wheel rake for such work are fully met 
and overcome. No doubt, as the weather has 
necessarily made much delay in vineyard work 
this winter, there will be quite a disposition to 
see what time can be gained with this machine. 
Truman, Hooker & Co. of 421 Market street 
are the general agents, and at their store the 
grape brush rake can be seen. 


Truly a Farm and Home Journal of the highest 
class, pure in tone and well informed on all matters 
of industrial interest. 

All branches of Farming, including the keeping 
and breeding of Horses, Cattle, Sheep, Swine, Bees, 
Poultry, etc.; Garden, Fruit, Vine, Grain, and Hop 
Culture; Reliable Market Reports, with other im- 
portant departments devoted to the Grange, Home 
Circle, News, etc. 

It is the Leading Agricultural Home Newspaper 
and standard authority on all branches of California 

Its illustrations are probably the most practical, 
original and helpful of any agricultural journal in 
the world. 

It also contains more fresh and useful agricultural 
information for the readers of this coast, by far, 
than can be obtained through any other publication 
issued here or elsewhere. 

Established by its present proprietors in 1870, with 
rare facilities for leading in its position, and se- 
curing the combined patronage of the mosi intelli- 
gent and thrifty husbandmen of this coast, where 
the soil, climate, and many other conditions, imper- 
atively demanded a new agricultural literature. 

These natural advantages, combined with liberal 
enterprise, strict and long-continued fidelity to the 
welfare of the farmers and their households, has 
given the Rural an aggregation of patronage which 
places it far in advance of all competitors and which 
enables us to give much better issues at decidedly 
lower living rates, (to the advantage of both sub- 
scribers and publishers,) than would otherwise be 

A steady and leading advocate of the Grange 
cause from its first introduction on this coast, in 
1873, the Grange edition of the Rural has been 
endorsed as the Okfical Weekly Organ of the 
State Grange of California, and as successor 
to the weekly issues of the California Patron it is 
the leading Grange advocate for Oregon, Wash- 
ington, Idaho and Montana Territories. 

It has the fullest and most accurate Reports of 
Horticultural Meetings, and is the best record 
of the Experience of Individual Farmers and 
Fruit-Growers in all parts of the State. 

Its market reports are prepared with care and the 
greatest reliability possible for the benefit of the 

The Pacific Rural Press has more circulation 
and influence in the Pacific States and Territories 
than all the other agricultural weeklies in the United 
States combined . Advertisers can reach nearly all 
the leading reading farmers through its columns. 

A well-known horticulturist who was in attendance 
upon the meetings of fruit-growers, writes; "The 
greatest praise that could be bestowed on the Rural 
Press at the late Fruit-Growers' Convention and, 

which shows, undoubtedly, the well-deserved pop- 
ularity of that paper, is the fact that almost all the 
members of that Convention were subscribers to the 

Yearly subscription $3. [Fifteen months are al- 
lowed new subscribers and old subscribers paying $3, 
ten months for $2, five months for $1 and three 
months for 60 cents, paid strictly in advance.] 

DEWEY & CO.. Publishers, 
No. 220 Market Street, San Francisco. 



— AND — 


A Manual of Methods which have Yielded 
Greatest Success, 

— WITH — 

Lists of Varieties Best Adapted to the 
Different Districts of the State, 

— BY — 


What Readers Say of It. 

A Boon to Beginners.— Your work will be a 
boon to many who are just beginning the culture of 
fruit in California, and to those who are already 
pioneers in the work it will be a standard of author- 
ity and I may say, library companion. — Prof. H. 
E. Van Deman, U. S. Pomologist, Washington, 
D. C. 

Condensed Information. — I have examined 
your work with great interest, and congratulate you 
on the amount of information you have condensed 
into it. It will be a valuable addition to the practi- 
cal literature of the Slate. — Hon. Horace Davis, 
President vf the University of California. 

On the Grape. — " Closely written and faithful." 
— Chas. A. Wetmore, Pres. Viticultural Commis- 
sion of Cal. " It is the best work of its kind ever 
published in California, and should be in the hands 
of every fruit and vine grower " — C. J. Wetmore, 
Manager Viticultural Commission. 

On Nursery Work. — Your work contains the 
best and most complete treatise on growing nur- 
sery stock I have ever seen. — John Rock, Mana- 
ger California Nursery Company. 

On Pruning. — From my knowledge of the 
writer I was sure the work would be the best ever 
written on the subject, but I am surprised to see 
how complete and perfect it is. I have never seen 
such accurate directions for pruning condensed 
into so few words, or described in such pleasing 
language. — Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa. 

Thorough and Valuable. — The work is so 
thorough and explicit from beginning to end that 
it is most valuable to any one having few or many 
trees. It stands unrivaled among the many books 
on fruit culture that 1 have seen. — Alice F. Cam- 
eron, Lochiel, Pima Co., Arizona. 

True and Exact. — Wickson's work on Califor- 
nia Fruits is the finest I have ever read, as he con- 
veys true ideas and facts by exact language. — J. B. 
You NT, Dixon, Cal. 

A True Guide. — It ought to be in every fruit- 
grower's hands, and especially in the hands of new- 
comers who are at sea in the methods of fruit-grow- 
ing in this State. A California rancher, though a 
tenderfoot, need not err in horticultural pursuits if 
he follows the well-digested advice laid down in this 
book. — Mrs. Flora M. Kimball, National City, 

Valuable to Practical Men. — I have had 13 
years' experience and 1 find Wickson's "California 
Fruits" the most comprehensive work I ever read, 
and a fruit man ought to be ashamed that he does 
not own a copy. I think so much of it that my 
men are compelled to read it. — Robt. Watts, Elk 
Creek, Colusa county, 




Publishers Pacific Rural Press, 

220 Market Street, Elevator 12 Front Street 


• Aloha Nurseries.— The name of these nur- 
series at Penryn. Placer county, is not new to 
those readers who keep an eye on our adver- 
tising columns. They claim to be the oldest 
and largest citrus nursery north of Los Angeles; 
and their price-list for the season of 1889-90 
(which will, no doubt, be sent free on applica- 
tion, by F. C. Miles, the manager, Penryn, 
Cal.) reports a stock of 20,000 budded trees; 
but as may be seen by reference to their adver- 
tisement, they by no means confine themselves 
to the citrus varieties. 

A Combination Catalogue. — Theodore 
Skillman of Petaluma and Charles E Humbert 
of Oloverdale have iesued a combined catalogue 
in which the former's fine imported horses and 
the latter's Holstein-Friesian cattle are de- 
scribed, and, in several instances, depicted. 
Correspondence solicited and visitors welcome. 

Cheap Money for Farmers ! 


large sums below market rates. S. D. HOVEY, 
318 Pine street, San Francisco. ** 

Back Filbs of the Pacific Rural Prkss (unbound) 
can be had for $2.50 per volume of six months. Per year 
two volumes) $4. Inserted In Dewey's patent binder, 
60 entn additional per volnme. 



The Central Sbreet Railway Company was 
organized February 20, 1889, by Sol. Runyan, 
of Courtland, E. K. Alsip, L. L. Liwis and R. 
T. Devlin, of Sacramento; W. J. Linders.B.C. 
Hawes and H. L3vy, of San Francisco. The 
company have five miles of single track with 
turns and switches, and one and a half miles of 
double track; all of which has been laid with 
the best possible regard for permanency over 
streets most prolific for the company's finances, 
beginning at the depot of the Southern Pacific 
Company, through J street, passing the leading 
hotels, theaters and all points of interest, in- 
cluding Sutter's Fart, Park (these grounds are 
soon to be made more beautiful through 
the aid of Col. C. F. Crocker) and baseball 
Park, with a terminus at South Sacramento. 

The company have equipped the road in a 
first-class manner, running, in the summer, 
large, open, two-horse cars, and in the winter, 
double-closed cars, all fitted up in the latest 
style, electric bell and fare-boxes; large end 
and center lamps. The woodwork and paint- 
ing are of the best materials, and the decora- 
tion is the work of artists. The running gear 
is strong and light, making the drawing easy 
and riding comfortable. 

The road is doing a larger business and has 
been a paying investment since cars began run- 
ning, and the increased travel gives assurance 
to its projectors that a small degree of enter- 
prise in keeping up its present good facilities 
given the public, is all that is needed to make 
it the best paying street railway outside of 
San Francisco. 

South Sacramento is a beautiful suburban 
tract of high and slightly rolling ground ad- 
joining Sacramento city, that has been partly 
subdivided into lots 40x160 feet in size facing 
well-graded avenues SO feet in width. In the 
rear of each lot there is an alley 20 feet wide. 
Trees have been Iplanted of the best species 
for shade and ornamental purposes. There are 
several dwellings built, some in course of 
construction, and lots are being sold each 
week to parties who intend building in the 

Besides the lots above referred to are a num- 
ber of half-acre lots that are going like "hot 
cakes." The land is very productive, and water 
pure and clear from wells is easily obtained at 
a depth of eighteen to thirty feet. 

South Sacramento is the terminus of the 
car line of the Central Street Railway Com- 
pany, giving communication with the post- 
office of Sacramento every ten minutes; thus 
making the same opportunity for reaching the 
city aa is enjoyed by residents thereof. 

The price of the lot 40x160 is very low, 
being offered at $100 up to $500; the terms be- 
ing $10 down and $10 per month until all is 
paid. The half acres are offered at about $400 
each upon terms within reach of all — one-third 
down; balance in two years. 

We can speak in high praise of South 
Sacramento, it being the most desirable tract 
that has been subdivided near Sacramento; 
the clearest proof of which is the number of 
improvements made there the last summer, and 
the class of persons who have purchased lots. 




1015 Fourth St., Sacramento, Cal., 

Are the agents for the owners of South Sacra, 
mento, and have maps, price-lists, and will give 
all desired information upon application either 
in person or by mail. 

To get any of the choice lots that are not 
sold, we advise an early purchase. 




Sure Cure for Diabetes, Catarrh of the Bladder, and all Disorders of the Liver 

and Urinary Organs. 

Manufactured by SIERRA CHEMICAL CO., San Francisco, Cal. 

Laboratory, 9434 Mission strent. ALL DBUGOISTB. 



[Jan. 4, 1890 

breeders' directory. 

Six Unas or less In this Directory at 60c per line per month. 


PERCHEBON HORSES— Refer to large adver- 
tisement. Address. Capt W. B. Collier, Lakeport, Cal. 

HENRY HAMILTON, Wesley, Cal., breeder of 
Kentucky Jacks and Jennies, Draft Horses and Hol- 
stein Cattle. Jacks, Horses and Mules for sale. 

EL BOBLAR RANCHO, Los Alamos, Sauta Barbara 
Co., Cal., Francis T. Underhill, proprietor, importer 
and breeder of thoroughbred Hereford Cattle. Infor- 
mation by in ,11. C. F. Swan, manager. 

A. Hcilbron & Bro., Props.. Sac Breeders of thorough- 
bred strains and cruikshank Shorthorns; also Registered 
Herefords; a fine lot of young bulls in ea.bherd for sale. 

J. R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devons, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 

H. P. MUHR, Mt. Eden, Cal., breeder and importer of 
Clydesdale Horses and Holstein-Fiiesian Cattle. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, CaL Thoroughbred 
Registered Holsieiu and Jersey Cattle. None better. 

P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co., Cal., Breeder of 
Recorded Shorthorn Cattle and Poland Cbina Hogs. 

Station, S. F. 6 N. P. R. R. P. O., Penn's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

THOS. WAITE, Perkins, Sac. Co., Breeder of Trior- 
oughbred Poultry and Registered Berkshire Hogs. 

P. PETERSEN, Sites, Colusa Co., Importer & Breeder 
of registered shorthorn Cattle. Young bulls fur sale. 

JOHN LYNCH, Pctaluma, breeder of Thoroughbred 
Shorthorns. Young stock for sale. 

J.H.WHITE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder 
of Registered Holstein Cattle. 

R. J. MERKELEY, Sacramento, breeder of Norman, 
Percheron Horses and thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, importer and dealer in 
Eastern registered Shorthorns, Red Polled Cattle, Hol- 
steins, Devons and Shropshire Sheep. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, San Franoisco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past 18 years, of 
every' variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

F. H. BURKE, 40! Montgomery St., S. F.: Registered 
Holsteins; winners of more first prizes, sweepstakes 
and special premiums this year than any herd on the 
Coast. Pure Berkshire Pigs. Catalogues. 


Cal.; send for illustrated and doscriptive catalogue, free. 

B. Q. HEAD, Napa, Cal., breeder of the choicest va- 
rieties of Poultry. Each variety a specialty. Send for 
new Catalogue. 

CHAS. R. HARKER, Santa Clara, Calif. White 
fly mouth Rocks, exclusively. None better anywhere, 
East or West. If you want the latest and best improve- 
ment in poultry, get genuine White Plymouth Rocks. 
Write for prices. Eggs, *;i per 13; packed to go safely 
any distance. 

GALT POULTRY YAHDS breed the choicest 
strains of Ply. Rocks, Lt. Brahmas, P. Cochins, etc 
Eggs in season, carefully packed, 43 for 13; So for 26. 
S. W. PAL1N, Gait, Sac'to Co., cal. 

JOHN McFARL'NG, 706 Twelfth St., Oakland. 
Cal., Importer and Breeder of Choice Poultry. Send 
for Circular. 

W. C. DAMON, Napa, $2 each for choice Lt. Brahmas, 
Wyandottes, P. Rocks, White and Brown Leghorns. 
Eggs, $2 per 13. Beet Seed for sale. 

O. J. ALBEE, Lawrence, Cal. Pure bred poultry. 

A. O. RUSCHH ADPT. Brooklyn Hights, Los An- 
geles. 15 breeds of pure-bred Poultry. Circular free. 

E. H. FREEMAN, Sauta Clara, Cal., breeder and 
importer of best strains of thoroughbred poultry. 

T. D. MORRIS. Agua Caliente, Cal.; pure bred fowls. 


L. C. 8HIPPEE, Stockton, Cal., Importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys & Berkshire Swine high graded rams for sale 

A. W. WOOLSEY & SON, Fulton, Cal., importers 
ft breeders Spanish Merino Sheep; ewes & rams for sale 

B. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and importer. 
South Down Sheep from Illinois and England for sale. 

Ferry, Cal., breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams for sale. 

ANDREW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; seo adv't. 



That the public should know that for the past Eighteen Years our Sole Business has been, and now Is 
importing (Over 100 Carloads) and breeding improved Live Stock — Horses, Jacks, Short Horns, Ayrshires, 
and Jerseys (er Alderneys) and their grades; also, all the varieties of breeding Sheep and Hogs. We can sup- 
ply any and all good animals that may be wanted, and at very reasonable prices and on convenient 
terras. Write or call on us. PETER SAXE and HOMER P. SAXE. 

San Francisco, Cal., Oct. 22, 1888. PETER 8AXE A SON, Lick Home, S. F. 





<V Young Stock in each herd for sale. Address: 

GEO. A. WILEY, Danville, Contra Costa Co.. Cal. 




JOSEPH MELVIN, Davisville, Cal., Breeder of 
Poland-China Hogs. 

WILLIAM NILK.S, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pies. Circulars free. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal., breeder of 
thoroughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

ANTlRKW SMITH. Redwood fMtv. Oal.: aae adv't 


Short Horn Cattle and Draft Horses, 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 

Barton Hraftnn. - Ran Mateo Co., Oal 

Fine Bred Shepherd Puppies For Sale 

Apply to P. O. Box 806, Napa Oity, CaL 





Young Stock for sale at reasonable prices. Every animal guaranteed. 
OFFICE-218 California St., San Francisco. REDWOOD CITY, CAL. 


Registered Herd Book Stock of the Aggie, Netherland, Nep- 
tune, Clifden, Artis and ether families. None better. 

•T3EnEijBfrja"S"<jEi v 

Of the Coomassie, Alphea and other choice strains. 

Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. 

JPOTJIjTIIY- Nearly all Varieties. 

Third Edition POULTRY & STOCK ROOK, 60 cents 
' by mail postpaid. Thirteen years experience on this coast. 

WIIjIjIAM NITjES, Tjos Ansclos, < V < 1 . 

New Importation 




Has arrived with his new importation, consisting of 


Theie young Stallions were Belected in England and 
France, with care, by myself personally as to the wants 
of the Pacific Coast, and aro prize winners in their native 
couutry. If you want a Stallion, come and have a look. 
Prices and terms satisfactory. All horses warranted as 
breeders. Catalogues sent on application. 


Petaluma, CaL 



Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
London, England. 
Gradi'atrd April 22, 1870. 
Advice by Mall, $2. 


Ho. 11 Seventli St, near Market, San Francisco, Cal, 

Open Day and Night. Telephone, No. ES60. 

IMAM SILK fKlV-h. PHOTO. (-AKD3 &e.. 20 New Amp. 1 pwh Kara* 
JH Cn-rdj. 1 pack Lot* CfutU.876 Rkb*!Uc* J<-kr».TriAa,UiuQc*,«N#w 
»»» buaflf B-»k of tftnaiDcv Cartli 1'cl*. vmwm lv., CaMI, Ohfc* 

Draft Horse Breeders, Attention 1 


A Number of Fine Young I'ure-Bred 


Imported Irom Scotland and registered in the Clydesdale 
Stud Book. Among them are: 

BOGWOOD (6561), Vol. X, O. 8. B. 

BELTED CRUISER (0481), Vol. XI, C. S.B. 

CANNY JAMIE (6574), Vol. XI, C S. B. 

Thev are of good dark colore with the Regular Clydes- 
dale Markings, and are the fiue«t HorseB that have ever 
been imported to this State. They are the property of 
A. V. WILSON, Esq., North Yakima, W. T., and will be 
sold for a reasonable figure. They may be seen at the 
Mt. Eden Farm. For pedigrees and particulars, call on 
or address, A. V. WIl SON, Nortb Yakima. 
W. 'I'., nr H P. MOHR, Mount Eden, Ala- 
meda Co., Cal. 



It prevents disease, regulates the bowels and urine, 
strengthens the kidneys, prevents scouring, colic and 
leg swelling, loosens the hide, promotes the appetite, 
cures cough, destroys worms, and produces a fine glossy 
coat. *7.60 per 100 pounds. Manhattan Egg Food, In 
bulk, 12 cents per pound. Ask your dealer, or send to 
PAUL KBYSER. Agent. 206 Olay St., 8. F. 


mileB east of Ukiah. Comfortable Hotel. Quiet Cabins. 
Lovely Scenery. Low Charges. Its waters are a sure 
cure for Dropsv, Scrofulous and 8kin Diseases, Rheuma- 
tism, etc. Address, H. L DBMO, Upper Lake. 



Bed Polled Cattle. 

We have 19 head of Imported Stock. 


Importer and Breeder of Shropshire 
They were all imported from England in '88, 
direct from Imported Stock, and all registered. 

or bred 



American Merino Sheep Without Horns. 

The only flock in the L'nitcd States. When we bought 
our sheep East 20 years ago, anong them was a ram with- 
out horns. Be grew to he a large fine sheep, shearing at 
I years old, a 12 months' fleece, 35 lbs. of long white wool 

I have bred from him and his get ever since and have 
never made an out-cross and never used the same ram but 
one year on the same flock. My rann at 2 years old will 
weigh from 160 to 180 lbs.; have a strong constitution, 
without wrinkles, and will shear on an average about '£> 
Ibj., a 12 months' fleece, of long white wool. Rams and 
Ewes for sale. F. O. Address : 

Feta.lU.mA, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



One and a half miles northeast of San Leandro, 
Alameda County, has every facility for Break- 
ing Colts properly. Rates very reasonable. 
Howes boarded at all times. 


P. O. Box 149, San Leandro, Oal 

Percheron Breeding Farm. 


For 15 young animals bought of M. II. Dunham as 
foundation stock, 919,600 was paid at one time. 

Blood of Brilliant Largely Represented. 

Sales show this to be the most popular strain of the 


Two-year-olds and three-year-olds from the Grand Prise 
winner, Cesar, who weighed 2040 as a two-year-old. 

Take 8. F. & N. P. R. R. for Hopland, thence stage 10 
miles to Lakeport. Address 


Lakeport, Lake County, Cal 

Send for Catalogue. 


/S/I358-I360 MARKET ST.S.E 



A practical treatise by T. A. 
giving the results of long experi- 
ence In Southern California. 1M 
aiii viinp pages, oloth bound. Sent post-paid 
1 1 Ml* »» 'educed price of 76 cts. per cop*- 
UUL I Ullk by DEWKY 4 CO., Publishers. S. F 

Jan. 4 1890 ] 



Cor. 17th & Castro Sta., 

Oakland, Oal. 

Manufactory of the PACI- 
BROODER. Agency of 
the celebrated silver finish 
galvanized wire netting for 
Rabbit and Poultry-proof 
fences, the Wilson Bone 
and Shell Mill, the Pacific 
jg Food, and Poultry ap- 
pliances In great variety. 
Also every variety of land 
_ J and water Fowl, which 
have won first prizes wherever exhibited. Eggs for 
Hatching. The Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand-Book and 
Guide, price, 40c. Send 2c. stamp for 60-page illustrated 
circular to the PACIFIC INCUBATOR CO., 1317 Castro 
St., Oakland, Cal. 

Are you using Wellington's Improved Egg 
Food for Poultry? If Not, Why Not? 

H not, your poultry is sickly, and you are getting very 
few eggs. Two substantial reasons for getting it at once: 
This has been the Standard Poultry Preparation for more 
than eleven years. It will positively CUKE and prevent 
every disease of poultry. And all who use it will tell 
you they have plenty of eggs to sell now that the pri^e is 
high, and the price is going still higher. Use it as soon 
as possible. Every merchant keeps it. 

Send for oircular and prices. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, Proprietor and Dealer in 
Seeds, 425 Washington St., San Francisco. 

Cliick.en & 

Raised by tub Petalumifi, 


L Afford more profit than any other busi- 
ness for the capital invested. The 
most successful machines made; any 
one can manage them. A large illus- 
trated circular and pamphlet, "Practi- 
cal Artificial Ri-aring of Chicks," will 
be mailed fbkb to any one sending ue 
his name and address. Contains infor- 
I s mation valuable to any one who keeps 
r^* fowls. [Mention this paper.] 



IMPROVED «,?els i or 
excelsior INCUBATOR 

Simple, Perfect attll Seli'-re&suliitins. 


Hundreds in suc- 
cessful operation. 
Guaranteed to hatch fl 
large percentage! 
of fertile eggs as any 
other hatcher. Send 6c. fori 
new Illustrated Catalogue. 
Circulars Free. 


FMentee and Sole manufacturer, QUINCY, ILLINOIS. 

Woodland Poultry Yards. 

Pure standard S. C. Barred Plymouth Rocks 
and f>. C. White Leghorns; stock first-class- 
A. C. Hawkins' and Knapp Bros.' stiains. 
Eggs $2 per setting. W.F.JEANS, 

Box 171, Woodland, Yolo Co.. Cal. 

The Halsted Incubator Co. 

1312 Myrtle St., Oakland, Cal. 
Thoroughbred Poultry and Fggs. 

Send Stamp for Ciroular. 


JOHN T. McELFRFSH has patented a very simple 
device which is a complete 

Protection to Bees 

Against the ravages of the Bee-Moth. It is a simple at- 
tachment to the platforms upon which the Gums rest. 

The Miller, as all bee-men well know, Is seldom or 
ever seen until after sunset, and from that until dark. 
They are small Insects with small heads, and have an 
innate dread of Bees; and If they can find an aperture 
or hole, near the entrance of the Bees, under which they 
can dart to lay their tggs, rather than come in contact 
with the Bees, there is where they will go every time. 

Now, my device is so constructed that the Bees pass in 
and out of the Gum through a spout which pn jectn about 
four and one-half inches from the Gum; about two inches 
below this spout is affixed the apparatus or holes for the 
Millers' entrance. As the spout is always full of Bees, 
the Millers will dart through them into a box of water, 
and are thereby destroyed. 

All who have examined it say that it is the most note- 
worthy improvement in this line which has ever been 

All communications addressed to 


Tracy, CVt 1 . 

Will receive prompt attention. 

Italian Queens, 92.60 each; Black Queens, $1 each. 
Swarms from $2.50 each; Smoker, $1. Comb Found* 
tion, $1.26 per pound; V-groove Sections, $4 per 1000 
Comb Honey wholesale and retail; Hives, etc. W 
RTVAN k SON. Tho Hnmeatoari Apiary. San Matnn. Cal. 





Best and Strongest Explosives in the World. 


The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For Stump and Bank Blasting. From 5 to 20 
pounds blows any Stump, Tree or Root clear 
out of ground at less cost than grubbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers use no other. 

As other makers IMITATE our Giant Powder, so ao they Judson, by Manufacturing 
a second-grade, inferior to Judson, 
BANDMANN. NIELSEN & CO. General Aqents, San Francisco. 

TP <Z> 





A chance to get the finest country home In California and a paying investment. Two hundred and sixty acres 
foothill land overlooking Bay of Monterey, southern exposure, 860 feet elevation, springs of soft water all over 
place. Climate eight degrees warmer than Santa Cruz in winter, same gentle sej-breeze in summer; little fog. 
The most even temperature on this Coast. One hundred and sixty acres good fruit land fit for hay, corn, grain and 
vegetables; balance pasture and timber. One thousand cords redwood and live-oak. Forty acres in fruit, selected 
after 8 years experimenting. Ten acres Olives; 24 acres Newtown Pippins (never failed in 8 years); 24 acres Salway 
Peaches (1 failure in 9 years, pay $300.00 per acre, net); 1 acre table Grapes; balance Family Orchard: Apple, Peach, 
Plum, Pear, Prune, Apricot, Nectarine, Fig, Orange, Persimmon, Chestnut, Walnut, Filbert, Almond, Olive and 
Grape. Spring water piped to house, can, at small outlay, be made sufficient for 500 people. Place long known 
among old settlers as the finest farm In the Santa Cruz mountains. One and a half miles from ranch line to Santa 
Ciuz city limits. Half hour drive from center of farm to S. C. P. Office, R. R. Depots, etc. Will divide well into 
Country Villas. Fine for Summer Resort. Offered in whole or part at very low cash figures. Easy terms if desired. 
Place, including $2000.00 worth of tools, stock and crops, at $22,000.00. Subdivisions at $60.00 to $500.00 per acre. 



Box 361, Santa Cruz, California. 

This paper IB printed wltn Ink. Manufac- 
tured by Charles Bneu Johnson & Co., 500 
South lOth St., Philadelphia. Branch Offl< 
cea— 47 Rose St., New York, and 40 La Salle 
St., Chicago. Agent for the Pacific Coast— 
Joseph H. Dorety , 038 Commercial St., 8. F. 


Affords the cheapest and most convenient power for Ranch, 
Vineyard or Dairy purposes, as well as for running dynamos 
for electric lights, pumps and every other variety of machinery. 
0t*/r? " possesses In the same degTee the wonderful energy and 
" fir? power that has made the Pelton Wheel famous in all paits of 
Uthe world. 

These motors are made of varying sizes, with capacities 
ranging from the fraction of one up to 15 and 20 H. P., enclosed 
in iron cases, all ready for pipe connections, and are warranted 
to develop a given amount of power with one-half the water 
5, required by anv other wheel. 

rfj The cost, considering capacity and efficiency, is fully 50 per 
W cent less. 

Circular, giving full information, sent on application. 
Parties wiiting for information should give full particulars 
as to power wanted, source of water, supply, with head or 
pressure. Address 


121 Main Street. San Francisco, Cal. 



Warehouse and Wharf at Port Costa. 

Commission Merchants. 



— AND — 

Commission Merchants, 

309 and 311 Sansome St., San Francisco, 


Bull Dog brand Bass' Pale Ale and Guin- 
ness Extra Stout. 

Elephant brand English Portland Cement. 

Purimachos Powder and Cement, inde- 
structible and infallible. 

Rohe & Bro.'s New Yorfc Lard. 

Kornafull India Tea, Calcutta. 

New Lambton Coals, Newcastle, N. S. W. 

Mexican Phosphate & sulphur Co., Super- 
phosphate Fertilizer. 










— AND — 

General Commission Merchants, 

810 California St., S. F. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange 

^"Personal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad- 
vances made on Consignments at low rates of interest. 


Money advanced on Grain in Store at lowest possible rates of interest. 
Full Cargoes of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited. 

E. VAN EVERY, Manager. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manager. 

S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 
'Free Coach to and from the House. J, W. BECKER, Proprietor. 


Commission Merchants 



Green and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignments. 
308 & 310 Davis St., San Francisco 

[P. O. Box 1936.] 
^"Consignments Solicited. 


BUC0R880R8 TO 


501, 603, 505, 607 and 609 Front Street 
and 300 Washington St., S. F. 

General Commission Merchants. 


Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Produce and 





39 Clay Street and 28 Commercial Street 
San Franoiboo, Cal, 

Eugene J. Gregory. [Established 1852.] Frank Gregory. 


Commission Merchants, 



126 and 128 J St., - Sacramento, Cal. 

.San Francisco Office, 313 Davis St. 

Established 1860. 

tT. yjsr. GALE ete CO., 

Fruit anil General Commission Merchants, 

And Wholesale Dealers in CALIFORNIA. AND 
OREGON PRODUCE. Dried Fruits, Nuts; also 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans, Potatoes, Eggs Poultry, Game, 
Butter, Cheese, Honey, Ac 314 arid 316 Davis St., 
San Francisco Advance liberally on Consignments. 
Prompt returns. P. O. Box 2061. 


Commission Merchants, 

Green and Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Etc 
Consignments solicited. 113, 416 & 417 Washington St., 
San Francisco. 


And Dealers in Fruit, Produoe, Poultry, Game, Eggs, 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and 221, 228, 
226 and 227 Washington St., San Francisco. 


Commission Merchants. 

All Kinds of Green and Dried Fruits. 
consignments soi.ioiTgD 824 Davie St, 8. F, 



[Jan. 4, 1890 

&. J3. fflAF^KET J^Ef OF^T 

Market Review. 


San Francisco, Dec. 31, 1889. 
The holidays and a close money market have 
interfered with general trade. After the turn of the 
year more activity is looked for, based on an easy 
money market and fairer weather. So far this win- 
ter outdoor work has been greatly interfered with, 
and even in many sections with clear weather, it 
cannot be overtaken. The European and East- 
ern wheat markets close the year dull and easy. 
The following is to-day's cable: 

Liverpool, Dec. 31. — Wheat — Firmer. Cali- 
fornia spot lots, 7s!4d to 7s 4&d; off coast, 36s 6d 
@36sod; just shipped, 35s 6d; nearly due, 36s 6d; 
cargoes off coast, firm; on passage, firmer; quantity 
of wheat on passage to Continent, 382,000 qrs; 
wheat and flour on passage to U. K., 2,082,000 qrs; 
English country markets, firm; French, firmer; 
wheat in Paris, steady; flour, firm; weather in Eng- 
land, frosty. 

Liverpool Wheat Market. 
The following are the closing prices paid for wheat 
options per ctl. for the past week: 

Jan. Feby. Mar. Apr. May. Jun 



Saturday ■ 

Monday 7s3jd 7s3d 7s2}d 7al}d 7sl»d .... 


The following are the prices for California cargoes 
for off coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for 
the past week: 

P. S. 

N. D. 



3680 J 

Stead v. 
Qui at. 

o. c. 


Fridav 30*6.1 

Saturday 3«s6J 

Monday 36.3d 

Tuesday • 

Eastern Grain Markets. 

The following shows the closing prices of wheat 
In New York for the past week: 






. 856 




. 853 













The closing prices for wheat have been as follows 
at Chicago lor the past week: 

Day. _ J*n. May. June. July. 

Thursuay '...77} vii; 

Friday 77} 82 

Saturday 78 -J 5 

Monday 77, 828 


New York, Dec. 31. — Wheat — 86^c for cash, 
86Hc for Januiry, 88c for March and 8oV6c for 

Chicago, Dec. 31. — Wheat — 77HC for Decem- 
ber, 77% c f° r January and 82jic for May. 

Foreign Grain Review. 
London, Dec. 30. — The Mark Lane Express, in 
its review of the British grain trade for the past 
week, says: English wheats are firm though deliv- 
eries are large. Sales of English wheat during the 
week, 46,767 qrs. at 29s }id against 38.369 qrs. at 
40s 7d during the corresponding week last year. 
Foreign wheat is quiet. Chief dealings are in Cali- 
Icrnia at 6d rise. Grinding barley has advanced 3d, 
oats, 6d and rye 3d; corn is firm; linseed declined 
3d. A dense black log almost compelled a cessation 
of business. At to-day's market English wheat was 
neglected; Californian and Russian were strong. 
Flours were steady. New American corn declined 
3d and linseed 6d. 

California Fruits East. 
Chicago, Dec. 29. — California green fruits met 
with a fair demand yesterday at $2.50®3 per box for 
pears; fine pound pears $3-50®$4- 

Dried fruits — Little o( consequence is at present 
being done, but there is a dull slow market, with a 
few prunes and raisins selling, but not enough to at- 
tract attention. Peaches are slow and apricots for 
present rather neglected. Pears, unpeeled— choice, 
bleached, sacks, i2®t4 cts; unpeeled— bleached, 
choice, sacks, 15® 16 cts; peaches, peeled — choice 
to fancy, sacks, 22@24 cts; peeled— fair to good, 
sacks, 20@22 cents; apricots— choice, in fancy large 
sacks, I2@i3 cents; good to choice, sacks, io@n 
cents; small and ordinary, sacks, 7@8 cents; nec- 
tarines—white, choice to fancy, sacks, 12 % cents; 
red, good stock, sacks, n^@i2 cents; common 
grades, 9%@io<4 cents; French prunes— dipped, 
40 to 50 pound sacks, 8K@9 cents; dipped, 90 to 
100 pound sacks, $'A®5% cents; dipped, 100 to 
125 pound sacks, 5@5J4 cents; undipped bring 
nearly the same as dipped. Egg plants— according 
to quality, sacks, 6@7^ cents. Hungarian prunes 
— sacks, 3 K@4 J4 cents. Pears — choice Bartletts, 
nK@i2 c ents : others, common to choice, 5@9 
cents; boxed lots of above descriptions bring about 
one-quarter cent per pound premium over sacks. 

Raisins— New London Layers, per box, $ 
2.25; New London Layers fancy, $2; 
Three Crown, loose Muscatels, per box, $1.50® 
1.85; Two Crown, loose, $t. io@i. 20; loose Musca- 
tels, sacks, per pound, 6 cents. 

Oranges were quoted rather quiet, but choice 
pound fruit is firm, while ordinary and soft rule 
easy. Trade is centered in Florida oranges mainly. 

California Nuts— In light supply and salable. Wal- 
nuts, per pound, ii@iiJ4 cents; almonds, paper 
shell, according to quality, per pound, i6@22 cents; 
almonds, Languedoc, according to quality, per 
pound, I2%(ati3 cents; almonds, hard shell, ac- 
cording to quality, per pound, 7@9 cents. 

Beans — There is no improvement from slow to 
easy market. The demand continues light, so that 
business is curtailed. California Lima beans, s%@ 
5)4 cents per pound. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Boston, Dec. 26. — The American Wool Re- 
porter, in reviewing the market, reports a torpid 
condition, due to the holidays. Its strength, how- 
ever, is concentrated in staple wool. Ohio and 
Michigan delaines are particularly firm at 36 to 37 
cts. for the former and 34 to 35 cts. for the latter. 
The prevailing opinion is that trade will pick up 

after the 1st. Ohio fleeces— X are 32 cts. and -XX, 
34 cts., strong and yet in lair request. Texas- 
Quiet; fine full, 17 to 18 cts., medium, 31 to 32 cts. 
Spring is at a standstill. California is sharing the 
general dullness. There is a large store of mixed 
Oregon and California on hand, with but little de- 
mand. Nominal prices, 50 to 52 cts. for free and 
42 to 45 cts. defective. 

The Providence Worsted Mills yesterday bought 
600 bales of Valley Oregon at 27 cts.; XXX Oregon 
brings 35 cts. The heavy condition of lots of Ter- 
ritory still affords a weak feature in the market. 
The past week has been a shading of 1 to \ % cts. 
of wool in grease. Pulled wool dull. Australian 
dull, with a moderate demand for fine cross-breeds; 
72 to 75 cts. for scoured. 


New York, Dec. 29. — Stored pears — Dull; 
weather against exposure; a few placed at $3.75. 

Hops maintain a good price; it is noted that prices 
are better and quality and merit are more readily al- 
lowed by the exporters. Sales include 1050 Califor- 
nia prime State, choice, 14!^ ©15c; common to 
prime, io@i3!4c; Washington, fair to best, n@ 
13&C; California, io@I2c; all '88s, 7@t2c; olds, 

No material reduction in hides, though fair 
business. California dry, 14c; Central American, 
11c; Buenos Ayres, 15c; common, 9@ioc. 

Honey, 7%@7'Ac lor amber white; 50 ctls. of the 
former taken for export. 
Lima beans, $3.20. 

Local Markets, 

Buyer Season. Seller 1889. Buyer 1890. 
H. L. H. L. H. L. 

Thursday... 904 90} 95 95 

Friday 90J 90} 95 95 

Saturday.... 90} 90} 

Monday 91} 91i ... 81 j 



S. S. a 8. B. '89. S. '89. B. '90. 

{!:::: i£ & :::: Si 

1 S3 :::: % 

{£":::: S3 ig :::: :::: 

Monday J h ,35 l 126 I •••• "0 

Monday ll 135} 124J .... 139J 

Tuesday f J" 

BAGS — The market is dull and heavy at last 
week's quotations. 

BARLEY — The sample market shows a fair 
degree of strength notwithstanding the free deliv- 
eries on expiring contracts. In futures, trading 
continues light. The following are to-day's Call 
Board sales: 

Morning Session: Buyer season — 100 tons, 
9iHc; too, 91'Ac $ ctl. Afternoon Session: Buy- 
er season— 100 tons, 91 Kc ctl. 

BUTTER— Receipts continue light, which en- 
ables dealers to work off old supplies. With im- 
proved roads receipts are expected to show!a decided 

CHEESE — The market is firm for new mild and 
barely steady for old. 

EGGS — The market drifted to still lower figures. 
This was due to heavy shipments from the Eist — 
several carloads arriving yesterday and to-day. As 
the most of these eggs are from Salt Lake, they find 
ready buyers. 

FLOUR — The market is fairly firm, with a good 
demand ruling. 

WHEAT — The sample market is strong from 
round straight parcels of good to choice, and hold- 
ers do not appear disposed to let go even at a slight 
advance in bids. Considering the close money 
market abroad and at the East, the market holds 
up remarkably well. After the turn of the year, 
money will be easier. In futures, trading has been 
light, with only slight fluctuation noted. The fol- 
lowing are to-day's Call Board sales: 

Morning Session: Buyer 1890—200 tons, $i.40>i; 
Buyer season— 500 tons, $136^; 1000, $1.36}$ $ 
ctl. Afternoon Session: No sales. 


Market Information. 

Produce Receipts. 

Receipts of produce at this port the week ending 
Dec. 31st, were as follows: 

Flour, qr. sks 61,622 

Wheat, ctls 297,937 

Barley, " 18,017 

Rye, " 329 

Oats, " 4,896 

Corn, " [,969! Wool, 

•Butter, " 444 " 

do bxs 295 

do bbls 6 

do k^gs 40 

fCheese, ctls 206 

do bxs 

Eggs, doz 11,680 

do " Eastern. 12,650 

Beans, ctls 1.530 

Potatoes, sks 21,895 

Onions, " i>394 

Bran, sks 10,604 

Buckwheat, sks 

*And overland . . ctls 

Middlings, sks... 
Alfalfa, "... 
Chicory, bbls.. 
Brooracorn, bdls. . 
Hops, bis. 


Hay, tons 

Straw, " 

Wine, gals 

Brandy, " 

Raisins, bxs . . . 

Honey, cs 

Walnuts, sks . . 
Flaxseed, sks . . 
Mustard, sks . . 
Almonds, sks. . 
Peanuts, sks. . . 
Popcorn sks . . . 

1, 100 


+And overland 8 ctls. 

The Mark Lane Gazette, Dec. 29, says: The 
supply of potatoes in most parts of the United 
Kingdom is proving large, and the tubers them- 
selves are unusually sound and palatable. Prices 
at the great towns, however, are so low that all con- 
signments are discouraged, and growers make as 
much use as they can of their crops at home or in 
their own immediate neighborhood. This in- 
creases the depressing influence of large wheat sales 
at the purely agricultural centers. The supply of 
home and foreign breadstuffs since harvest has been 
seven and a-half million qrs., against wants of six 
and a half millions. This has added to the 
stocks to the extent of not less than a million qrs-, 
and as the reserves in the public granaries show 
nothing like this increase, it is evident that millers 
rather than importers are the present holders. They 
will naturally have this extra supply to work 
through. During the winter weeks when the im- 
ports begin to fall off, and not until they are getting 

to the bottom of these reserves, are they likely to be 
urgent buyers. Such a consideration appears to be 
a strong bar to advance price, this side of Christ- 
mas, at all events. Otherwise the situation makes 
for holders, as there are only 1,768,000 qrs. of 
wheat and flour expected to arrive during the next 
few weeks, against 12,383,000 qrs on passage this 
time last year, and as the total quantity of wheat in 
sight in all countries is only 8,250,500 qrs. against 
10,328,000 qrs. a year ago. Russia, up to date, has 
shipped 10,770,114 qrs. of wheat against 12,465,850 
qrs. in the same period of 1888, deficiency of 1,695,- 
736 qrs. , which makes it hard to say why South 
Russian wheat should now be quoted 31s to 35s per 
qr. against 33s to 37s quoted a year ago. Calilor- 
nian wheat is now worth 35s 6d on passage and 363 
arrived. A year ago 42s 6d was quoted off stands, 
and 39s 6d on passage, yet a year ago there were 
1,238,000 qrs. of Californian afloat against under 
1,000,000 qrs. at the present date. The figures of 
the Indian wheat trade tell in the same direction. 
There are now but 111,000 qrs. on passage from the 
East, against 246,000 qrs. a year ago. 

The year closes dull but firm for wheat. The out- 
look is of a very promising character for higher 
prices. Trade the world over is active, with labor 
well employed in Europe, and at better pay than 
for two or three years past. With better pay, wage- 
earners live better, and consume more wheat flour. 
Besides this there is every indication that after the 
turn of the year money will be easier the world over 
under free disbursements. The close money mar- 
kets at home and abroad have been against wheat. 
The weather has been against out-door work in this 
State, which combined with high waters in some 
localities and too much wet land in some of the 
others, promises to largely reduce the acreage to be 
seeded to wheat this winter. Buyers have shown a 
little more disposition to bid up for straight parcels 
of good to choice, but holders are reported as being 
indifferent. Considerable wheat has changed hands 
on both buyer and seller 1889 contracts. 

Barley has held to steady prices, with at times a 
firm, strong tone reported. The receipts are light, 
which cause holders to look for better pr.ces as soon 
as interior roads are passable and out-door work 
again resumed. At this writing it is difficult to form 
a correct idea regarding the acreage that will be 
seeded this season, but from the general tenor of 
advices it is likely to be less than last season. 

Oats have ruled firm under a fairly good consump- 
tive demand. Receipts the past week were light. 

Corn appears to show a firmer tone, yet the light 
demand hardly admits of forming a correct idea of 
the present situation. The receipts are light. 

Rye and buckwheat move off slowly at unchanged 


Ground barley is steady. Bran is easy under free 
receipts, although a good shipping demand took 
considerable. Middlings are weaker. Feedmeal is 
easy. The general market is quiet. 

In bay the movement continues locally. The de- 
mand is confined almost, if not entirely, to near-by 
wants. The receipts continue light. The outlook 
is said to be favorable for a good crop of certain 
kinds next year. The fine natural feed is against 
any increase, at present, in the consumption of hay. 
Florida Orange Crop. 

D. D. Watson writes to the Pomona Progress from 
Orlaudu, Flurida, as follows: to answer 10 your 
note of the 3d instant, asking me to tell you as nearly 
as possible how the present orange crop in Florida 
compares with that of previous years, I take pleasure 
in telling you as fully as 1 can. The Florida orange 
crop is not the large one that you read about in the 
newspapers. Reports of the great quantity of 
oranges grown in this State have been circulated in 
California in order to bear the market. I have been 
an orange-grower here for 13 years, and I have a 
personal acquaintance with nearly every orange- 
grower within a radius of 60 miles of Orlando. So 
I know what 1 am talking about when 1 say posi- 
tively that the Florida yield of oranges this season 
is 30 per cent less than an average yield during the 
time I have been in the business. 1 have counted 
this morning 72 orange-growers in this section who 
have unusually short crops. The cause of the short- 
age is the drouth last March, April and May, and 
the poor provision for irrigation such as you people 
in Southern California have reduced to such a 
science and to such vast usefulness for the fruit- 
grower. Don't let the California fruit-buyers bear 
your producers this season. We have suffered much 
from that cause in Florida. The fact that you have 
so many orange-buyers now, and that they have 
begun contracting for the fruit so early, seems to me 
to mean that they want your oranges pretty bad. 


The apple market closes the year strong for choice 
good-keepers, but common kinds are in over-supply. 
The scarcity of apples in Oregon is in favor of our 

In citrus fruits there is nothing of interest to report. 
Rains and high water have interfered with deliveries, 
yet the cold weather is against enlarged consump- 
tion. It is generally claimed that after the turn of 
the year the demand will set in strong for oranges. 

Dried fruits are lifeless. The trade is reported to 
be well stocked. This is due to the bad roads hav- 
ing interfered with the distribution. The better in- 
formed look for a decided revival in trade soon, 
which will dear up the surplus stocks and bring the 
trade again into market. If this be realized, better 
prices are not at all unlikely to prevail. Peaches are 
scarce. To sell any kind of fruit, concessions are 
necessary; to buy, full prices must be paid. 

In raisins there is nothing new to report. The 
year goes out with light stocks on hand. Choice 
good-keeping grades are not in large supply. 

Heavy rains and the almost impassable roads 
have interfered with deliveries of bullocks and 
mutton sheep, which has naturally created better 
prices. Again, slaughterers are calling for a better 
quality for the holidays, and pay an advance to get 
it. With the best of natural feed, deliveries will in- 
crease when the roads are passable and consequent- 
ly lower prices will probably be in order. Hogs are 
without any particular change. The low price of 
the product is against the market In cows and 
horses there is nothing new to report. The rail- 
roads have been selling by auction their condemned 
horses, at prices ranging from $5 to $60 each. 

The market for dressed cattle is quoted as fol- 
lows [to obtain the price on foot, take off from the 
price for stall-fed one-third to one-half, according to 

the nature of the feed and time fed; and for grass- 
fed take off the price from 40 to 60 per cent]: 

HOGS — On foot, light grain fed. 4X@5ctf lb.; 
dressed, 8@9c \ff lb.; heavy, 4X@4Kc }ff lb. ; 
dressed, 7@8c Iff lb. Stock hogs, 4K@4%c tftb. 

BEEF — Stall fed, 8@8J4c ^ lb. ; grass fed, extra, 
7@7Kctflb.; first quality, 6%@7C Iff lb.: second 

Suality 6@6>4c # lb.; third quality, 5@s!4c Iff 
). ; bulls and thin cows, 2@3c }ff lb. 
VEAL— Small, 7@9C lb. ; large, 6@8c 
MUTTON— Wethers, 7@8c #lb.; ewes, 7® 
$ lb. ; lamb, spring, io@i2)£cand 15(011 8c Iff lb. 
The high prices to which potatoes have been ad- 
vanced are, it is claimed, not only against any in- 
crease in the consumption, but has lessened the de- 
mand. Be this as it may, receipts do not appear to 
work off so freely. The shipping demand is light. 

Both the receipts of and demand for onions are 
light, causing a steady but firm market. 

Garden truck is coming in sparingly. Heavy 
frosts the past week, it is feared, have done consider- 
able injury in some near-by localities. Los Angeles 
and other southern shipping points continue to send 
us spring garden truck. 

From the Commercial News of Dec. 31st the fol- 
lowing summary of tonnage movement is compiled: 
1889. 1888. 

On the way to this port 193,316 174.715 

On the way to neighboring ports 14,113 37.336 

In port, disengaged 11,546 21,919 

In port, engaged for wheat 76,090 56795 

Totals 295.065 290,765 

To get the carrying capacity, add 60 per cent to 
the registered tons as given above. 

From July 1, '89, to Dec. 26, the following are the 
exports from this port: 1889. 1888. 

Wheat, ctls 6,233,123 7,352.742 

Flour, bbls 546.302 344.873 

Barley, ctls 815,865 1,035,256 

Poultry has held to strong prices throughout the 
week, under light receipts, but toward the close 
there is a weaker feeling. 

Vineyardists must not overlook the important fact 
that experiments in France have shown that 
phylloxera can bs exterminated by the use of sul- 
phaie of copper. This will bring large areas adapt- 
ed to the vine in that country again under cultiva- 

Honey is in light supply. The market is firm. 

The receipts of wool are light. The demand is 
correspondingly light. The market is firm. 

In hops, trading continues light. The stock on 
the coast is reported to be small, particularly the 
more choice. 

Beans are dull and heavy, under light trading. 

Exports by sea the past week were as follows: 
Wheat ctls., to Liverpool, 34,909; Cork, 185,471. 
Flour bbls., Liverpool, 6co: Honolulu, 1100; Kahu- 
Iui,i25; Hilo, 474; Nanaimo, 140. Barley ctls., 
Liverpool, 2752; Honolulu, 2817; Hilo, 1383. Hon- 
ey cases, 751. Beans lbs. , Honolulu, 1561; Kahu- 
lui, 1682. Canned fruits bxs., Honolulu, 105. 
Dried fruits lbs., Honolulu, 100; Guaymas, 2371; 
Hilo, 455; Nanaimo, 250. Hay bis, Honolulu, 240; 
Hilo, 460; Kahului, 200. Potatoes sks., Guaymas, 
348. Raisins, bxs., Honolulu, 50; Guavmas um> 

Dried Fruits, Etc. 

The qnotations given below are for average prices paid 
Choice to eitra choice fetcb an advance on the highest quo- 
tations wbile poor sells slightly below the lowest quotations. 

Prices named, uoless otherwise sttecib d, are for fruit iu 
sacks. Add tor 50-fb. boxes Jc per tt»., ajd for 25-lb boxes 
}c to lc per lb. 

Apples, sun-dried, quarters, common 3 

■ 11 '• prime 4 

" " " choice 

" " sliced, common 

• " " prime , 

M " '* choice 

" Evap bleached, ring. 50-tb boxes 

Apricots, sun-dried, unbleached, common 

" *' prime 

" " " ohoioe 9Ji 

11 " bleached, prime 11 

11 " ohoioe 12 

" " " fancy Ui 

" Evap. choice, In boxes 14 I 

•• " fancy. " 1« 1 

Figs, Bun-dried, black li 

n " white 

** " " washed 

" " " fancy 

" " " pressed 

" " " impressed 

" Smyrna 14 & 

Grapes, sun-dried, stemless .... 2 @ — 

■' " unstemmed 1 : "* 2| 

Nectarines, Red, sun-dried 5 @ 7 

■ evaporated, in boxes 8(3 9 

" white, sun-dried 7 @ 9 

" evaporated 1" " r 1- 

Peacbes, sun-dried, unpeeled, common 4 @ 5 

11 *• M prime 6 @ 8 

choice 11 @ 12 

" '■ fancy 13 @ 14 

" evaporated " choice 16 w 17 

" fancy 20 <$ 22 

" sun-dried, peeled, prime 13 @ 14 

" •' " choice 16 @ 17 

" " fancy 18 <g 19 

" evaporated, " iu boxes, choioe 19 @ 20 

fancy 21 (<* 221 

Pears, sun-dried, quarters - @ — 

" " sUoed 5<g 7 

" evaporated, " In boxes 1| 8 

" " ring " - w - 

Plums, pitted, sun-dried 4 @ 6 

" " evap. in boxes, choice — ^ 

" " " fancy — 

" unpltted li 1 

Prunes, Cal. French, ungraded sizes 

graded " 90 to 100. . 

•• 80 to 90 

" 70 to 80 

" 60 to 70 

• " 50 to 60 

Fancy sell for more money. 


Halves, quarters and eighths, 25, 50 and 75 cents higher 
respectively than whole box prices. 

London Layers, choice < ■ \ f 1 75 @ 2 00 

fancy, " • 2 25 (9 — 

Layers, »bx 1 50 @ 2 50 

Loose Muscatels, common, V bx 1 15 @ 1 25 

choice, " 1 40 @ 1 50 

Unstemmed " in sacks, ^ tb 4 @ 6 

Stemmed " " * % J. 

8eedlese " " , " 5 w 54 

" #20-fb bx I 15 & 1 20 

" Sultanas, unbleached. I n bxs 1 15 1 20 

B » bleached " 1 20 <S 1 26 


Comb, dark, 2-tb. frames, 60- tb. cases, V fb 4 3 1 

" amber, " " cs. new " 5|S» 

" white " 41 " " 8 @ 

Extracted, dark, 5-gal. cans, 2 cans to case, W tb. 4 «J 
" amber, " " 1 5}OT 

white, " " '' . 6}@ 

Comb, 2-tlms, 2 doz. to case, V doz 12 W 

Eitracted, " — <9 

" 4-tt. tins, 1 doz. " — <a 

Beeswax, per pound 18 & 




Jan. 4, 1890.] 




[Furnished for publication in this paper by Nelson Gokom, Sergeant Signal Service Corps U. S. A.] 



Bed Bin 





Los Angeles. 

San Diego, 























Dec 24-Dec. 30. 









eather.. | 





eather. . 



Ind .... 









I 1 

































1 42 









































































































































































































































1 64 




2 00 




4 32 

1 02 

Explanation.— 01. for clear; Cy., clou ly; Fr., fair; Fy., foggy; Cm , calm;— indicates too small to measure. Temperature win<1 anH weather at 5:00 p. M. (Pacific Standard time) 
with amount of rainfall In the preceding 24 hours. T indicates trace of rainfall. San Francisco rainfall to gain Dec. 24, 12.77. Season to 9 A M., 24 96. 

Domestic Produce. 

Eitra choice in good packages fetch an advance on top 
quotations, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 
quotations. Wednesday, Dec. 31, 1889 

11 & 

6 {a 

12 @ 

9 @ 

' 37i<a 



Bayo, ctl 3 00 @ 3 15 

Butter 2 00 @ 2 25 

Pea 1 90 <g 2 10 

Red 2 75 @ 3 00 

Pink 2 00 @ 2 10 

Large White ... — @ — 
Small White .. 1 90 @ 2 10 

Lima 4 60 @ 5 25 

Fid Peas.hlkeye 2 U0 @ 2 25 
do green .... 2 25 <§ 2 75 

do Nii'i! 1 90 @ 2 00 

Split 5}@ 5J 

Choice toEitra65 00 @ 72 50 
Fair to Good.. 57 50 @ 62 50 

Poor 42 50 (So 47 60 


California 6 @ 64 

German 6i@ 7 



OaL Poortofair.lbl2ja 

do good to choice 20 @ 

do Giltedged... 23 @ 

do pickled 10 @ 

do in kegs 15 @ 

Eastern Cre'm'ry 15 @ 

do do Gilt-edged 18® 


Oal, new, choice. 


dof'r tog'd old 
N. York Cream. 


Cal. ranch, doz. 
do do sel'cted 

do. store 32}® 

Est 'rn, eld st'rage 24® 

do fresh 30 @ 

do selected.. 35 @ — 

Bran, ton 11 50 @12 50 

Feedmeal 20 00 (323 00 

Gr'd Barley IS 00 @19 00 

Middlings 17 CO <»18 60 

Oil Cake Meal. .30 00 @ — 
Man battauFood 

r,.. 100 a... 7 50 3 — 

Compressed 8 00 @12 00 

Wheat, per ton. 7 00 mi 00 
Wheat and Oats 8 00 3S12 00 

Wild Oats 7 00 ©11 50 

Tame do 6 50 @10 50 

Clover 5 00 @10 00 

do ch'ceretltop 11 50 @13 00 
Cultivated Oats 6 00 @ 8 50 

Wild Oats 5 00 @10 50 

Barley 5 00 @ 9 50 

Barley and Oats 5 00 <S 8 00 

Alfalfa 5 00 <a 9 00 

Stock Hay 3 50 (8 6 50 

AlfalfaC'mpr'sd 6 50 @ 9 00 

Straw bale 45 @ 60 

Extra, City Mills 4 121, 
do Oo'try Mills 4 00 

Superfine 3 00 

Barley, feed, ctl. 75 <g 80 
do Choice 82J@ 85 

do Brewing... 90 @ 95 
do do Choice. . 97 j(S 1 02J 
do do giltedg'd 1 C5 @ 1 12j 
Chevalier ence 1 36 ® 1 40 
do com to good 1 05 St 1 311 

Buckwheat 1 75 @ 2 10 

Corn, White.... 1 05 (8 1 16 

Yellow 95 & 1 C2i 

Oats, milling.... 1 31}§ 1 33f 

Surprise 1 3H@ 1 38J 

Choice feed 1 30 @ — 

do good. 1 25 @ 1 27i 

do fair 1 20 (3 1 224 

do Gray 1 lo <a 1 -jjt 

Rye 92 J@ 1 00 

Wheat, milling. 
Gilt edged. ... 1 3fi}@ 1 374 
do Choice..... 1 33}@ 1 35 
do fair to good 1 31;... 1 32} 
"8hippiug,cho'ce 1 30 @ — 

do good. 1 27J<8 — 

do fair 1 25 @ 1 26i 



1 40 

1 25 
1 25 

1 50 

2 00 

Almonds, hd shl 

Softshell 9 @ 

Paper shell... 13(8 

Brazil 11 <§ 

Pecans 9 @ 

Peanuts 4i@ 

Filberts 11 & 

Hiokory 5 (3 

Chestnuts 14 @ 

Pine nuts 9 @ 

Early Rose, sk« 1 25 

Chile - 

Peeiless 1 00 

Jersey Blues.... 1 00 

River Reds 1 25 

Burbanks 1 50 

Ouffey Cove.... — 

Tomales — — 

Swe<-t 1 25 @ — 


Hens, doz 6 00 & 8 50 

Roosters.old.... G 00 ffl 7 00 

do young 7 00 ffl 10 00 

Broilers, small 4 00 ffl 5 50 
do large.. 5 50 @ 7 50 

Ducks, tame 5 59 ffl 7 50 

Geese, pair 1 50 @ 2 25 

Turkeys, Gobl'r. 18 ffl 20 
Turkeys, Hena. . 18 @ 20 
do dressed 19 @ 22 

Pigeons, old 1 75 ffl 2 00 

do young. 1 50 m 2 00 
Rabbits, doz.... 1 00 @ 1 50 

Hare 1 60 @ 1 75 

Doves 50 (3 75 

Quail, doz 1 CO @ 1 25 


English 2 50 ffl 3 00 

Jack 75 ffl 1 25 


Widgeons .... 2 00 (3 2 25 

Mallards 4 00 @ 5 00 

Sprigs 2 Oo 3 2 75 

Teals 2 00 (3 2 50 

Small 1 50 ffl 1 75 

Cauvasback 5 00 ffl 7 50 

Geese, Gray 3 00 (3 3 60 

do White ... 1 25 @ 1 60 

Honkers 5 00 @ 6 00 

Brant t to ... i r- 

Manhattan, $ lb 12 ffl — 

Cal. Bacon. 

Heavy, lb 11 @ llj 

Medium 12 @ 12j 

Light 13 ffl 131 

Extra Light.. 13}ffl 141 

Lard 9 @ 12' 

Cal. Sm'k'dBeef 11 ffl 12 

Hams, Cal 12Jffl 14 

do Eastern... 14 @ 141 

Alfalfa 9J9 10 

Canary 4 ffl 41 

Clover, Red.... 12 ffl 13 

White 20 ffl 22 

Cotton 20 @ — 

Flaxseed 2 ffl 2i 

Hemp.. 8 ffl 84 

Perennial .... 
Millet, German. 

do Common.. 
Mustard, yellow 
do Brown .... 


Ky Blue Grass. 

2d quality.... 
Sweet V. Grass. 


Hungarian.. . 





Crude, lb. . 


Salted . 

9 ffl - 


SPRING— 1889. 

Humboldt and 

Mendocino.... 20 ( 

Sac'to valley.... 15 i 

Free Mountain. 20 { 

S J oaquin valley 1 2j( 

do mountain. 17 ( 

Cala'v k F'th'll. 15 ( 

Oregon Eastern. 13 ( 

do valley 20 ( 

So'n Coast, def.. 11 ( 

Son Coast, free. 14 ( 


11 San Joaquin.. . 

defective 8 ( 

free 11 i 

Mountain, free. 11 ( 

Northern 13 6 


Oregon. 1888 .... 5 ffl 8 
Oregon, 1889 .... 9 ffl 13 
California. 1888 . . 5 ffl 8 
do 1889 Choice 12 ffl 13 
do Fair to G'd I 
Silver 8kinchc> 1 10 ffl 1 25 
do fair ti good. 60 (8 1 00 

NUTS -Jobbing. 
Walnuts, Oal. ft) 7Jffl 8J 

do Oh'ce 9 ffl 11 

* Top prices can only be reached by straight parcels favor- 
ably situated. 

Fruits and Vegetables, 

Choice selected, 
quotations, while 
Apples, bx, com. 

do Good 

do Choice 1 

do Extra 2 

do Eastern bbl 4 
Bananas, bunch 1 

Cranberries 12 

Limes, Mex 5 

do Cal Irge cases 2 
Lemons,Cal.,bx. 1 
do Sicily, bx. . 5 

do Malaga 4 

do do Seedling 2 
Pineapples, doz. 3 
Ladyapples, box 1 

Vaeaville 1 

1. Angeles sdlgs 2 
Riverside sdlgs 2 
do Navels. . 4 

In good packages, fetch an advance on top 
very poor grades sell less than the lower 
Wednesday, Dec. 31, 1889. 
Los Angeles do 2 50 @ 4 00 

Okra, dry. lb 12jffl 20 

Parsnips, ctl 1 00 ffl — 

Peppers, dry, lb 6 ® 12J 
do green, lb.. 8 ffl 10 

Marrowfat, ton 4 00 ffl 6 00 
60 ffl 75 
60 ffl 75 
50 ffl 65 
40 ffl 60 

Turnips, ctl. . 

Beets, sk 

Cabbage, 100 lbs 

Carrots, sk 

Mushrooms, Cul 

tivated, lb 20 ffl 

Wild, lb — <| 

Cucumbers bx.. — @ 

Garlic, lb 4 @ 

Tomatoes, bx... 1 00 (8 

Rhubarb 7 & 

Peas 10 @ 



Stockton Business College and 
Normal Institute. 

Without making any criticisms on oar public 
schools, it is generally conceded that oar pri- 
vate institutes, and especially our business 
colleges, give the most reliable education. 
The Institute of the oity of Stockton, owned 
and conducted by Messrs. Trask & R\msey, 
is one of the largest and most noted for its 
superior management and thorough edu- 
cation given of any one on the Pacific Coast. 
They employ the best teachers, pay large 
salaries, and have light, airy and commodious 
rooms. The entire building, as shown in the 
cut, with a large building adjoining, making 
over 70 rooms, are for the uses and purposes 
of the Stockton Business College and Normal 
Institute. Although the eduoational status is 
very high, the charges are extremely low. It 
has become a well-known fact that graduates 
from this school, either in the business or 
normal departments, have maintained and 
secured the most responsible positions and ex- 
cellent standard in scholarship. We have 
before us the highest recommendations and 
unqualified indorsement by the prrminent 
citizens of Stookton of this school. Aoy one 
wishing information on this subject will re- 
ceive a catalogue on application which contains 
a full description of course of study and 

Dr. Fisherman's Oarbolized Alka- 
line Lotion. 

This remedial agent, as an external remedy 
fnr sprains, sores, bruises, galls, swellings, 
scratches, thrush, grease-heels, rheumatism, 
weak knees, mange, itch, skin diseases, etc., 
has grown in great popularity, and the demand 
has extended to all parts of the Pacifio Coas 
Messrs. Lynde & Hough, 116 California street, 
are the proprietors. 


Sold by Dewey & Co., Publishers "Pacific 
Rural Press." 

book for the orchardist. Price $3. 

and brief descriptions, by I. Bleasdale, D. D. Invalu- 
able to those growing the vinifera. Price, in pamphlet, 
50 cents. 

of Los Angeles. The most comprehensive treatise on 
the growth of this fruit. It contains full instructions 
for growing the trees, planting and care of orchards, 
etc.; 227 pages. Price, 75 cents. 

A practical treatise full of useful hints for beginners in 
this State; 20 pages. Pamphlet, price 25 cents. 

annual conventions have resulted in bringing out the 
best and most useful information concerning the 
growth of different fruits in this State. The subjects 
discussed are of the most direct practical value and 
tbe facts laid down will prove helpful and suggestive 
to all in the fruit business. We have the reports of 
1881, 1882, 1884, and 1885— the first for 10 cents, the 
others at 25 cents each. 

ing directions applicable to poultry growing in this 
State; 120 pages, post-paid for 60 cents. 

EASES— Post-paid for 25 cents. 

A HOUSE.— Contains plana and amounts of materials 
/or a number of buildings from a little cottage to a 
large dwelling. Price, 25 cents. 

Now that Sorghum is once more attracting the atten- 
tion of farmers throughout the country, and has this 
time apparently come to stay, it is well to know that ihe 
Sorghum Hand Book, a valuable treatise on the cultiva- 
tion and manufacture of Sorghum, may be had free of 
charge on application to the Blymyer Iron Works Co. 
Cincinnati, O. 



real estate below market rates. HOWE & KIM- 
BALI., 508 California St., S. F. * 



For Grain, Orchard or Vineyard Work, 


Combining new features which make it superior to and different from any other in tbe market. Seven sizes, 
cutting from i ft. 8 in. to 8 ft. Can be coupled together when wider cut is needed for Grain. 


It is hinged in center, which admits its adapting itself to any formation of g r ound. The frame is arched behind 
teeth, which prevents clogging. It is suitable for gravel, loam or adobe soil. The teeth are secured on top of 
frame by malleable iron holders, which are simplicity itself. The Rudder enables driver to guide it close to trees or 
vines without danger of striking them. 

No Wood, but Wholly Steel, Making It Perfectly Indestructible. 

Prices Less than the Cheap Wood Frame Harrows. 
Send for descriptive Cut and Price List. Address 


Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press 
Patent Agency. 

Ouk U. S. and Foreign Patent Agency 
presents many and important advantages as a 
Home Agency over all others, by reason of long 
establishment, great experience, thorough sys- 
tem, intimate acquaintance with the subjects of 
inventions in our own community, and our 
most extensive law and referenoe library, con- 
taining official American and foreign reports, 
files of scientific and mechanical publications, 
etc. All worthy inventions patented through 
our Agency will have the benefit of an illustra- 
tion or a description in the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press. We transact every branch of 
Patent business, and obtain Patents in all coun- 
tries which grant protection to inventors. The 
large majority of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable, advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices 
are as low as any first-class agencies in the 
Eastern States, while our advantages for Pacific 
Coast inventors are far superior. Advice and 
Circulars free. 

DEWEY & CO.. PateDt Agents, 
220 Market St., Elevator, 12 Front St., S. F 

Telephone No. 658. 
a. t. dewey. w. b. ewer. geo. h. strong 



Imported and lired. 


and Bred in 1889, 
Being loo more than were Im- 
ported and bred this year by any 
other man or firm In America. 
kFii st choice of all leading? 
Studs of the Perche, 
100 bought before any purchase 
1 was made t>y other American buyers. 

Among Oaklawn's Importations this year are 


at the Great Shows of France; and of these were 


Af Universal Exposition, Paris, 1889, 




(90 In foal by Brilliant, the most famous living sire) 


Best Quality. Prices Reasonable. 
Terms Easy. Don't Buy without irisp^cUnt; this 
Greatest ami Host Successful SreedXng 
Establishment in America. 

Address, for 300 pa*fe catalogue, free, 


Thirty-five miles west of Chicago, on C. <fe N.-W. 
Ky. between Turner Junction and Elgin, 

Picturesque Californiao Homes, 

Vols. 1 and 2, each containing 40 plates, plans, details 
and specifications of houses — City and Country Homes- 
costing from $700 to $15,000, and adapted to families 
having good taste and moderate means. 

This work is designed to meet the wants of that large 
number of persons who have but a limited amount of 
money at their command, and in building a home wish 
to use it to the best advantage. Drawn by Samuel and 
Joseph C. Newsom, Architects, San Francisco, who have 
taken much pains in its preparation, and confidently as- 
sert that mechanics, clerks, salaried men, workingmen 
of every calling contemplating building, carpenters and 
builders iu cities, towns and villages, will find this book 
a useful aid, worth many times its cost in the informa- 
tion and practical suggestions which it gives. 

IS^The Plans are clear, and finely'drawn on Lithograph 
Plates, and handsomely printed; size, 9x13 inches. 

Subscribers to this paper (old or new), who have 
paid in advance of the date of application for this pre- 
mium, can have the same by paying 50 cents additional 
for Vol. 1 (bound in paper), or 75 cents for Vol. 2 (bound 
in cloth). Sent by express unpaid, or on receipt of 60 
cents (for Vol. 1) or SO cents (for Vol. 2), postpaid. 

Take care of your HORSE. Civilized Man advances 
rapidly and the Horse will " Keep up with the Band " if 
well cared for. Horse Boots, Kobes, Blankets, etc. 
Saddles, $5 to $75 each. Harness, $8 to $250 per set. 
American and English Saddlery Qoods. 

W. Davis cfc Son, 

Between Sansome and Battery, SAN * RANCISCO. 

L. V. WILLITS. Watsonville. Cal. Breeder of reg- 
istered Percheron Horses. Black color a specialty. 

Li. D. SCOTT, Clifton, Fresno Co. Breeder of recorded 
Hereford Cattle. Young Bulls for sale. 

PERCHERON HORSES, Just arrived from France. 
Address, WARNER, cor. West & 9th Sts., Oakland, Cal, 



[Jan. 4, 1890 

Seed;, Mapts, 

200,000 Olives. 18 Varieties, 


j. ij., 


Pomona, Los Angeles County, Cal. 

Riverside Nursery and Fruit Farm. 

Lodi, San Joaauin County, Cal., 



Shrubs, Vines, Etc. 

Yearling Fruit Trees, June Buds and Dormant Buds of 
all the leading varieties, t-udded from bearing trees and 
Guaranteed True to Libel, including 11 French Prunes," 
" Koyal Apricotf," Newcastle Early Apricots," "Adriatic 
^igs," "Bartlett Pears," "Muir reaches" Orang«, Lemon 
and Olive Tree*; J >pan Frit and Nut Trees; I. X. L. and 
Nonpareil Almonds, etc., etc. 

Catalogues mailed free to applicants. Address com- 
munications, JAS. A. ANDERSON, 

I.odl, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 




I offer for the season of 1839-90 a t/eneral assortment of 
Hardy Fruit Trees, grown without irrigation 

Improved Soft Shell English Walnut, White Adriatic 
and Smyrna Figs in orders of 10,000 a specialty. 

Depot for Trees, Main Street, Ventura. Nurseries 
located four miles east of Ventura on Santa Pau'a Koad. 

Prices furnished on application. Address 

O. P. COOK. Ventura, Cal. 

A large 1 it of genuine Blenheim Apricot, and Hatch 
Varieties of Almonds; I. X L., Nonpareil and No Plus 
ritra; all other ports Fruit Trees at reasonable rates. A 
fine lot of Hooted Muscat Vines. Send for Price-List. 


Box 51. Davisville, Cal. 

A choice lot of two-year-old Picholine Olive Trees, in 
open ground. Low prices. C. W. CRANE, 

Sunol Glen, Alameda Co., Cal. 


Dealers in all the Leading Varieties of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Plants and Vines. 


Texas Umbrella Trees anil Adriatic Figs. Choice Orange and Olive Trees a Specialty. NEWCASTLE EARLY 
APKICOT— The earliest in cultivation. LEVY CLING PEACH— The largest and best late yellow. 

A. F. BOARDMAN & CO., Auburn, Placer County, California. 


Trees and Nursery Stock For Sale at Low Prices 



Of Most Approved Varieties. 

Of SEND FOR CATALOGUE. Satisfaction Guaranteed. 
NURSERIES: Near Acampo Station, San losqnin. PRINCIPAL, DEPOT: 813 Second St., 
Near passenger Depot, Sacramento. 


Sncraraonto, Cal. 


The Riverside Washington Navel & Med. Sweet, 

Paper Rind St. Michael's, Malta Blood, Myrtle Leaved, Etc., 


CAL. FAN PALMS, All Prices, From 5c to $2.00. 



MRS. N. M. PRASER, Proprietor. 


Ponryn, Placor Co., Ca.1. 

FRED C. MJLES, Manager. 

1853. SEEDS! SEEDS! SEEDS! isss. 
J- IP. Sweeney c£? Co., 

Importers, Orowers and Dealers in Foreign and Domestic Seeds, Alfalfa, Red arid White Clover, AlsiVe, Timothy, 
Ked top, Millets, Sorirum, Espcrcctte, Or< hard and Kentucky Blue Grass and all kinds of Field, Tree and Vegitahle 
Seeds. At Lowest Market Kates. Catalogue Free. Correspondence solicited. 

J. P. SWEENEY & CO., Seed and Produce Commission Merchants, 



WATER PROOF. Sole Owners, Patentees and Manufacturers of 










810 California St.. San Francisco. 


Incorporated, 1884. 

460 Acres. 



Niles, Alameda Co., Cal. 

Largest Stock, on tlio Pacific Coast. 

Fruit Trees, Nut Trees, Wine, Raisin and Table Grapes, Berry Plants. 

OLIVES — A large collection of French, Italian and Spanish Varieties. 

ORANGES AND LEMONS — Home-grown Trees of all leading sorts; California and Florida 

A LARGE STOCK OF WHITE ADRIATIC FIG, of various sizes and prices. 

Ornamentals, Shade Trees, Evergreens, Shrubs, 
Roses, Climbing Plants, &c. 

For Complete T>ist, send for our New Catalogue. ' 

JOHN ROCK, Manager, IUIIjES, ^.lam^rla CJ*-» _ 

6*0 ACRKS. 



F. ROBDING, Proprietor. 

Largest Stock of 


On tno Pacific Coast. 


Olives, Grapes, Shade Trees, Palms, Roses & Oleanders. 

Send for Fall Catalogue. Address all letters to 

Gr. o. ROBDINO, Manager, 

Fresno, Cal. 




Agency of CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO , Niles, Alameda Co., Cal. 

We now offer for the Season of 1SSD and '90 the Largest and Best Selected Stock on the Pacific Coast, 

Fruit Trees, Grapes, Olives, Orange anil Lemon Trees, 

White Adriatic Fig, Small Fruits, etc., etc. Ornamental Trees and Plants. Roses, 
Magnolias, Palms, Bulbs, etc. 

We have also constantly on hand a Large and Freeh Stock of GRASS. CLOVER, VEGETABLE 
FLOWER AND TREE SEEDS. ^Catalogue mailed on application., 

THOS. MEHERIN, 516 Battery St., San Francisco. Oal. 

Jan. 4, 1890.] 


Seeds, Wants, ttc. 


(Established 1878.) 


Of none but the Best Varieties of 


Etc, Etc. 
New Descriptive Catalogue Now Ready. 




Established 1871. 

Stock Unexcelled, of None But the Best. 


Mission, Plcholine (Reddings), Nevardillo, 
Lavajeany and others. 

Strong Vines, $15 per Thousand. 

Ready to fruit this season, $15 per hundred, and 2-year- 
old Plants, $10 per hundred. 
Also, the Largest and Best-Selected Stock of 

Azaleas, Camellias, Rhododendron, Fuchsia, 

and the beat, stock of Evergreen, Ornamental Trees and 
Shrubs on the Pacific Coast. Address: 

Baker and Lombard St«., San Francisco, Cal. 

E. J. BO WEN, 

Seed Merchant. 

Onion Sets, Grass, Clover, Vegetable 
and Flower Seeds. 

Largest Stock & Most Complete Assortment. 

Illustrated descriptive and priced seed Catalogue for 
1890, the m"st elaborate and valuable of Its kind of any 
Pacitio Coast publication, mailed free to all applicants. 

Address, E. J. BOWEN, 

815 & 817 Sansome St , San Francisco, 
or 65 Front St., Portland, Or. 


I have a large selection of OLIVES (In varieties), 

Guavas, Bananas (in six different varieties), Walnuts and 
Ornamental Shade Trees. Also make a specialty of 

Tropical and Semi-Tropical Fruit Trees. 



$2 to S4 per hundred. 


Santa Barbara, - California. 


Propagator of and Dealer in 


And Shade Trees. 


(Nursery three miles west of Yuba City.) 

Always on hand and for sale, a large stock of Genuine 
Bartlett Pear, Apple, Plum, Cherry, Peach, Apricot, 
Quince, Nectarine, and Small Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees. Also Orange, Lemon, Lime, Japanese Persimmon, 
Olive, Nut Trees, Grape Vines, eta 



For Grafting and Buddinar. 


A Fine Lot of Rooted Muscats. 


216 Montgomery Street, San Francisco 

Best 8orts, New and Old. Fine 
Blocks of Home-Orovm St'd and 
Dw'f Pear; Plum, Peach and Apri- 
cot, on Peach, on Plum, and on 
Mariana roots; Cherry, Quince, 
Apple and Crab grafted on piece 
roots, on Whole Roots and 
Bndded; Mulberries, Grapes, Small Fruits, Roses 
Evergreens, Ornamentals, Root Orafts — Everything! 
No larger stock in U. S. No Better. No Cheaper. 



Largest Stock of Trees in 
the S'ate. 

The only Fig that should be 
planted for Drying. 








Cherries, Nectarines, 




Shade Trees and Ornamen- 
tal Shrubs, 

Jreenhouse Plants, Roses. Etc. 

A complete assortment of Rooted 
Grapes and Cuttings. All trees war- 
ranted free from Scale or Aphis. 

42T Catalogue Free. 

W. I. Williams 4 Co. 

Box 175. 





500,000 FRUIT TREES 


Having added by purchase, to that of our own erowing, the entire nursery stock grown at James Shinn's 
Nurseries, Niles, Cal., we are better prepared than ever before to meet the increasing demind for trees, and offer 
for the season of 1889-1890 the largest and most complete assortment of Nurs«ry Stock on the 
Pacific Coast, embracing ail the lending varieties of Fruit. Shade and Ornamental Tre*»s, 
Roses, Plants, etc., etc. BERRY BUSHES of all kinds in quantities to suit. 200,000 GRAPH! 
VINE 4 (strong roots) ; also 60,000 OLIVE TREES (Mission and Pi choline). Oranges, Lemons, 
Nut Trees. e»c, etc. 

NCRSEKIES— San Rafael, Alameda and Niles, Cal. Packing Grounds and Salesyard at 
Niles R. R. Station. Catalogues sent upon application. Address all comoiunications to 

TRUMBULL & BEEBE, 419-421 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Davisville Nursery? 

Our Trees are all Grown on New Land and Guaranteed Free From all Insect Pests 

Almonds Specialty: CALIFORNIA PAPER SHELL (very fine), sold 

wholesale this year for 22 cents per lb. Nonpareil, Golden State, I. X. L., 
Ne Pins Ultra, Drake's, King's Soft Shell, Etc. 

The Celebrated Tragedy Prune, French Prune, Silver Prune, Etc. 

Correspondence solicited. Our Catalogue of 1889-90 sent free. Our prices are the very lowest; no exception. Address 

w . THEA.T, Davlsville, Cal, 


Established 18S3. 


1,000,000 Rooted Grapevines— Table, Raisin and Wine. Largest Stock 
of Peach and Apricot on the Coast. 


Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Vines and Greenhouse Plants. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue and Price-list for 18S9-90. All Trees, Vines, etc., guaranteed free from Scale and 
other injurious pests. A certificate of inspection furnished to all. 

E. C. CLOWES, Proprietor, (Successor to W. B. West.) Stockton, Cal. 


H.- ~X7ST. BELL. 

(Successor to L. BURBANK.) 

A Large Stock of All the Leading 
Varieties of 

Warranted Free From Scale and Raised 
Without Irrigation. 


and other Choice Olives, cheap. 
REDDING PICHOLINBS (1 yr.), $8 to $10 
per Hundred. 

Figs, Japan Mammoth & Italian Chestnuts, Mulberries 
and Best Walnuts. 

A Liberal Discount on Large Orders. 

Fine Small Fruits a Specialty. 





Lakeland, Polk Co., Fla. 

Owing to the death of a member of our firm, the business must be closed out, and in order 
to sell out our immense Nursery Stock in bulk, we will make it grestlv to the interest of any 
one who has capital to invest. Oar annual PRICE-LIST with REDUCED PRICES furnished 
on application. We carry a large collection of miscellaneous stock, but make 


Orders for small or large lots tilled with dispatch. 
Rural Press. Address, 


Communication solicited. 

Mention Pacific 

TISOINT, Business Mrtiiftgox- , 

HaalLolancl, Folb. Go., Pla. 

Firm and Luscious, stands travel finely, bears im- 
mensely, and has two crops a year; 60 cents per dozen; 
$3 per 100. Also Strawberries, Blackberries, Gooseber- 
ries, Currants, etc., of the finest imported varieties. 
Prices on application. L. U. McCAN", 

Sama Cruz, Cal. 


Established In 1858. 

I offer for the season of 1889-90 a general assortment of 
hardy Fruit Trees, grown without irrigation. Apricots 
and Prunes on Mvrobolan stocks a specialty. All the 
leading Varieties of Apples, Pears, Plums, Peaches, Nec- 
tarines, Almonds, Cherries, Quinces, etc I use first-class 
seediog stocks in propagoting, grow in my own nurseries 
all the trees offered for sale, and guarantee all kinds to 
be true to name. My trees are clean and healthy and 
offered at low rates for quality of stock. Prices furnished 
on application. Address 

W. H. PEPPER, Petaluma, Cal. 




PR u ink TREES. 
Full stock of all other kinds of Fruit, Shade, Orna- 
mental and Nut Trees, Vines and Shrubbery. Catalogues 
free. Address 
J. H. SKTTL KMIER, Woodburn, Oregon. 



[Jan. 4, 1890 



No. 11— NEW Gale Double Seeder and Harrow. 

Every Farmer Should Have a NEW GALE HARROW AND SEEDER 
For the Following Reasons: 

1st. FOR PULVERIZING SOD it has no equal. By Dropping the frame down to the lower hole in side adjust- 
ment it cannot turn up the sod; this is the position lirst Ume over, then raise the frame to center hole, bring the 
lever clear hack, whicn sets the teeth forward in a • •mine position. 

2d. KOR HARD FALLOW OR FALL PLOWING, raise the frame to upper hole in side adjustment for first 
time over; this will break up the cr"st, then drop the frame to center hole, and it will cultivate four inches deep, 
in a manner that cannot be t i/ualeil lot ami imjilcmrnt now in use. 

M. FOR STUMPY, ROOTY OR STONY GROI 'NU, drop the frame down to last or second hole; this will allow 
the teeth to let go without danger of breaking, and still do good work. It has no euual for rough ground. 

4th. AS A FALLOW CULTIVATOR it is the boat in use, as It leaves all the trash shaken out on top, where it 
withers and dies out. 

5th. FOR CULTIVATING CORN or anything planted in rows. 

6th. AS A SKKUl' i it is the best now in use. It has a positive force feed, sows all kinds of grain, peas and 
Max seed, and covers perfectly as you seed. 

Lastly, but not least, it is a POTATO DIGGER. Remove four teeth from each side, leaving seven teeth in 
center; drop the frame clear down, bring the lever dear hack, and then dig alternate rows; after picking up the 
potatoes, cross-harrow the ground, and it will be left smooth and level. 

WILL SEED AND COVER FORTY ACRES PER DAY. -Two No. 4's or No. 8's'ooupled to- 
gether on three wheels, produce a machine that adjusts itself to uneveD ground. 

It Excels in Eutj Particular Every Other Hromlcunt Seeder. 

Suttkr, September 6, 1889. 

Messrs. Truman, Bunker .( Co.. San Francisco, Cal.— Gkntlemkn: I have sown about tnree bundled acres per 
year with my < ; ile Harrow and Seeder anil have bad it a good many years. It excels in every particular over the 
Broadcast Seeders. The greatest advantage it has ovtr other seeders is that if will seed more regul-rlv in rough 
and weedy -round. T. M. BRl 'CE. 

The NEW GALE ha* all the latest improvement!). Send for Sprclal Catalogue giving 
full description of the NEW G tl.E HARROW AND 8EEDEK for 1890. 

No. 8— 5| ft. Gale Harrow, with Seeder, 15 teeth $105 I No. 4—6$ ft. GMe Harrow, no Seedc, 18 Teeth $ 75 

No. s— 5J ft. Gale Harrow, no Seeder, 15 Teeth 70 No 11— 11 ft. Gale Harrow, with Seeder, 30 Tenth. . . 210 

No 4-OJ ft. Gale lUrrow, with Seeder, 18 Teeth 110 | Ho. 13-13 ft. (iale Harrow, with Seeder, 3« Teeth. . . 220 

The No. 11 is two No. 8's coupled and is two complete machines. The No. 13 is two No. 4's coupled and is two 
complete machines. 

Sold to good, responsible farmers, payable next 

The only Drill that will 
not Crack the Grain. 



Blanco, January 28th, 1889. 

MESSRS. TRUMAN, HOOK KR 4 CO.. San Francisco. Cal. 

Gentlemen : The party I sold the HAVANA PRESS DRILL to is well pleased with it, he says 
he has never seen anything to equal it. It has risen higher in my estimation since I put it on trial, as it 
is light of draft and has no bearing on the horses' necks, like other drills I know of. Four horses can 
handle it easily ; it also leaves the ground in fine shape, and covers up every seed, and no matter how 
uueven the land is it will put the seed down to moisture where it belongs. We run it on the roughest 
piece of ground we could find, and it will not slide on a side hill, which is more than any other drill will 
do. In short, it is the best drill I have ever had anything to do with. Yours verv truly, 


Opens the ground for the reception of the seed with a runner, and covers it with a wheel, planting 
IT. Does better work and takes less seed per acre than any other kind of drill. Can be worked in trashy 
and on ground where other kinds will not. Has the best adjustable force feed in the market, a feed espe- 
cially adapted to drilling OATS AND BARLEY, WHEAT AND RYE. FLAX AND MILLET, a 
perfect feed that will work equally as well in all kinds of grain as the best in the market. Fall seeding 
stands a severe Winter better ; Spring crops get a more prompt and vigorous growth. The average yield 
per acre is 3 to 5 bushels more of Wheal and Rye, and 5 to 10 bushels more of Oits than with the old 
style drill. Is the Cheapest Drill because it saves and returns more for the investment. 

14-Runner, 8 1-4 ft. Havana Drill, 7 in. between Runners, $155 00. 

fall. Send for spec'al Plow Catalogue. Address 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., San Francisco, Cal. 



Capital Nurseries, 



Our trees have all been grown with unu.ual care. Kvery tree has been staked up and fori cd to grow straight. 
They are one and two-\ear old buds, on strong three to Bve-year old roots, which will force a strong growth and 
bring the tree to bearing sooner than if worked on younger roots. These trees are dug and handled with such 
t ire that nearly ever} one will grow if properly planted and cared for. For a small consideration above the list 
price we will agree to replace every tree that dies, provided the trees are propcrlv cared for bv the planter. 

We can and do offer inducements, to partici wishing to plant orange grove's, that have' ne\er been offered 
before in this State. We claim to have the largest stock of the finest orange and lemon trees ever offered on this 
Coast. Be sure to „'et our terms before purchasing your trees, and by all means see our trees if possible. Our 
varieties are the very beat known kinds and true to name. They arc largely Riverside Washington Navels. 

Wc will give special rate» on large orders Write for bottom prices ou large lots, stating number and kinds of 
trees wanted. We also have an immense stock of all kinds of fruit tree, and general nurserv stock of every 
description. 8eud for descriptive catalogue and pries list. Address all communications to 



No. 36, 1-borse, Wood Beam Plow, pr 
No. 26, '2-horse, " " " ' 

low, price, (lain $17 00 

" 21 00 

Syracuse Nino-Tooth Cultivator. 

Specialty adapted for cultivating in Vineyards, Orchards and Hop Yards. 
Price, with wheel, $15 OO. 

"Warwick Perfection' & 'New Rapid" 


Ladies, Gentlemen, Boys and Girls. 


TIIOS. H. 33 . "V -A. IrL N H2 "ST , 

Agricultural Implements, Bicycles, and Blacksmiths' Supplies, 

42 and 44 Fremont St., - - San Francisco, Cal. 

Vol. XXXIX.— No. 2. 


( DBWBY & CO , Publishers. 

I Office, 220 Market St. 

Shocking Waste of Timber. 

We have often had severe denunciations of 
timber waste and earnest appeals to people to 
refrain from it, but no verbal exhortation could 
be so eh quent as the picture whioh we give 
upon this page. It was made by the Djwey 

engraving shows was not for the purpose of sup- 
plying merchantable lumber or fuel, but merely 
for opening the way to more densely wooded 
tracts. If men did this on their own lands the 
critic could not do much more than deplore 
the wanton waste, but such cutting generally 
occurs on the public domain for the purpose of 

to decay and destruction (is is well illustrated 
in the accompanying photographic reproduction 
of a oommon incident of our lumber oountry) 
then such methods become improvident and 
should be rigorously suppressed. In most in- 
stances these outrages are perpetrated upon 
the public domain, and are as indefensible as 

forth to secure the desired ends. The memo- 
rial presents that the most feasible way to secure 
the retention of a forest covering is to with- 
draw the timber land from sale or entry and to 
sell the timber crop, guarding the area so that 
a second growth shall not be interfered with by 
fire or sheep-herding. This would make the 


Engraving Oo. for the State B)ard of Forestry 
directly from a photograph submitted by W. S. 
Lyon, State Forester. Consequently it presents 
an actual scene and one which fortunately one 
does not need to go far to see its like in the 
timbered regions of the State. The picture 
accompanies a memorial whioh the State Board 
of Forestry has just transmitted to Congress 
and is well oalculated to open the eyes of the 
law-makers to the culpable waste of valuable 
property which should be summarily checked 
by adequate legislation. Theoutting whioh the 

opening the way to private property or to give 
access to still richer stores of public property. 
Thus the acts are strictly within the scope of 
the General Government. The memorial to 
which we allude makes this foroible allusion to 
the destruction of timber to which we refer: 
" A forest, or timber, like any other crop, when 
mature, is fit to harvest, and when not subject 
to wasteful abuses may with propriety and 
benefit be out; when, however, to facilitate ac- 
cess to a tract, vast quantities of intervening 
lands are laid waste and valuable timber is lef« 

would be the acts of a farmer in burning the 
fialds and breaking down the fenoes of another 
for the purpose of securing a more expeditious 
route to market." 

The memorial of the State Board is a strong 
dooument on many accounts. It alludes first 
to the need of maintaining a forest covering on 
our mountains to conserve the water for irriga- 
tion of our arid lands. This is a subject whioh 
is eaoh year commanding wider support, and 
we are glad to know that organized effort in 
some of our irrigated dislriots Is being put 

timber area of our mountains, whioh is still 
owned by the Government, a perpetual reserve 
which shall, through all ooming generations, 
furnish ample supplies of timber and fuel, and 
at the same time rescue the valleys in the 
future, to some extent at least, from ruinous 
floods, and to store water to be sent down grad- 
ually upon the plains as irrigators oan use it. 
These things should command public attention 
and support, and we have no doubt the efforts 
of our State Board will have much influence in 
that direotion. 


f ACIFie I^JRAlo f RESS. 

[Jan. 11, 1890 

Qo f^.E SfO N D E N C E. 

Correspondent* »re alone responsible for their opinions. 

Napa Valley Notes. 

Editors Press: — The new year opens with 
weather unsettled, with firming work of all 
kinds far behind and with immediate prospects 
not the most flatterirg. Oar rainfall to date 
this season is abont 20 inches, and the soil is 
now, and has been for weeks, thoroughly sat- 
urated. All onr heavy rains have readily been 
absorbed by the thirsty ground, and very little 
water has at any time been standing on the 
surfaoe of our fields; yet, owing to the excessive 
moisture that has prevailed for several weeks, 
grain sown before the stormy weather is in 
many localities suffering, and the crop will be 
materially shortened if drying weather does not 
come soon. 

However, a comparatively small amount of 
grain waB sown before the storm, and as the 
season is rapidly advancing, farmers are anx- 
ious to recommence work as soon as possible. 
Many, if not all, farmers have not taken their 
teams ont of their stables for six or eight 
weeks, and the enforced idleness, with the con- 
sequent extra expense, causes many a farmer to 
think that his profits for the season 1889-90 
will be seriously curtailed. 

Although snow in considerable quantities has 
for some time covered the summit of Mt. St. 
Helena and neighboring peaks, we have had 
very little frost, and vegetation has been grow- 
ing since our first rains in October without seri- 
ous check. Earlv-sown grain on upland is do- 
ing quite well. In some localities in the lower 
end of Napa valley, volunteer grain has at- 
tained a remarkable growth for this date. 
Probably so mild a season — one in which 
grasses and volunteer grain have grown so rapid- 
ly — has not been heretofore known in this val- 
ley. We saw a day or two ago volunteer tame 
oats four feet high and already headed out; 
also embryo dusters of grapes on vines growing 
on the warm side of a hill not far from Napa 

It is during such seasons of bad weather, 
when farm work cannot be done, and when, by 
reason of long-continued storms and bad roads, 
farmers are prevented from trading muoh in 
towns, that our merchants realize how greatly 
they are dependent upon the farmers. Trade 
during the holidays was far below the average 
volume, and with heavy stocks upon their 
shelves and with accounts to settle at the com- 
mencement of the new year, it is no wonder 
many of them feel blue. Society at large, at 
times like this, feels how interdependent one 
class is upon another, and that there is more 
truth than poetry in the saying that "no one 
liv»th unto himself." 

Undoubtedly Ibbs grain will be now sown for 
thrashing than was anticipated last fall, for 
though it was once the practice in this county 
to sow grain for harvesting as late even as 
April 1st, yet in recent years farmers have 
made it a point to finish their sowing by Jan- 
nary 1st, if possible. Less wheat and more 
barley will be sown and a larger acreage 
planted to corn will be the resnlt of protracted 
wet weather. 

Napa has fared much better than many coun- 
ties in the State this winter. There never was 
an ill but there could have been a worse. We 
have had no floods, no high winds; few bridges, 
even on our mountain roads, have been carried 
away, and railroad communication with the 
metropolis has not for once been delayed. Bat 
our highways are not in as good a condition as 
we could wish they were, and this report, 
or a much stronger one, comes from almost 
if not quite every connty in the State. 
In all sections the amount of money 
annually spent on highways is very 
large, and the little substantial good done 
— permanent improvements made — indicates 
that our road law might and should be bettered. 
Such storms as we have had try our roads 
severely and make manifest all weak places, 
showing up work slightingly done. When tax- 
payers contemplate the large sums of money 
annually spent in road-repairing, and then note 
that in times when said work is put to the test 
it falls far short of what they have a right to 
expect, it is little wonder they cry for a better- 
ment of this matter. Oar Legislature has for 
years passed law after law bearing on this mat- 
ter, but the perfect one has not yet been en- 
acted, and he who shall draft such a one will 
be hailed, and justly, as a public benefactor. 

During this long spell of wet weather a much 
larger amount of hay has been consumed than 
was anticipated last fall. Though there has 
for a montn or two past been fairly good past- 
urage in valley and on hillside, yet stock need- 
ed shelter, and, of course, hay, consequently 
we shall dispose of much of the large a mount 
stored both in town and on farms. No appre- 
ciable rise in the price of hay is to be noted np 
to the present time, for still the supply exoeeds 
the demand. Good hay sells in town for $10 
per ton, but much will yet be consumed before 
the next crop is gathered. 

Of course, little work has yet been done in 
orchards or vineyards. Undoubtedly a large 
nnmber of fruit trees will be set out this spring, 
as fruit culture is more popular than ever. The 
question, "Shall dried fruit be sulphured, or is 
It more marketable not thus bleached ?" is one 
that is engaging the attention of many of our 
fruit-growers just now. 

Id tbe future, as in the past, orchardists will 

care for their fruit in the manner that will sell 
best, in the form the public demands, though 
many now think that popular taste is growing 
in favor of the unbleached article. 

In all branches of farming the people of our 
favored State look forward to a prosperous year, 
and that their expectations may be more than 
realized, which will indeed bring a Happy New 
Year, is the wish of vonr correspondent. 

Napa Jan. 1, 1S90. A W. R. 

3Jhe JStabisE. 

French Breeds of Horses. 

Editors Press: — Taking up this week's jour- 
nal and running through your many interesting 
articles, I do not find muoh concerning horses, 
which is a subject of interest to all the agricult- 
ural districts; and if this little history of one of 
the most interesting animals which God has 
created can be of any use to you, pray pub- 
lish it. 

I left France (the home of the Percheron 
draft horst) last September with a carload of 
these noble fellows, and after experiencing 
many adversities — contretemps in French — I ar- 
rived in California safe and sound. Some of 
your readers will wonder what Percherons are 
and quiz me for so calling them, when Norman 
would be the right name for these French draft 
horses. How true the old proverb is, "Give a 
dog a bad name and lo ! it will stick to him 
forever." Now the French draft or Norman is 
a sort of hybrid animal in France and exists 
only in the minds of American citizens, and I 
will endeavor to explain to you the different 
breeds we possess in France, showing how 
many distinct races we are blessed with, and 
mark, these are as distinct, and more so, than 
the Clydes, Shires, Suffolk-Punches, Shetland, 
Iceland and Welsh ponies. 

We have in France (to counterbalance the 
above long string of Eugl'sh fellows) Per- 
cherons, Boulonnais, Nivernais, Picardais, 
Brittany, Ardennais, Corse, Pyrennea, Tarbes, 
and to crown all, tbe Anglo-Norman — the 
most perfect coach horse the world ever pro- 

My desire is to give a brief sketch of our 
draft breeds, and I will commence with the 
king of draft horses, without exception. Of 
the origin of the Percheron I could take you 
back to the time of the Crusaders, but that 
would be a little too far and difficult for tbe 
skeptic to believe, for among horse-breeders 
there are more Thomases than was mentioned 
in the New Testament. The Percheron horse 
is a direct descendant of Arab stock, and 
although old Galipoli the Barb is mentioned in 
many books as being the Arab that stamped tbe 
proud and noble look of the Percheron with 
his blood, many writers state that Arab blood 
was profusely used in the Perche oa tbe old 
draft horses of that district, and there is no 
reason to donbt such a statement, for 50 years 
ago, when railways were not so much in vogue 
and the old diligence, or coach, used to travel 
200, 300 and 400 miles, with five grays— three 
in front and two wheelers — all the horses were 
generally chosen for this special work in tbe 
Perche, and the Percheron became the name of 
all good stout horses that could travel fast and 
weigh 1200 to 1400 ponnds. Here, now, we 
have the Arab stamina showing itself, for he it 
was that implanted that vigor and energy in 
the Percheron. He did the same thing in En- 
gland, and the thoroughbred possessed it in a 
stronger degree, enabling him to reproduce him- 
self to such a wonderful degree on the English 
stock. Take a well-bred Percheron to-day, big 
as he is, place him at a distance, half close 
your eyes, and you will have a perfect image of 
an Arab horse with that beautiful small, well- 
proportioned head, graceful arched neck, short 
back, long hips, mane and tail as fine as a 
thoroughbred, any of whose hairs will hold a 
weight twice as heavy as the thickest, coarsest 
hair of any half-bred cart-horse. Look at the 
Percheron's leg and note his quality of bone, as 
flat as any bone can be and capering down so 
evenly, with no hair on his legs for clay and 
frost to cling to; his feet are perfection, great 
big bell-shaped fellows, so that the cobble- 
stones of San Francisco will not even touch the 
Bole of his feet. His temper is as gentle as a 
lamb, a boy or a woman can handle him so kind 
is he, and this is also characteristic of the Arab 
steed, almost living in the Arab's tent, treated 
like one of the family. 

Well, sir, the railways made their appear- 
ance, and our sturdy little Percheron began to 
disappear; we had no more use for him; farm- 
ers gave up breeding them, and ruination was 
gradually creeping in on them, for their prin- 
cipal industry was gone, gone only for a short 
time. Contractors sprang up for building and 
hauling material for the making of these rail- 
ways, and they went into the Boulonnais dis- 
trict, to Belgium, to buy great big horses to 
draw their loads. Weight was needed; one 
horse weighing 1600 could do the work of two, 
he only ate for one, was cheaper to feed; there 
was economy in harness, one set instead of 
two; manual labor was diminished, one man to 
six horses instead of two for twelve. All 
these things drove dealers and contractors 
north; poor little Perche was wondering what 
was going to happen, when one or two canny 
French Percheron men began to try and raise 
big horses out of little horses. This was easy 
enough. By choosing big subjects they surely 
would increase the weight of their stock, and 

such men as Perriot father, old Fardouhet, 
Chouanards, Fleury, and a host of old men, 
now only represented by their sons (pretty old 
sons some of them), went to work to breed up, 
and in a few years their great work was crowned 
with success. Contractors and dealers soon 
found out that the big Percherons had more 
blocd and energy than their Northern brethren, 
and the old business began to revive, and so it 
went on until the Percheron farmers drove the 
contractors and dealers out of their country, 
by what has proved to be an incalculable source 
of wealth and revenue to that little district, 60 
by TOiquare miles, to-day the wealthiest horse- 
breedirg country in the world and created en- 
tirely by American dollars. Millions of dol- 
lars have been spent in that patch, and where 
the money flawed to, stock naturally improved; 
farmers became rich in a few years; among 
themselves they were gambling for who should 
own the best youngsters. Half a mile from my 
house one man paid $800 for a colt one hour 
old. The farm beyond, the owner of a mare 
sold his colt before he was born for $500 if a 
stud; $300 if a filly. It turned out to 
be a stud, and was sold as a three-year- 
old for $2000— the $S00 one was sold for 
$.3500 to Mies & Son of Minnesota. 
Brilliant III fetched this year $6000 as a four- 
year-old. Marathon, silver-gray, $4000. One 
farmer sold $12,000 worth of stock to one single 
buyer. Are you astonished now that our 
farmers have become rich, and yet were you to 
see them you would not give a cent for their 
wealth judging by appearances, for the way 
they livu is simply astounding. The average 
farmhouse is scare* ly fit for a human being to 
reside in, but here comes the nut — let him 
know you are coming and his old wooden shoes 
are replaced by boots, a clean blouse or smock 
covers his body, the old lady's fire is blazing 
and a rooster is on the spit ; the table is 
crowded with bottles of all the best brands that 
France can supply (and she can supply them, 
too). The dinner commences at 12 and ends at 
six in the evening and horses are bonght and 
sold to the tune of thousands of dollars, and 
whether he be a dealer handling a hundred 
head of studs, or a mare man with half a dozen 
mares, tbe reception will be the same. Wheth- 
er you buy or don't buy, you are always wel- 
comed, the only difference is that the owners of 
the mares are generally poorer than the stnd men, 
for they seldom see high prices, or if they do, 
it is the exception, such as tbe mare purchased 
a few years ago by Rufus B. Kellogg of Wis- 
consin, who bought the most remarkable Per- 
cheron mare in existence. Just let me g've 
you a short description of her career: Bjou 
4668, the dam of Fenelon 2682, took first prize 
at a recent horse show of Chicago. Her first 
colt was sold to Dunham, who sold it to Allen 
for $3500, and was resold to S. Dole, Illinois, 
at an increased figure. Her second c"lt, 
Childebert 4283, was also sold for $3500. Her 
third colt was bought when a day old for $800 
and resold as a three-year-old for $3500 (Fils 
de Voltaire). Her fonrtb colt, Ben Bolt, was 
born in America. He took second prize at the 
Percheron show, Chicago, 1SS6, first at Wis- 
consin State Fair, 1887, second at same show, 
18SS, and this year at Milwaukee he led his 
class. Has any Percheron or French mare a 
better record ? 

Here is what every man should take into 
consideration: Buy the best and nothing but 
the best. Blood will tell. Look carefully into 
your pedigrees; the best looker in the world 
without a pedigree may be a doubtful repro- 
ducer. Right here in California the best 
breeder and the best horse that oame to this 
State was old Duo de Chartres, and he was 
raised right close to my home, and boasted of a 
pedigree as lore as your arm. He was sold in 
this State for $5500, but has left five times that 
sum in his get. 

In my next I will give you a brief sketch of 
our other breeds. Geo. Warner. 

Box too. Oakland. 


The Introduction of the Vedalia 

Editors Press :— In your issue of Dec. 21st 
you print a lengthy communication from the 
pen of C. V, Riley, giving the history of the 
introduction of the Australian ladybird, Veda- 
lia. The professor says : 

" The first public suggestion of the importation of 
Icerya's natural enemies from Australia was made in 
an article on that insect in my annual report for 
1886, wherein 1 stated that I knew of no better way 
in which the department could spend $icoo than by 
sending an entomologist lo Australia for such a pur- 

"This was practically repeated in April, 1887, in 
an address before your State Board of Horticulture. " 

The above is misleading and written in each 
a way that the public will be under the impres- 
sion that the professor had thought of this in 
1886. The facts are, Prof. Riley visited South- 
ern California in March,' 1887, and called at the 
Wolfskill orange grove. After discussing tbe 
white scale question, he advocating his expen- 
sive coal-oil emulsion and I our fumigator, I 
said that the only hope I saw of any relief 
would be for him to send Mr. Coquillett to 
Australia to study up what natural enemies 
were keeping the white scale in check 
there, and import them into California, 

Did he discuss this idea in a spirit that would 
indicate that he had already written anything 
upon the subject? No; but he opposed it, and 
said that this could be accomplished without 
going to the expense of sending an agent. I 
asked him how, and he replied, by correspond- 
ence. I answered, if left to that, it would not 
prove a success, and that the expense of send- 
ing an agent would be nothiog compared to the 
benefits to be derived. He was so emphatic in 
his opposition that I was very much surprised 
to Bee in the Riverside Prest a week later that 
he had advocated before the State Board of 
Horticulture the advisability of sending an 

A glance at bis 1SS6 report will show that 
contiderable matter had been already written 
for it when he was in California; besides, be 
had copy of part of his report sent to him here 
for revision; also that his 18S6 report was not 
published before May or June, 1887, just as 
his 1S89 report will not be issued before May 
or June, 1890. 

Mr. J. W. Wolfskill and I had discussed 
parasites long before the professor's visit, hav- 
ing observed the good work done by them upon 
the soft scale Lecanium hesp'ridum, the grape 
scale Pulvinaria innumerabilit, also the para- 
site of the mealy bug (Dadylopius) discovered 
by me and given to Mr. Koebele, who s- nt it 
to Washington where it was named RU'yia 
tplendens. These are all facts that can be sub- 

Prof. Riley should be given his full share of 
credit for the energetic manner in which he 
pushed the matter to a successful accomplish- 
ment. I am pleased to see that he gives credit 
to Mr. Albert Koebele, for to him belongs the 
honor of having discovered the Vedalia. Not- 
withstanding the professor's prophetic words, 
in his last annual report, they were inscribed 
to tbe Lettophonut and not to tbe " Victorious 

The only apology I have to make for occupy- 
ing your space is that I, like the professor, feel 
a little proud at having suggested tbe subject. 

Alexander Craw. 
Los Anr/elrs, Dec S3. 1880. 

(She jgViARY. 

What Should Bee-Keepers Do ? 

Editors Press : — A recent correspondent, 
giving statistical information concerning apiary 
products, is in error. To state that Kern county 
produced only 38,000 pounds is a grave mistake; 
one party alone shipped more than this, aud 
my orop was over nine tons. The crop has 
been unusually light with us because of the bee 
disease. If correct, systematic and based 
upon facts, such information is of course valu- 

The time is at hand when apiarists should 
oombine and move as one man. Our industry 
is suffering from the lack of co-operation on 
the part of producers. It would seem ex- 
pedient to choose several points where honey 
may be concentrated and inspected by a com- 
petent man who shall grade all honey, and an 
association, through a board of directors, fix a 
price,for each grade and to determine how it shall 
be sold, style of package, etc 

California apiarists as a class are far behind 
our brethren of the Eastern States in this matter. 
We need a means of communication through 
which the existing conditions may be freely 
discussed. The bee journals of the States 
do not cover the ground or discuss the diffi- 
culties incident to our climate and market. 
Owing to the large amount of honey produced 
and the limited demand for home consumption, 
we are compelled to sell largely for the ex- 
port trade, either foreign or domestic. Neces- 
sarily we are obliged to sell through commis- 
sion houses. All will admit that it wonld not 
be either possible or expedient for any one 
house to handle the entire crop of the coast, 
yet we ought to arrange so that when several 
shippers are selling at any one given time the 
product of A shall not oome into competition 
with B, as is often the case. Now it would 
appear that if all parties who are shipping should, 
through an association, fix a price on honey, 
we would be able to cbeok this going of buyers 
from one house to another and obtaining con- 
cessions unfavorable to the seller. Bayers 
combine to scale down prices; we must meet 
them on tbeir own ground. 

It is a well-understood fact that supply and 
demand regulate the price of any commodity. 
If it were found that the price fixed was too 
high, then let tbe association make such 
changes as might seem expedient. I am of the 
opinion that it would be well to co-operate and 
appoint a board of directors who shall be em- 
powered to fix prices and change at any time as 
they may deem expedient; that these men 
should reside in the various honey-producing 
districts and communicate with a secretary, 
thus transacting business by mail at any time 
previous to or following an annual meeting. 
The various large shipping-points, viz.: Sin 
Franoiaco, Ventura, San Diego, Los Angeles, 
San Bernardino and Riverside, should be repre- 
sented in the board by men who are competent 
to decide as to the condition of the market and 
quality of honey shipped ti> the respective 

To attend yearly conventions, of course, sig- 
nifies an expense of time and money, which 
many will feel unwilling to assume, but by so 

Jan. 11, 1890.] 

f AClFie I^URAlo f RESS. 


doing we may get ideas which will prove more 
valuable than the expense involved. The fact 
is patent, I believe, wi h all thinking bee- 
keepers that oar business has reached a point 
where the profits are fast becoming infinites 
imal and will soon vanish into thin air. 

Another point is this: We need a good, 
strong official organ and corps of writers who 
are competent to place the latest and most val- 
uable information before us. I am aware that 
an effort has been made to establish such a 
one. It is my opinion, however, that if the 
Rural Press would give a page about twice a 
month to bee interests, and edit the copy present- 
ed, the interests of b e keepers would be fur- 
thered quite as acceptably. 

Mist apiarists know to their sorrow that 
fruit-grower*, stockmen, and in fact almott 
all are prejudiced against our industry and 
desire to banish those who handle bees to the 
mountains or some remote corner of the earth. 
Now if our discussions are carried on in a jour 
nal which comes before all olasses, we may be 
able to overcome much of this needless opposi 
ti in and convert many to friendship. It is the 
candid opinion of the writer that the injury to 
fruit which is charged to bees begins with 
decay, birds, vellow-j ickets and other pilfer- 
ers, and the cffi;es of the bee are suoh as are 
only beneficial in the economy of nature. The 
province of the honey-bee is to fertilize the blos- 
som and save the nectar from it and from decay- 
ing fruit. A bee is guided to bis legitimate plun- 
der by the sense of smell, and I believe never 
punctures the skin. I will frankly admit that 
bees under certain circumstances become a 
nuisance, and that all who wish to keep them 
either for pleasure or pre fit should av id as far as 
possible locations where conditions are such as to 
bring about prejudice and unpleasant feelings. 
We should renaeniber that our neighbor as well 
as ourselves has rights to be respected. I will 
write in a future article some thouphts on loca- 
tion. W. A. Webster. 

Baker afield. 

[The Rural is always ready to serve the bee- 
keepers in the way proposed. Our correspond- 
ent's view of having such matter published in a 
journal which all farmers read is an important 
one. To publish such matters in a journal ex- 
clusively devoted to bees makes it a dead letter 
so far as the public in general is concerned. 
The Rural can do as much as a means of inter 
communication between bee-keepers as any spe- 
cial journal can, and csn do vastly more in the 
way of gaining general acknowledgment of the 
importance of the honey industry. — Eds. 
Press ] 

"Rouen or Pekin." 

Editors Press: — In response to " A Sub- 
scriber's" query in your last issue, " Which is 
the most profitable breed of ducks, the Rouen 
or Pekin ?" my experience in this part of Cali- 
fornia calls for the Riaen duck every time. 
Tbey are better layers, larger and bet f er fla 
vored for table use than the Pekin. My cus- 
tomers always give them the preference. To 
obtain the best results, they must be good 
stock, well fed, and not too much water. 

Otay, San Diego Co. John C. Moore. 

Profit in Capons. — There are but very few 
capons grown where there ought to be thou- 
sands, for it costs no more to raise a nine-pound 
capon than a six-pound rooster, and if the price 
were the same this would be argument enrugh. 
But capons always sell higher than ordinary 
fowls, and this is an added incentive to raise 
them. Last winter a friend of mine had ■ lot 
of Partridge Cochin capons that averaged 9J 
pounds when sold in New York. They sold 
for 23 cents a pound, and the commission mer- 
chant wrote on the account of eale these words : 
" Your capons sold readily at abeve prices." 
That young man is not a fancier, but only an 
ordinary farmer boy who invested $3 in a set of 
caponiziog tools and learned how to use them 
from the directions that accompanied them. 
He doesn't go around whining about low 
prices or hard times, or calling chickens a 
" blasted nuisance." Ha just goes ahead rais- 
ing more chickens, buying his neighbors' young 
roosters at six cents a pound, and letting them 
do the grunting — Ex 

Garlic for Gapes. — Garlio is a very strong 
vermifuge. 1 use garlic raw because it loses a 
great part of its strength by cooking, and be- 
sides, the heat of the chicken's body is amply 
suffi ;ient to volatilize the aroma. Chop garlic 
very fine and mix it with quarter its bulk of 
powdered asa'cetida, rub a little in the chicks' 
mouths, and it will make them cough, and if 
the chicks are not too weak, cure them. Very 
often the e fforts that the chicks make to expel 
the dead larvae only tend to accumulate them 
in a lump at the orifice of the trachea, which 
naturally contracts, and thereby produces 
asphyxia; but if the patient has not had time 
to waste, it will have sufficient strength to get 
rid of the larvae before prostration ensues. I 
had 48 chickens treated with various remedies, 
but all died, and I only saved 15 by garlio. — 
U- W. in Fancieri' Journal. 


The Prune in California. 


[Written for the Rural Press bv Felix Gillet, Nevada 
City, Cal J 

Five years ago, when I first took hold of the 
prune question, with a view to correct our 
prune nomenclature, then in a most perplexing 
condition, and also to find out whether we had 
the true prune of the French under a different 
n me, and if so, for what reasons our trees 
didn't bear such large fruit as their French 
cousins did, I knew that such a thorough inves- 
tigation required considerable time, study and 
patience to enable me to draw definite conclu- 
sions on a subj set of such vast importance to 
the fruit growers of this State. 

At the time the discussion began the Prune 
d'Agen or d'Eate was known here under the 
name of Petite and Grosse d'Agen, as if there 
had been, as to size, two distinct varieties of 
that prune, which was very apt to confuse any 
novice in the prune business. 

I have, in various articles during recent 
years, explained to the readers of the Press 
that th"re was no such thing as a Petite or 
Grosse Prune d'Agen, and that the name Grosse 
d'Agen had been given to the so-called Hun- 
garian prune (another misnomei). and was 
si ply Pond's S;edliog, a poor an I flavorless 
plum having little to commend it but its enor- 
mous tize and const quent market demand; 
that the Petite d'Agen was the same as 
the Prune d'Eate of the French, the very 
type so largely cultivated in the great prune 
district of the Lot, in France; that d'Eite, 
d'Agen and R >be deS'rgent were synonyms, 
and names given at d fferent times to the same 
prune; last, that "d'Eate" is now the name 
most in use, in fact the only commercial name 
of that prune, and that it would be more proper 
for us to gva our prune its true name, or that 
of "California d'Eate," instead of that of 
French prune, aud more so when it is the inten- 
tion of our prune-growers and merchants to in 
troduce that prune on those markets of the 
world to which the d'Ente of the French is ex- 
ported under that very name. Throughout 
this essay I do not intend to use any other 
name but that of "d'Eate "when referring to 
that type, whether grown in France under 
that name or its synonyms, or here in California 
under that of Petite or French prune. 

Prune d'Ente— Its Origin. 

I must say that I had much troable in get- 
ting at the very meaning and history of the 
word "d'Ente." When I firet inquired about 
it, I surely thought that nobody was more apt 
to give me the desired information than the 
Horticultural Society of the great prune dis- 
trict of the L^t, in France, the very home of 
the d'Eate. Well, I was almost laughed at, 
and told that nobody had yet cared about the 
etymology of that name, that that prone had 
been known under that name for centuri»s, aud 
that's all; an answer, I admit, very much in ac- 
cordance with bodies of that kind, but that 
didn't satisfy me a bit. However, I didn't give 
it up, and with Yankee perseverance I sue 
ceeded at last, and not long ago, at getting the 
long desired information, but away trom 
scientific bodies, and from the most oh cure 
sources, where knowledge resides under a 
thatched roof. 

Tne word Ente, now obsolete, is an old 
French word derived from the Latin insitum 
(graft) and means a graft, a cion from a tree 
inserted on another; a grafted tree. The verb 
"Enter," from the Litin word interere, means 
to graft, to make an ente or to insert a cion 
from one tree on another; that word, how- 
ever, is no more used in that acceptation. 
D'Eate is for de Eate (of or from Ente), and 
tne<>ns a kind propagated by grading. 

Now, as the Prune d'Eate, until a compara- 
tively short time ago, was solely propagated 
frane de pied (true from the root) — a term that 
I will explain in th» course of this essay — it 
was called Prune d'Eate as if it had been natu- 
rally enled or grafted, while all other kinds of 
plums hid to be enled or grafted to grow true. 
The name d Eate seems to have been the first 
one given to that prune, bat as another prune, 
Saint Antoine or Cammon prune, was also 
propagated "true from mot," the same as the 
d'Ente was, the name Rabe de Sargent was 
given to it some time in the last century, on 
account of its resemblance to a sergeant's robe 
or overcoat, the recruiting sergeants of that 
time going about the country wearing a he vv 
and long robe or coat made out of blue cloth 
with the corners tucked up underneath, which 
gave tne robe from behind the shape and look 
of the d'Eate prune, and the nam* Robe de 
Sergent was finally given to the d'Eate, both being indiscriminate] v used. 

As to the name d'Agen (of or from Agen), 
it was given to that very prune, at least 
aB its commercial name, in the present century 
by the merchants of Agen, then the great en- 
trepot of that prune. But as soon as Bordeaux 
took hold of the prune trade — and nine-tenths 
of the prune crop is now altogether handled 
and packed at Bordeaux and shipped from that 
place — the Bordeaux merchants substituted for 
it its former name of d'Eate; and under that 
I name, which may be regarded as its true com- 

mercial name, it is exported in millions of 
fancy boxes, canisters and glass jars, to all 
parts of the world, no matter how remote, from 
the equator to tne eldest countries, and is 
found in S n Francisco in fane-/ boxes of one 
kilogram (36 ounces) 70 to 72 pruneB to the 
American pound, or prunes of the fifth grade, 
and at 75 cents per box, or two cents per ounce, 
and the box thrown in, glass and all, 

It is very hard to tell precisely at what time 
the Prune d'Ente waB introduced into France, 
and where it came from, or whether it was orig- 
inated there. All we know about it is that it 
originated from one of the three following dis- 
tinct species of plums: Prunus Dnmascena a 
native of Syria; Prunus Domestical »h ch 
grows wild in the Ciucaeus, or Prunus in- 
siti'ia a native of Greece and Southern Earope. 
The Greeks called the plum Proummon, and 
from that word was the French word prune 
derived. According to P iny, the R)mans cul- 
tivated 11 varieties of plums, all propagated 
from the Prunus Domestica, introduced into 
Italy by Cato. The general opinion is that the 
stock from which all our modern varieties of 
plums and prunes were originated was ob- 
tained, like the peach from Syria, at the time 
of the Crusades. 

All that is known of the Prune d'Eate is that 
it was first started in the monastery of Clairac, 
centuries ago, and first propagated by the 
monks of that monastery, its culture afterward 
spreading all around like a circle with Clairac 
for center, and to-day the latter place may be 
regarded as the very center of that immense 
orchard comprising 1,500 000 prune trees, and 
divided in two by the river Lot. 

Soil and Climate. 

It is a well-known fact t at the plum, and, 
therefore, the prune which is itself a plum, 
with a fruit better fitted than that of the plum 
proper for curing purposes, does well almost 
everywhere, though bearing its larger crops in 
heavy soil. The whole area of this State, ex- 
cept, perhaps, too gravelly soil, may well be 
said to be eminently adapted to the growth o f 
the prune. But I am of the opinion that the 
finest and best-fl wored prunes are those grown 
in a temperate climate, like that of Central and 
Northern California, and particul rly in the 
mountains and ranges of that zone, and that 
too hot a climate is detrimental to the size and 
quality of the fruit. What in my judgment 
makes mountain grown prunes so sweet and 
highly flavored is because the season there is of 
proper length and longer than in our hot val- 
leys or the southern part of the State, both 
better adapted to the growth of the orange 
than that of the prune, so that the water held 
in suspension in the pulp baa a chance to be 
slowly converted into sugar under cooler at- 
mospheric influences, which could not be the 
case if the season was short and hot. 

The soil of the valley of the Lot, the home of 
the d'Eate, is a compound of clay and lime or 
argillo-calcareous soil, and is regarded as ex- 
tremely favorable to the growth of that tree. 
The red foothills of the Sierras may be consid- 
ered as except onally adapted to the prune as 
they are to the grape; and the red c'ay of the 
mountains proper up to an elevation of 3000 feet, 
no less favorable to both; bnt with this difference, 
that in the snow belt of the mountains the 
"gum," a most troublesome and insidious dis 
ease, common to stone-fruit trees, renders the 
growing of the prune on grafted trees rather 

Stock for the Prune d'Ente. 

The question of stock for the propagation of 
the Prune d'Ente is, for the prune-growers of 
California, one of great importance; for it has 
much to do with the greater or less success in 
growing that prune profitably and to perfec- 
tion. It makes quite a difference what stock is 
used when prune trees are planted on hill- 
sides exposed to wind, or on poor and dryland, 
or in deep and rich soil, and it is obvious that 
in soils varying so much in their compounds, 
moisture and depth, we should in preference 
use the stock known to be the best adapted to 
that very soil. 

Oa hillsides much exposed to winds, in fact 
in foothills and mountains, I believe that the 
myrobolan is yet the best Btock to be used, 
whenever grafted trees are planted. The my 
robolan, whion, by the way, is not a tree of 
French origin, as erroneously stated by some 
people, is a native of Italy and imported largely 
into France both for domestic use and expirta- 
tion to the United Spates, in which country 
that Btock is much ia demand. 

The myrobolan system of roots is such that 
as long as it is not attacked by the gum, it 
hardly suckers, for the roots run clear down 
and at an angle of 45° to 60°, in a word, far 
enough from the surface to pre vent their throw- 
ing up suckers; and the tree is so well anchored 
with its peculiar system ef roots, that it is 
able to resistances s;fully the force of the wind 
and grow straight. Still, that stock should 
not be indiscriminately employed; for if u 
shows such vigor in its youth, when it gets to 
be cvsr 12 years of age it is found already on 
the decline, stopping growing all at once, and 
doing poorly the balance of its life, unless 
planted in very rich and deep soil, where it 
will thrive and bear a longer time. This is the 
main reason that has made many prune-growers 
in France give np that stock which has been 
tried in that country for over 30 years. At 
any rate, the myrob dan seedlingsnould be pre- 
ferred every time to the rooted cutting. 

It is a surprise to me that the d'Eate seed- 
ling is not employed by our nurserymen as a 
Btock for that prune. They use it much in 

F ance, and they Had the trees more long l v 
on that stock than on myrobolan. A< to tl. 
q leetion of true and f dae myrob ilan, my 
opinion is that the stock general v in use 
in California is the true myrobolan. There is a 
kind, the yellow-fruited myrobolan, which 
seems to have less dwarfish habits, and that 
might be preferred ; but the red-fruited myro- 
bolan is no less true for that. The cut repre- 
senting a red -fruited myrobolan tree, fully 
grown, page 338 of " The California F.-uits," 
by E. J. Wickson, is a most oorrect one of that 
species of plum. 

The peach might prove to be a good stock 
for the prune in soils better adapted to peach 
than to plum root; the same with the almond, 
which may be regarded as a first-class stock in 
the mountains at least, and should be given a 
fair trial in the valleys. It is very diffi ult, 
indeed, in a State like California, with such a 
diversity of soil and climate, to settle favorably 
the question of stock for the prune. I should 
thiaK that, since the Prune d'Ente or myro- 
bolan root does well all around, in valleys as 
well as in mountains, we had better keep 
on using that stock in preference to all others, 
till time shows us that, in fact, after a certain 
number of years, the roots of the myrobolan 
would cease to vitalize the top, as has been the 
complaint elsewhere ; then it would be time to 
look around for a better stock. 

"True from the Root." 

For centuries the Prune d'Eate was solely 
propagated in its home franc-de-pied, or true 
from or to the root. Whether the first trees 
planted at the start were grown from seedlings 
or cuttings is not known. In the valley of the 
Lit the larger portion of the trees are yet 
" true from the root,'' and prune-growers are 
evenly divided as to what should be planted — a 
grafted tree or rooted cutting. 

The term "true from the root" does not 
seem to be well understood even by our nur- 
serymen, some having an idea that that stock 
is simply seedlings, which it is not. A seed- 
ling is true from the root when it has proved 
by its fruit to be trw; before that it is nothing 
at all but a mere seedling. Mulberries, filberts, 
currants, figs, olives, etc., grown from cutting 
or layering, or sprouts grown at the foot of 
trees themselves true, are what the French call 
franc-de-pied, or true from the root. Cammon 
suckers like those of raspberries, blackberries, 
etc., are also true from root — through that way 
of propagating the very same species, type or 
variety is obtained. Sow seeds of white grapes 
and you will have vines that will bear white, 
red and black grapes, only a certain percentage 
coming true; so with the prune itself, or plums, 
or any kinds of fruits and nuts. 

The Prune d'Eate, " true from the root," is 
propagated in the following way right in its 
home : Sprouts growing at the foot of old and 
large trees, and but few are found to each tree, 
are taken eff and thick y bedded, so as to make 
them root well, and planted the ensuing year 
in nursery rows, where they are trained like 
any other trees and transplanted where to re- 
main when branched, and without being bud- 
ded or gra'ted, which they da not require. 

Th a S vint Catherine prun9, in its own dis- 
trict in France, is altogether propagat-d " true 
from the root," and that stock is so vigorous- 
that plums and apricots are grafted there on 
that root. 

This is the way to obtain here d'Eate and 
St. Catherine trees true from the root: Stocks 
of either kind themselves true are planted 
quite deep and cut back several inches above 
tne ground. All the buds buried in the 
ground, at least those near enough from the 
surface, and those above will throw out so 
many shoots. A'ter those shoots have grown 
to a proper length, the ground is pack d one 
foot high around the tree, which then has more 
the appearance of a bush, and the ground kept 
pretty moist. It would be well to plant such 
"propagating" trees where the ground is 
naturally moist or easy to be watered. Mast 
of the shoots will grow a few roots before the 
winter, when tbey are cut back and planted in 
a seed-bed to make tbem root better, and after- 
ward set out in nurserv rows. If the earth is 
put back around the old stum a, the latter will 
the ensuing summer throw out another bunch 
of sprouts, which are made to root in the very 
same manner. The black mulberry, olives and 
other kinds of fruit are much propagated in 
that way, which is called "heel layering." 

The way to obtain " true-from-the root " 
stock of any kind of fruit difficult to propagate 
from cuttings is as follows: A seedling tree is 
grafted (splice grafting as well as any other 
way of grafting) down on the root, and planted 
so as to have the grafting at least aix inches in 
the ground. A funnel-like space may be 1 ft 
all around the graft, and the earth put back 
after the latter has grown up to a certain 
length. Bsfore taking up the tree, the roots 
should be examined, and if the graft is rooted, 
then the tree is t ken up and the stock and 
roots cut away below where the graft did root, 
and there you have the graft rooted as nicely 
as a cutting would be. A Bartlett pear tree so 
obtained is "true from the root," and as true 
as a grafted tree. Now, any sprouts that will 
grow from the foot of such trees when old and 
large enough to grow sprouts, can be depended 
upon to produce exaotly the same fruit as the 
tree itself. 

I hope that this time I have been clear 
enough in my definition of the term "true 
from the root " to be well understood by 
every one. 

( To be Continued. ) 



[Jan. 11, 1890 

From the Master's Desk. 

Who ib going to send us a charter list of nine 
men and four women, or not more than 20 men 
and 20 women, from the beautiful city of Ukiah ? 

If Bro. W. M. Gladdin will try, he can 
gladden our heart by reviving Healdsburg 
Grange. A beautiful city, a thrifty community, 
an intelligent number of farmers, their wives, 
sons and daughters, and no Grange. Just think 
of it! Then go to work and organize a Grange 1 

What does the Grange do! Join it and you 
oan find out for yourself — otherwise it will 
always be a " mystery " to you. But one thing 
is sure, the Grange won't hurt any honest 
farmer, his wife or his family. 

Past Masters Flint and Overhiser went 
to Merced Jan. 4th and helped in the installa- 
tion and Harvest Feast ceremonies. They are 
good helpers in both directions. 

Another Fine Start. 

Gridley Grange, Butte county, has been or- 
ganized with a list of 29 charter members, as 
will be seen elsewhere in this issue. Another 
Grange is likely to be organized soon at Biggs 
in the same county and one at Millville, Shasta 
county. Inquiries have been made from Tulare 
and Fresno counties and elsewhere for the 
necessary information for organizing Granges. 
It thus seems the season of 1S90 is starting 
off lively for new Granges in California. 

The organization at Gridley was the direct 
result of a farm-to-farm canvass by our travel- 
ing agent, Mr. Frank S. Chapin, who has taken 
a deep interest in the welfare of the Order. 
We trust he will soon do more good work for 
the cause. Dapnty-L9cturer Frisbie was sup- 
ported in organizing the Grange at Gridley by 
the presence and assistance of Bro. Woodford 
and Sister Frisbie from Yuba City and Bro. 
Clark and Sisters Duvely and Dacy from North 
Butte Grange. 

Further Grange Reading. 

In our Rural Press Official Grange Edition, Issued 
every week, will be found much additional matter 
under this department, ol Interest and importance 
to Palrons of Husbandry. Any subscriber who 
wishes can change free to that edition. 

Failure of Justice. 

It is by no means a pleasant taBk to create a 
suspicion against the acts and doings of our fel- 
low-men. It would be far more agreeable to 
speak of their motives and actions as fair, hon- 
orable and to be commended. But as a sur- 
geon must sometimes probe a sore or cut off a 
limb to save the body, bo a vigilant journal 
that has the welfare of the pnblio at heart 
cannot afford to keep silent when business is 
degraded by frauds, cursed with villainies and 
justice seems blind. 

It is well known that the business of this 
city has long been infested by a lot of smooth, 
oily-tongued scoundrels who live by intrigue, 
sharp practice and fraudulent business meth- 
ods. They have the eye of the vulture and 
the cunning of ithe coyote in search of prey. 
One of their decoys is to advertise an interest 
in a profitable business for sale. Poor health 
or the stress of other matters makes it neces- 
sary to dispose of it. It is represented as a 
bargain, and some poor fellow who has more 
money than experience is taken in and soon finds 
that he has invested in a bogus enterprise. 

It will be remembered by the readers of the 
Rural that about a year ago one F. M. Parker, 
an Oregon farmer who owned a ranch in Jack- 
son oounty worth about $SO0O, representing the 
toil and sweat of more than 20 years, came to 
San Francisco and was induced to exchange his 
farm for a piece of real estate on Fifth and 
Brannan Btreets, to which the thieves exeouted 
a spurious title. Of course these robbers 
hastened to sell the farm to a man who bought 
it in good faith, and farmer Parker, when too 
late, found himself without money and a home. 
The firm of Hamberg, Neustadt & Pilcher were 
arrested for getting money under false pre- 
tenses, and Judge Toohy, about a year ago 
last March, sentenced Neustadt to one year's 
Imprisonment in the county jail and a fine of 
$2249, and if the floe was not paid Neustadt 
was to serve one day additional for each dollar, 
or six years and 49 days. This was regarded 
by the judge as the extreme penalty of the law, 
which allowed a fine three times the amount 
that had been secured by the fraud. The 
Supreme Court of this State in bank has or- 
dered the discharge of the said Neustadt from 
custody on an ex-parte motion. The justices 
in their decision say : 

The Legislature did not intend, we think, by this 
provision to make it possible to impose a penalty of 
life imprisonment for a misdemeanor. In People 
against Righetti the Court, in depaitment, held that 
Section 1205 of the Penal Code applies to cases of 
fine, whether the fine be coupled with sentence of 
imprisonment or whether the fine stand alone as the 
only punishment. The correctness of that decision 
may be doubted. That section provides : 

" A judgment that the defendant pay a fine raiy 
also direct that he be imprisoned until the fine be 
satisfied, specifying the extent of imprisonment, 
which must not exceed one day for every dollar of 
the fine." 

An adherence to the letter of this section would 
make it inapplicable to ca^es in which the Court im- 
posed a term of imprisonment and also a fine. We 
do not, however, intend to express any opinion as 
to the correctness or incorrectness of the decision re- 
ferred to. It is sufficient to say that the Legis- 
lature did not intend Section 1205 to apply to cases 
of this kind, where the amount of the fine is not left 
discretionary with the Court, and where the ex- 
treme penalty which may be imposed is left un- 
certain and dependent upon the value of the prop- 
erty taken. Of course, the Legislature has the 
power to provide for the collection of fines by im- 
prisonment at a certain rate per day in cases where 
a fixed term of imprisonment is also imposed, but in 
such cases it should clearly appear that such is the 
intent of the Legislature. 

We give this muoh of the text of this opinion 
so that our readers whose minds have not been 
warped by technical artificialism and impris- 
oned in traditional and tortuous methods of in- 
terpretation may form their own judgment of 
the meaning of the statute and the worth of 
this decision. If this is law, then as our laws 
now stand there is no adequate protection 
from the guiles and swindles of sharpers, and 
the famous maxim that there is no wrong with- 
out a remedy proves a mockery. 

Just now there is a great deal of complaint 
in reference to the inefficiency of our jury sys- 
tem, and there can be no doubt that this lack 
of confidence in the fairness and justice of 
criminal trials begets crime. Let us hope that 
our final Court of Appeal may never fall under 
the suspicion of being in the least degree a har- 
bor of refuge for those who have lived by fl iec- 
ing their fellow-men in business affairs. We 
are pleased to note at this point that Judge 
Field of Kansas City has just ruled that the 
same obligation rests on a real estate agent to 
deal fairly with bis customers as upon a law- 
yer to deal fairly with his clients, and that in 
either case the client has the right to expect 
that his interests are being zealously and hon- 
estly guarded. The enforcement of snch a 
ruling would prevent the possibility of such 
swindles as choused farmer Parker out of a 
home and sent him adrift penniless. 

What is the matter with Past Master Coul- 
ter's pen or pencil ? He Is wanted in the Grange 
column, " Forward, march," Brother Coulter. 

The W. M. would like to see a column in the 
Roral to be known as the Past Masters' col- 
umn. With such noble, zealous, competent 
men as Past Masters Steele, Webster, Flint, 
Coulter, Johnston and Overhiser, the P. M. 
column would become a "feature" of the Grange 
paper. Please start the new department. Which 
one of the P. M.'s will dedicate the new column ? 

[By all means let us have one or more col- 
umns every week filled with good and able 
thoughts that every one of our esteemed and 
veteran P, M.'s oan readily give onr readers 
for the benefit of the cause. We will delight 
to welcome the Past Master's department. — 
Eds. Press ] 

Another Grange in Northern Cali- 

A. T. Dtwey, Sec'y State Orange— Dear Sir 
and Brother : I organized a (J range at Grid- 
ley on the 2d of January with 29 charter mem- 
bers. Althongh it was a rainy day and very 
muddy, the farmers turned out muoh better 
than we expected. We bad a splendid time, 
and the charter members took hold of the work 
as if they meant to make a success of it. They 
are all good substantial farmers, and they will 
have one of the live GrangeB of California, for 
they have become aroused about the enormous 
taxes and the fact that monopolies are feeding 
off the farmer. They are determined to have 
the office seek the man, and not the man the 

Gridley is as fine a place for a Grange as there 
is in the State, for it has a large scope of farm- 
ing country aronnd the town and good sub- 
stantial farmers, so they have as good ma- 
terial to work on as any Grange in the State. 

The Grange at Biggs that I had intended to 
organize on the 3i concluded to wait until the 
roads and weather were better, when a larger 
number would be present; then I will have the 
pleasure of organizing one there. I think that 
Colusa will want several Granges organized in 
that county this spring. 

The gavel that the Worthy Master offered 
for the first Grange organized in 1S90, I think 
belongs to Gridley Grange, and they feel very 
proud to have the honor of being the first Cali- 
fornia Grange instituted in 1890. So you can 
tell the Worthy Master to send the gavel to 
the Worthy Master of Gridley Grange. In- 
closed you will find the list of charter mem- 
bers. I have also sent a liit of the charter 
members on to Washington to John Trimble 
and $15 for the charter fee. 

The names of the c fillers- eleot are-. Marcus 
Bigelow. M.; Geo. Thrasher, O.; R. E. Taylor, 
L.; E Fag»n, S.j G. D. Wickman, A. S ; Sis- 
ter RoBe Fagan, C ; C. A. Richards, P.J Homer 
Woodworth, Sec; H. C. Robbins, G. K ; Sis- 
ter G. D. Wickman, P.; Sister Thereia Stone, 
F.; Mamie Fagan, Ceres; Sister J. D. Harp, L. 

A. S. 

The charter list is as follows: K Fagan, Mrs. 
E. Fagan, Miss Mamie Fagan, Miss L zzie 
Fagan, Miss Katie Fagan. Mrs. G. D. Wickman, 
M. J. B : gelow, Mrs. M. J B:gelow, J. D Harp, 
Mrs. J. D. Harp, C. A. R chards, C J. Berry, 
Frank S. Chapin, Homer A Woodworth, T. 

B. Channon, Mrs. T. B. Cnannon, T. B. 
Hutchins, Mrs. T. B. Hutchins, S. C. Stone, 
Miss Theresa Stone, Miss Nellie Stone, Geo. 
Thrasher, James Henniger, Fred Crusick, H. C. 
Robbins, Mrs. C. A. Richards, Mrs. H C. 
Robbins, R E. Taylor. Yours fraternally, 

B F. Frisbie, 
Tuba City. Jan 3d. Daputy. 

Temescal Grange bad as visitors last Satur- 
day evening Bro. and Sister Stevens of Odio. 
Having been long absent from home, it was a 
year nearly sinoe they had visited a subordinate 
Grange. The encouraging prospects of the 
Order in California was a pleasure expressed by 
them, with a promise to repeat their visit. Bro. 
Wentworth of New Hampshire was also pres- 
ent. Temescal Grange voted to install officers 
at the regular meeting, Jan. 1 8 ;h . All mem- 
bers of the Order are most cordially invited to 
be present. It is hoped that many of the offi 
cers and members attending the Executive 
Committee meeting in S. F., Jan. 16th, will be 

Next Thursday's Meetings. 

As before mentioned, the Executive Commit- 
tee of the State Grange and the Patron Pub- 
lishing Co. will meet at this cffice on Thursday 
forenoon next to consider matters relating to 
the publication of the California Patron, and 
suoh other subjects as may come before the 

We hope that all interested in the affairs of 
the Patron and the publication of the present 
offioial organ will not fail to be present. We 
hope to see present all the old Past Masters, 
State officers and others feeling especial in- 
terest in these matters. Also, we hope a 
large conference may be had for the good of 
the Order relating to Grange mutual fire in- 
surance companies, the matter of establishing 
the " Trade Card " or " Pennsylvania " system 
of co-operative buying, and also dividing the 
State into working Grange districts. It is 
hoped that all will come to stay until the labors 
of the meetings are fully completed. 

Invite Them to Speak. 

We expect that quite a number of veteran 
Grange speakers (including Past Masters and 
State Grange offieere) will be a* the meetings of 
the Exeoutive Committee and Patron Company 
in San Francisco next Thursday. While they 
are at this central point it would be a good 
time for Granges within a practicable distance 
to call, write or telegraph some of them in ad- 
vance for a visitation and address. Temescal 
Grange extends a oordial invitation to all Pa- 
trons from abroad who can attend its installa- 
tion of officers on Saturday, the 18th. 

Grange Elections* 


Potter Valley. — Wm. Eddie, M.; G. W. 
Pickel, O.; J. Lieely, L.; I. T Spenoer, S.; J. 
J. Dashiell, A. S ; H. P. M.Gae. C ; F. M. 
HugheB, T.; G. T. Neil, See; W. V. Kilbourne, 
G. K ; Miss Cynthia Dashiell, P.; Miss Minnie 
Spencer. F.J Mrs. Laura Noil, Ceres; Miss May 
Eddie, L. A. S.j S. H. McCreary, Trustee. 

Sacramento County Pomona. — A. M. 
Piuromer, M.; Daniel Flint, O ; A. M. .lack- 
man, L.; S. H. Jackman, S. ; J. Holms, A. S.; 
Geo. Wilson, C; M. Sprague, T.; A. A. 
Krull, Sac; Theo. Deming, G. K ; Mrs. A. A. 
Krull, Ceres; B Ha Johnston, P.; Etta Plum- 
mer, F ; Dalla Krull, L. A. S. Installation 
Jan. 14th. 

South Sutter — J. W. Jones, M.; R. S. 
Algeo, O.; Mrs. M E. Donaldson, L ; W. W. 
Monroe, S.; Mrs. Bessie Aleeo, A. S ; J. M. 
Jones, C ; J. J. Grunewald, T ; Miss Mary E. 
R chardson, Sec; Homer Sankey, G. K ; Mrs. 
M. Kirkpatrick, Ceres; Miss Delia Sankey, P ; 
Mrs. Sadie Roberts, F.; Mrs. Kittie Goode, 
L. A. S. Installation, Jan. 11th. 

■Notk.— The Secretaries of Oranges are requested to 
(orw ird reports of all election and other matters of in- 
terest relating to their Granges and the Order. 

Another Sale by the Grangers' Bank. — 
Manager Montpellier of the Grangers' Bank in- 
forms us of the tale of three sections of land 
near WillowB, Colusa county, for $10 per acre. 
The proceeds from this sale, added to the re- 
ceipts from a previous one noted in the Rural, 
make a total of $140,000 realized by the bank 
from land sales during the last two months, 
and thus increases the available funds of the 
bank for its regular business, which is brisk 
and increasing continually. 

Worthy Mastf.r Davis wrote ub January 
4th that be expected to be at Sacramento to- 
day. He is expected at the meeting in S. F. 
January 16;h. 

Sacramento County Pomona Grange in- 
stalls officers January 14 h. Mrs. Dae D. 
Hull, Secretary, says that all Patrons in good 
standing are cordially invited to atteni. 

Installations will take place to-day in the 
following Granges : North Batte, Santa Rosa, 
Washington, Florin, Sacramento, Paso Robles, 
South Sutter and Eden. 

The West Virginia State Grange has just 
completed a well-attended and profitable ses- 

The Position of Woman. 

Worthy Master R>bie of the Maine State 
Grange, in his annual address, devoted consid- 
erable attention to the progress which has been 
made in this country toward elevating woman 
to the rightful position which belongs to her. 
His remarks on this subject are as follows: 

"The last, but not the least, of the purposes 
of the Grange, according to its official declara- 
tion, is to inculoate a proper appreciation of the 
ability and sphere of woman. This was the 
crowning work of the founders of our Order 
in admitting her to full membership and to 
equal position with the male Bex, thus recog- 
nizing the equality of the two sexes. It was a 
noble departure from the sentiment and prac- 
tice which had heretofore ruled the organic law 
of all the prominent secret associations of the 
land. Our declaration of purposes thus gives 
to woman the influence and power whioh are 
needed in building up and protecting an indus- 
try and pursuit in which she has an equal inter- 
est. Woman occupies a prominent position on 
the ' home farm,' equal to its distinguished 
master, and as matron she discharges important 
dnties which no other person oan do as well; 
hence, in the eoonomy of the Grange, we find 
that the equality of the two sexea is fully rec- 
ognized. The Grange door ' swings inward at 
the gentle touoh of woman as to the ruder 
knocking of man.' While we admit the justice of 
the principle of equality, let us not forget its 
logical consequence, and not cease our efforts 
until the American woman shall enjoy all the 
rights of American citizenship. 

" When the American Constitution was 
framed and adopted, 100 years ago, woman was 
hardly recognized outside of social circles. A 
married woman lost her legal identity as soon 
as she had a husband; he was acknowledged 
and protected by the laws which he himself 
made, as the legal guardian of the wife. By 
force of marriage law the twain was pro- 
nounced one, and that one was the husband; 
she was the slave of his despotic will. To-day, 
entirely oontrary to the old regime, woman is 
recognized by the laws of all the States as a 
distinct and independent person, capable of ac- 
quiring, holding, oonveying property. She has 
the right to engage in any legal business, carry 
on trade, make contracts, sue and be sued, and 
enforce all the rights and obligations whioh are 
the prerogatives of a free and independent citi- 

"The distinction between the two sexes In 
political rights is also undergoing great 
changes by the progress of the age and the 
march of civilization. Several of the new Ter- 
ritories of this nation, foreseeing the Inevitable 
conclusion of sober thought and sound judg- 
ment, whioh are fast changing deep seated prej- 
udices, have placed themselves in acoord with 
the progressive and enlightened spirit of the 
age by conferring upon woman the political 
rights of universal suffrage and of holding effioes. 
Many other States, held back by the conserva- 
tive sentiment of opposition to radical changes, 
are restless under the wrongs which woman 
suffers by a denial of full political rights. 
Many States are thus slowly bringing woman 
to the front, where (quality means something, 
by passing laws conferring upon her partial en- 
franchisement. In the great agricultural State 
of Kansas, which is almost an empire of itself, 
where morality, intelligence and loyalty have 
worked grander results than in any other State 
in this broad Union, woman has for three years 
exercised the right of suffrage in all the munic- 
ipal elections. The election last spring In Kan- 
sas shows that the vote of woman was more 
than double what it was the previous year, and 
that in one city at least an intelligent woman 
was elected mayor with a majority of the same 
sex in the boards of aldermen and oouncilmen. 
And it is worth remembering that these 
women were once teachers in the common 
schools of the State. While women are gain- 
ing their rights, we find that they are also oc- 
cupying advanced positions in professional life 
as teachers, ministers, doctors and even lawyers. 
And what are the special qualifications neces- 
sary to secure eminenoe, success and ufluence 
in these professions? Are they not brain power 
and high moral character that give life and 
existence to a nation through the ballot, and 
where can you find a greater development than 
among the educated and moral women of this 
conn tr j ?" 

From the Keystone State. 

The Pacific Rural Press, 24 pages, print- 
ed at San Francisco, devoted to agricultural 
pursuits, reached us this week. The Press is 
the organ of the Granger element on the Pa- 
cific Ccast, and it is a piper that that class oan 
well be proud of. — Hazleton (Pa) Plain 

Potter Valley Grange celebrated the anni- 
versary of the Order and elected officers Da- 
oember 4;h. B r o. W. V. Kilbourne, the Secre- 
tary, says: "We are going to be in better 
shape from this on. We are now out of debt, 
have a good ball and furniture, with the lower 
part of the hall rented, which will take some 
of the strain off in. future." 

The Vermont State Grange met Dao. 10th. 
The Secretary reported a gain of one Grange 
and abont ten per cent In membership. The 
total nnmber of members in that State is 2000. 
The Grange Maple Sugar Exohange reported 
thafytbree tons of maple sugar had been ship- 
ped'to California Granges. 

Jan. 11, 1880.] 



Installation at Merced Grange. 

Editors Press : — I left Sacramento on the 
3d at 9 a. m. , to install the officers of Meroed 
Grange on the 4th, with rather low spirits on 
account of the gloomy weather and terrible 
oonditlon of the roads. Arriving at Stockton, 
Brother Overhiser joined me, and with his 
usual buoyant spirit, he bid the clouds roll by 
and inspired me with f resh hope that all would 
be serene when we arrived at Merced, that 
never-give-up Grange. 

For mad and water — we will soon imitate 
her for natural gas — Stockton is a counterpart 
of Sicramento. At Lathrop the land is more 
sandy, absorbs the rain sooner and appears 
much drier. As we go south, there appears to 
be less rain, water and mud until we arrive 
within five miles of Merced, where the soil is 
much different, there beiDg more clay in it, 
and, consequently, it retains the water for a 
greater length of time. The sun shone out beau- 
tifully until within half an hour of our arrival at 
Merced, when the sky became overcast with 
dark, threatening clouds, and the rain came 
down in earnest, soon turning into a severe 
hail-storm, which made the platform thick 
enough for good snow-balling. 

One-half hour before the sun set we wit- 
nessed one of the grand sights that we occasion- 
ally see in this country. The sun was shining 
with all its glory through the broken clouds, 
rain and hail were descending as though it was 
their last chance for the season, the drops of 
water on the gum trees were glistening like 
diamonds, and the bow of promise, with its 
undiluted colors, formed an entire half-circle 
against the eastern storm-clouds, defying the 
skill of the artistic brush. No doubt this 
matchless, never-to-be-forgotten scene was 
gazed upon by thousands of eyes. 

I told Bro. Overhiser that if they had a 
quorum it would show them to be among the 
bravest Granges in the State. Bro. Brouae had 
to build a bridge to get the women into his 
carriage, and others related almost similar ad- 
ventures. Only two or three of the officers were 
absent, and I presume it was next to impos- 
sible to get to town. 

If Merced Grange will use as muoh perse- 
verance in all things as she did to-day to make 
this installation and banquet a success, she will 
stand unrivaled among the list. 

The installation passed off smoothly. Every 
one seemed brimful of overflowing spirits, 
which adds materially to a success of this kind. 
Bro. Overhiser reminded me of a general over- 
looking his army, seeing that order and disci- 
pline were fully carried out to the letter of the 
law, and that all signs, signals and grips were 
given correctly. Under the direction of Bro. 
Overhiser, the Grange formed, two and two, the 
writer being escorted by a level-headed Matron 
to El Gapitan, where the banquet was held. 

The landlord did credit to himself for the 
fine spread. Nearly every seat in the large 
dining-room was filled. The only thing that 
marred the pleasure of the occasion was the 
chilly condition of the room, which sent the 
brothers after their overcoats and made the 
writer's teeth chatter, and his tongue refused 
to wag except at one end. When Bro. Cressey 
came to his feet, incased with overcoat from 
head to feet to respond to the toast " miscel- 
laneous," it did not take long for the concen- 
trated eyes present to warm up his oratorical 
powers, and be soon threw off the cold dis- 
guise and stood before his audience like a 
Riman senator of old. Bro. Rogers was the 
Master of Ceremonies, and he did his part 
well. The leading toasts were " California " 
and *' Brazil," which were well handled by the 

The banquet was a joint affair between the 
oitizens ana the Grange. The funds raised to 
entertain the National Grange were not entire- 
ly exhausted, so it was proposed to use the 
balance for this occasion, and invite each party 
to participate. Every one present went to 
their respective home fully impressed that the 
Grange has come to stay, and the future out- 
look for Merced Grange is better than ever 
before. I learn with pleasure . that several of 
the former members will return shortly, and 
the applications of several new members wiil 
soon be made. 

Another severe hail-storm occurred in the 
evening, but too late to see much of its beauty, 
except the white coming to the ground. Bro. 
O'erhiser and self spent the evening with Bro. 
Smith and family at their residence in the city. 

Soon the two brothers Applegate put in an 
appearance and spent a portion of the evening. 
I believe these brothers are single men, and I 
will be too oharitable to call them old bachelors, 
in such a fruitful field as this all ready for the 

The two young ladies present dispensed 
apples, nuts, smiles, music, and vivaoity to the 

Sister Smith said she had built up a rousing 
fire in hope to thaw me out. I hope I did melt 
enough to receive some indelible .impressions 
from apparently a well-ordered household. 
The drift of conversation turned on the objects, 
purposes and benefits of the Grange and tem- 
perance. The junior sister who took an active 
part in the latter subject impressed her argu- 
ments and rounded up her periods by the 
presence of a large pitcher of water on the 
table, and she invited all to take freely of the 
beverage without money and without prioe. 

We return to our home well pleased with the 
manner in which they entertained us, and be- 

lieving under other circumstances we oould 
have been of muoh more service to the Order. I 
shall expect to hear good reports from this 
Grange in the Press from its lively secretary, 
Sacramento, Jan. 7th. D. P. 

Roseville Grange Installation. 

Editors Press: — On the 4th myself and wife 
visited Roseville Grange, it being the day of 
their installation. Arriving there at 10 o'clock, 
we repaired to the Grange hall, found a few 
members had already gathered there, and in a 
very short time the hall was full of Patrons. 
Worthy Master Hawk called the Grange to 
order and went through with the regular order 
of business, until he came to the good of the 
Order. Then we were all invited to take seats 
at the table, which was spread with the good 
things for which the sisters of our Order know 
so well how to prepare. I will not try to 
describe it, for I couldn't if I should try, and 
all who have attended a Harvest Feast know 
that they cannot do it justice. 

After the inner man had been satisfied, Worthy 
Master Davis was presented with a beautiful 
bouquet, to which he responded in a very feel- 
ing and happy manner, as he always does. 
Afterward Bro. Hawk, Worthy Master of Rose- 
ville Grange, was called upon. He said that 
as his name was Hawk and he had been feeding 
upon chicken, he thought he was a chicken 
Hawk, but before he got through they thought 
he was a pretty big chicken Hawk, for he said 
he could carry as many chickens as any Hawk 
of his size. Then Sister Cross was called upon 
to explain what good the Patrons of Husbandry 
had done, to which she responded in a very 
nioe and pleasing manner. 

After the tables had been cleared away, in- 
stallation was in order. As soon as the offi- 
cers-elect had taken their seats, Worthy State 
Master E. W. Davis took the chair, and with 
the assistance of Bro. B. F. Frisbie proceeded 
to install the officers of Roseville Grange. As 
eaoh officer was installed he was called upon to 
say what be intended to do for the good of the 
Order. The officers as they took their seats 
pledged themselves to work for the good of the 
Order by being in their places at each meeting. 
Now if every Grange would pledge itself 
to work for the good of the Order, and then 
live up to that pledge, we would have a re- 
vival in Grange work. 

After listening to a very fine address from 
the Worthy Master, E. W. Davis, myself and 
wife had to hurry from the hall in order to 
catch the train for home, so with a hurried 
good-by we were soon on our way home, after 
having spent a very happy and profitable day. 
Hoping we may all live to meet with Roseville 
Grange on the next New Year's, I bid you all 
a Happy New Year. Fraternally yours, 

Yuba Oily, Jan. 5. 1890. B. F. Frisbie. 

Joint Installation. 

Wednesday, January 1st, Lodi and Wood- 
bridge Grangers held a joint public installation 
of officers in Odd Fellows' hall of Lodi, J. D. 
Huffman conducting the ceremonies. The hall 
was crowded to overflowing with the brothers 
and sisters of the Grangers, together with a 
large number of invited guests. At the con- 
clusion of the installation all were invited to 
partake of a feast which had been spread in 
Cope's building a few steps away. The chicken 
and turkey, pie and oake, coffee and doughnuts, 
etc., had been prepared by the good sisters of 
the two Granges, and the quantity and quality 
of the good things were such as to maintain the 
excellent reputation which these ladies have 
heretofore enjoyed as superior culinary artists. 
After dinner an entertaining literary and musi- 
cal program was rendered in the hall, the prin- 
cipal feature of which was a speech by Willis 
C. Norton in which he gave an interesting ac- 
count of the extended excursion through this 
State of the National Grange, of which party he 
was a member. His descriptions were concise 
and were interspersed with many pleasing inci- 
dents of the trip. His remarks were listened 
to with close attention and at their conclusion 
the speaker was loudly applauded. W. L. 
Orerhiser, Past Master of the State Grange, 
was called upon. In the course of his remarks 
he said New York was the banner State in 
the number of Grangers and interest manifested 
by members, and that the prosperity of the 
Order there was due to the existence of plan of 
insurance for the members under the auspices 
of the State Grange. He strongly advocated 
the adoption of a similar system by the Order 
in California and predicted a prosperous future 
in the event. The officers were then installed 
for the ensuing year. — Lodi Sentinel. 

Stockton Grange. 

Editors Press: — At the regular meeting of 
Stockton Grange held on the 4th inst., the offi- 
cers were installed by Bro. C. W. Norton, 
District Lecturer, assisted by Bro. E. S. 
Beecher. As each officer was conducted to 
his seat he made some appropriate remarks. 
The retiring Master, Bro. N. E. Ailing, made 
a very flattering address to his successor, Bro. 
A. M. D. Mcintosh. Owing to the stormy 
weather and very bad roads there was only a 
fair attendance of our members, and they en- 
joyed the bountiful lunch provided by the 
sisters. N. T. Root, Sec'y. 

Stockton, Jan. 5lh. 

Thirty-six Granges have been added to the 
roll of Pennsylvania daring the past year. 

One Farmer's Experience. 

Debts— Grain and Fruit— CombineB. 

Editors Press :— In '62 I arrived in the 
State of Navada and went to work at my trade 
as a millwright ; had lots of work and big pay. 
Soon I got interested in the working of ore, 
built myself a small mill, got plenty to do and 
soon made enough, as I then thought, to do me 
the balance of my life. (Have since found that 
I was badly mistaken.) I also took a partner 
of the other sex and had still better luck. We 
have raised several children and I am happy 
to say that I am proud of them. 

School facilities not being of the best in Ne- 
vada, we concluded to move to California, 
which we did in '70, and settled in Dry Creek 
valley — one of the richest in the State — bought 
115 acres, of which a portion is hill land, built 
all new buildings, made new fences and in fact 
renewed all of the old Improvements, loaned 
out money, went security for several — the last 
part on other people's judgment. 

The consequence was that after a few years 
I find myself $3300 in debt. I hardly knew 
what was best to do — the products of the farm 
low, paying interest and supporting my family 
was uphill business. 

At that time I happened to be taking the 
little 7x9 California Patron. In looking over 
its pages I noticed an article (I don't just now 
remember its heading) the gist of which was ad- 
vising farmers who were in debt and paying in- 
terest to sell enough of the farm to get out of 
debt and stop paying interest, even the whole, 
if necessary, and commence anew. 

I followed the advice; had to sell only a 
part; paid off the last cent and took an oath 
never to buy anything unless I had the where- 
with to pay for it, and I have found that it 
works well. I can sleep nights splendidly, ex- 
cept once in awhile I have to get up and hunt 
the paregoric bottle to soothe the cries of 
some of the babies. 

Two years ago I became thoroughly con- 
vinced that raising grain on small farms never 
could be made to pay. I planted most of my 
land to fruit trees, about half to French prunes, 
the balance to peaches, pears and a few apricots. 
To be sure, it requires a great deal of labor to 
properly attend to fruit, but I am satisfied that 
there are dollars to be made where only cents 
are made in grain. 

I planted four rows of corn between each 
two rows of trees (trees 20 feet apart each way) 
and am certain that the yield was quite as good 
as if it had been all in corn. The rows of 
trees left an opening of eight feet — so that the 
sun had a good show at the corn — just what it 
wants, and now I am going to shell out some 
of that corn just as soon as it is dry enough, 
sell it, raise some money, and send $3 for one 
year's subscription to the Pacific Roral Press. 

I received the Press of Jan. 4th and have 
read it through. It has lots of information in 
it that can't be got out at one reading. The 
letter of J. H. Brigham has the right ring. If 
we get half what he intimates, I will be satis- 
fied. Also the beef combine, by W. C. Black- 
wood. It was the first that I ever knew of 
such an extensive combine existing. The peo- 
ple of Ireland to day are in better circumstances 
than the people in the United States, I believe; 
they have more freedom. Ha3 not Congress a 
right to pass laws to break up all of this 
monopoly business? If it has not, the Govern- 
ment better turn over the new war-vessels to 
the people and let them protect themselves. 
I think that we are in more danger from the 
enemy at home than from any foreign enemy. 

Eealdsburg, Jan 6, 1890. Ira Proctor, 

How Farmers Win in Politics. 

It is encouraging to know that when farm- 
ers " pall together," they can succeed in accom- 
plishing what they try to do, even in politics. 
One evidence of this is found in their success in 
electing a Legislature in the State of Massa- 
chusetts, pledged to pass laws against the man- 
ufacture of oleomargarine, in a manner to imi- 
tate butter. The Farm and Fireside says: 

In our November 1st issue a brief reference 
was made to the Farmers' League in Massa- 
chusetts, organized for the purpose of electing 
members of the State Legislature pledged in 
favor of a bill to prohibit coloring oleo like but- 
ter. The result of the election shows that the 
work of the league was a decided success. In 
faot, the farmers have gained a great victory. 
An overwhelming majority of the members 
elect of each branch of the Legislature are hon- 
est butter men. 

The result shows the wisdom of the course 
pursued by the league. It was non-partisan. 
No new party was formed, but the farmers sim- 
ply voted for the candidates pledged to stand 
by them, and elected them. That's all there 
was of it. In districts where all the candi- 
dates were pledged alike, the voters did not 
step outside their party lines. But in districts 
where the candidates differed on the oleo ques- 
tion, party lines were disregarded. The coarse 
of the league was sensible and successful. It 
was practical politics. It has demonstrated 
just what can be done in nearly every State 
in the Union. There is no sense in farmers 
standing around grumbling about adverse legis- 
lation when it is within their power to remedy 
it. They hold the balance of political power, 
and the fault is their own if they do not make 
good use of it. A political non partisan organ- 
ization like the Massachusetts Farmers' League 

can bring the different parties to terms on an 
important issue affecting agriculture. 

In the Slate of Iowa, which is usually over- 
whelmingly Republican, the farmers have re- 
cently elected a Democratic Governor because 
the Republicans forced upon them a Republi- 
can nominee whose record no honest farmer 
would indorse; while the Democratic nominee 
was a good man. 

It is proved beyond question by these things, 
that when the farmers regard principles and 
men as of more importance than party nomina- 
tion, they can elect their man and secure their 
measures. We earnestly hope that the farmers 
of both the old parties and all the new ones 
will learn a useful lesson from these facts. If 
they are such strong partisans as to prefer 
party success to their individual good, let them 
at least remember that they might have it 
otherwise if they would. 

New Hampshire State Grange. 

The New Hampshire State Grange met at 
Manchester, Deo. 17th, with a large at- 
tendance. The report of the Secretary, N. J. 
Bachelder, shows the past year to have been 
the most successful in its history. Up to Sept. 
30th seven new Granges had been organized, 
and since that date four more, making a total 
of 111 in the State. The total membership is 
put down as 8000— a net gain of nearly 1100 
since the last session. There are 22 Granges 
with a membership of 100 or more, one of them 
having 202, while 52 Granges report between 
50 and 100 members each. Several Granges 
have initiated between 50 and 100 new mem- 
bers. There are six Pomona Granges, one of 
them having 475 members. The Treasurer's 
report showed a very favorable oondition of the 

Officers were elected during the session, and 
were installed by Bro. Mortimer Whitehead, 
Lecturer National Grange. They are as fol- 
lows : Oharles McDaniel, M.; James E. Shep- 
ard, O.; Hon. John D. Lyman, L ; Frank H. 
Weld, S.; H. B. flolman, A. S.; Rev Gao. W. 
Patten, C; Hon. J. M. Taylor, T ; Niham J. 
Biohelder, Sec ; Henry Moore, G. K ; Mrs. 
Chas. McDiniel, Ceres; Mrs. Gbo. A. Bennett, 
P.; Mrs. N. J. Bachelder, F.; Mrs. E. C. 
Hutchinson, L. A. S. 

The amendment submitted by the National 
Grange, authorizing the reduction of the in- 
itiation fee, was rejected. 

Strong resolutions were passed in favor of 
the Australian ballot system and stringent 
laws against the adulteration of food. 

National Lecturer Whitehead remains in 
New Hampshire several weeks visiting and ad- 
dressing the different subordinate Granges. 

The Interstate Commerce Law. 

In its third annual report submitted to Con- 
gress Jan. 6th, the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission makes recommendations looking to 
the amendment of the law in the following par- 
ticulars : 

First — Amendment to the first section, to 
oorrect ambiguities of language and make 
more definite transportation provisions, both 
interstate and international, both of which are 
intended to be subject to the provisions of the 

Second — Amendment to the third section, 
relating to routes and interchange of traffic be- 
tween carriers and to better provide for 
through traffic at through rates over connect- 
ing lines. 

Third — Amendment to the twelfth section, 
relating to the attendance of witnesses and the 
taking of testimony by deposition. 

Fourth — Amendment to the twenty-second 
section, allowing free transportation of persons 
injured in railway accidents, and of the fam- 
ilies of railroad employes. 

The new sections suggested are : 

First — Prohibition of payment of oommis- 
s ous by one railroad ompany to the tioket 
agents of another. 

Second — The abolition of ticket brokerage by 
requiring that ticket-sellers be duly authorized 
by the railroad company, which assumes the 
responsibility of his acts. 

Third — R qairement that mileage be paid 
for cars used and belonging to private compa- 
nies or individuals. 

Fourth — Extension of the law to make it ap- 
ply to common carriers by water routes. 

Adjourned Meeting of the Executive 

There will be an adjourned meeting of the 
Exeoutive Committee of the State Grange of 
California held at the office of the State Secre- 
tary, 220 Market st., S. F., at 9 a. m. Thursday, 
Jan. 16 ch, for the transaction of such business 
as may be-properly brought before it. 

Per order. A. T. Dewey, S;o'y. 


An adjourned annual stockholders' meeting 
of the California Patron Publishing Co. will be 
held at the office of the Company, 220 Market 
street, San Francisco, Gal., on the 16th of 
January, 1890, at 11a.m., for the purpose of 
considering and voting on the question of 
disincorporating the above-named Oompany, 
and for the transaction of such other business 
as may properly come before the annual stock- 
holders' meeting. I. C. Steele, President. 

J. Chester, Seoretary. 

f> ACIFI6 frURAb f> RESS. [JiB „, 1890 

Winter Sunshine. 

Is this mid-winter? In my pleasant room 

I throw the casement wide. The generous sun 

Gives me a summer greeting; pours his sweet 

And wholesome rays unstinted down, as kings 

Ol old tossed gold and gems to kneeling crowds. 

I like the gift with joy. Better than mines 

Ol Ophir is this golden shower. The air 

Is like new wine. O rare intoxxant I 

For once 1 turn a Bacchanil and quaff 

Deep and inspiring draughts. Nor are the birds 

Gone (rom us, for 1 hear the merry notes 

Of little sparrows welcoming the sun 

With happy roundelays— and here beside 

My w ndow trellis see the climbing rose, 

Undiuntfd by the frost, throw fearless out 

Its long pink pennons to the morning breeze. 

heart of mine, be glad ! Be glad indeed 

That 'neath such slues and mid such scenes as these 
Thy lot is cast. Mourn not for thy lost youth ; 
Binish the winter of thy di content; 
Thy thoughts and words and deeds should match 
these skies. 

Where'er thou goest, what-'er thy task to-diy, 
Carry G d's sunshine in thy face, and let 
Thy love be al -embracing as these airs 

01 heaven. Be of good cheer as is yon bird. 

And like this sweet, brave rose, thou too shalt turn 
Thy life's December into blossoming May. 

—Mrs. M. H. Field in San Jose Mercury, 

The Power of the Spirit. 

[A portim of an address delivered b fore the W. C. T. 
U., at East Oakland, by Mrs. S. C. Sankosd.] 

Think 01 your bi dy not a yourself, but as 
an environment. Yuur si '/ cannot be seen ; it 
is a divine iLvisible reality. 

" You know this body mast decay. It is * 
good and beantilul thing that God has given 
you for a time-; but it feeds on the perishable 
and must perish like that which sustains it. 
The senses of the body early reach the climax 
of their strength. Tne z st of food is keenest 
in childhood. Your eye is clearer now than it 
will be in 10 or 20 years. Your ear can detect 
sounds now that will escape it 20 years hence. 
X iture writes the doom of the senses. Cher- 
ish them ever so carefully, refine them to ever 
ao exqiisite a delicacy, by and by l-.thargy and 
numbaess comes oyer them. The eye grows 
dim, the ear dull and no dainty can tea-e the 
palate into z;st. So a world of pleasures wear 
out. They are of that life of nature which 
must die." 

Stinding here on the threshold of the old age 
of youth, I nal ze the truth of these word 
nttered by an eminent divine. You know how 
it i». Just turn b ok a page of your memory 
to the lime when your dolls made up the sum 
of your day's happiness. Now how is it? Not 
th t you regret a eicg'e hour spent in that 
innocent manner ; but you have grown bevond 
them and reach out for larger, fuller j )ys. 
Thus it is with all pleasures that pertain to the 

"Bat we know there is a life of the spirit 
which only increases in the keenncBi of its sen- 
sibility and relish for its object as the years 
grow into old age. It may fail to be quick- 
ened, it may be smothered under an excess of 
world. iue-s, but it is a life to which every 
heart may consecrate itself in some degree to 
the pure service of humanity. It wakes in the 
leve that goes forth to do good. It is con- 
scious affi i icy with 6 >d. It is not a •'• // that 
we thatl 1 ve; it is living, and living nure and 
more; it is a banquet ot God to which no one 
needs a second invitation after having par- 

J Bus proclaimed to the woman at the well 
this idea, upon which shall rest the edifice of 
everlasting religion: "God is Spirit, and they 
who worship Him must worship Him in spirit 
and in truth." Tms spiritual life is the only 
real life. of these material thing* — these 
things we cad see, touch, taste and smell, these 
things that seem to play such an important 
part in our lives — back of them all there is a 
subtile force which controls and directs af- 
fair*, and b fore which all material obstacles 
must melt away. 

Yuu remember Emerson saya: "The dice of 
God aie always loaded. Every secret is told, 
every crime is punished, every wrong re- 
dressed, in silence and in oertainty." 

The same Father who by His law of gravita- 
tion holds the planets in place, has made an- 
other law just as potent and inevitable. Spirit 
rules matter; good is more potent than evil; 
life is stronger than death, however incredible 
it may seem to you. I have come to thorough- 
ly believe that there exists an inter dependence 
and correlation between physical and spiritual 
law so intimate that a strong tendenoy to evil 
in the moral world is sure to be followed by, 
nay, actually produces, convulsion in the world 
of matter. 

Ah! it the people of this world could be 
brought to real ■? that their very thoughts are 
ship t g -he world's destiny, would they not le' 
go of ad i arrow, b lit 1 ng thought) and hold 
fast to things eternal? O.i, let us believe that 
not only do our words disturb the atmosphere, 
oausing ripples to eddy through the realms of 

time, but the thoughts we think shed light or 
cist shadows npon this age and perhaps age< 
hence. The very atmosphere is charged with 

ur thoughts. At times we marvel when two 
inventors, thousands of miles apart, apply to 
the Patent Office for a patent npon the same 
prinoiple. There is no infringement ; the men 
never heard of each other, but that particular 
thought is abroad and more than one accep f sit. 

It is in this line that the story of the flood 
seems to fi;. "And God saw that the wicked- 
ness of man was great in the earth and that 
every imagination of the thoughts of his heart 
was only evil continually." Because evil pre- 
dominated, a great cataclysm occurred. 

Take the atory of Sodom and Gomorrah. 
That account need to puzzle me, but as the 
years swept by I have learned to read between 
the lines. Instead of Omnipotence being per 
*uaded by mortal man, the all-wise, tender 
Father brought His greatness down to Abra- 
ham's understanding, just as a successful teach- 
er, notwithstanding all the erndition he may 
oossess, brings himself down to the little child's 
level to impart knowledge to the unfolding 
mind and lead it gradually along the path of 
learning. Sodom and Gomorrah contained num- 
bers of people, and fifty seems a small part of 
a city; but in this moral world, this real life, 
fifty righteous people outweigh a multitude of 
evil imaginations, and in this account we are 
led down the plane until it seema to say 
very plainly that right is so much stronger 
than wrong, good so much more potent than 
vil, that G id will not allow even a drop of 
purity to be lost. "Aid he said, I will not 
de-troy it for ten's sake." 

girls, fee 1 your responsibilities and oppor- 
tunities! The moral atmosphere i« either purer 
or heavier for your having lived. You, by your 
iaily thoughts, are elevating or lowering the 
tone. You are of so much cons> quence the 
very hairs of your head are numb led. How 
this idea of spirit being the power behind the 
throne enlarges our sphere. No matter how 
handicapped we may be, no matter how humble 
our station is, we can think and think and 
hink while our fingers are employed with 
p-etty wools or the week's mending. We can 
ouild our thoughts up, a mighty bulwark against 
which the waves of doubt, sensuality, drunk- 
enness and all evil imaginations may beat in 
vain, and in time they will be driven back to 
th« realm of darkness, where they belong. 

Girls ! tblnk noble, elevating thoughts ; 
spurn an impure thought frcm your mind as 
you would spurn a reptile from your path, and 
all who come into v r ur atmosphere will rise to 
higher altitude. N;ver allow doubt nor dis 
c uragement to lodge in your mind. If you 
fiod yourself growing weak, throw open the 
blinds of your soul to the great eternal sonrce 
of all light, which is as surely shining for 
your spiritual growth and life as is the sun 
vivifying and blessing this green earth. By 
harboring doubts concerning this total absti- 
nence reform, or any other, you are aiding 
and comforting the enemy. 

It is not for our poor fiaite mindi to know 
jut what to do or when to do it, but we can 
always keep our lamps trimmed and ready 
when the bridegroom, opportunity, calla. 

We women can neither wield ballots nor 
bullets, but we can send abroad strong in- 
fluences that will eilently work and stir the 
affiire of the nation, just as the leaven in the 
meal leaveneth the whole lump 

Reforms drag through many trials and seem 
ing discouragements, but all at once light 
breaks forth, and before any one is fairly aware 
of it the mighty work ii done. The worl t 
mirv;ls at the raoidity with which it is at last 
accomplished. Bit the world is ever forget- 
ting. "Not by power nor by might, but by 
my spirit," saith the Lord. 

The ad Ires' was followed by questions put 
by Mrs. D -. Vankirk, Sap't of the Y. W. C 
T. U. in Alameda county. 

Question : What do you mean by " en- 
vironmeut " ? 

Mrs. Sanford : That by which one is sur- 
rounded or encompassed. I mi an your real 
self is encompassed, environed, by this flesh and 
blood, bone and sinew, that we call boay. We 
all know one's surroundings are very impor- 
a it. I do not wish to convey the impression 
that we are to tike no care of the body, but 
that we are to think of it as a meane, not an 
end. Cultivate it as a vehicle. Think of it as 
that wonderful Corniche road running from 
Nice to Genoa, which the genius of Nipoleon 
caused to spring from the bosom of the mighty 
rock. That white, smooth road on the shell 
or ledge m- kes easy and safe the journey from 
France to Italy; so does a vigorous, healthy 
body help us to live a noble, upright life. 

Question: Do you intend to be under- 
stood to say there is nothing in heredity ? 

-4ns..- No, but not everything. There are 
other factors in theBe problems that heretofore 
have been overlooked. I tell you, if you set 
the forces of your being against a long entail 
ment of disease, vice and degradation, yon 
can accomplish wonders. The battle will be 
tremendous; but a strong, steady flime of light 
and virtue will purify much evil. 

You know some one has said somewhere: 
"Our lives make a moral tradition for our in- 
dividual s Ives, as the life of mankind at large 
makes a moral tradition for the race, and to 
have once acted n bly seema a na-un why we 
shouH always be noble." 

Question; I'l s explain how the atmos- 
phere is charged with our thoughts. Are 
thoughts thlnge ? 

Ant.: George Eliot, in speaking of Savon- 
arola, says: " There seems to be a subtle 
emanation from passionate natures like his, 
making their mental states tell immediately 
upon others. When they are absent-minded 
and inwardly excited, there is silence in the 

To my way of thinking, every one possesses 
this attribute to a greater or less extent. Yon 
all have thought of some one juat before seeing 
or hearing from him. Beyond a doubt our 
thoughts charge the moral atmosphere, and are 
expressed in the air about us. "Thought alone 
is eternal," says Owen Meredith. John Lord 
says: "Ideas are ever most majsatic, whether 
they are good or evil. Men pass away, but 
principles are indestructible and of perpetual 

Quettion: Do you mean to say there are 
insensible emanations going out from every 
perron aff cting the world about them? 

•■I 7i.--. .- I do. Our thoughts create an at- 
mosphere immediately surrounding us, which 
if we would heed would serve us as the cat's 
whiskers do her. It is said a cat will not t hru-t 
her head in a place small enough to bend the 
long hairs with which N iture has provided her. 
So could we protect ourselves from danger it 
we paid attention to this aura emanating from 
us all. 

The smallest bird cannot light npon the 
greatest tree wi hout sending a shock to its 
most distant fibei; every mind ia at times no 
1(8' sensitive to the meat trifling words. 

Quettion: Are we to understand from your 
reinaiks that we can dispense with concen- 
trated i ff >rt ? 

Ans : Oh no I Not that I love Cseiar leas 
but Rome more. Wnen I say yon can think and 
think and think, lam addressing the majority 
of women who have no desire to enter into 
public work. We know societies, meetings, 
ind conventions are most needful and useful. 
We meet together in communion of faith, ex- 
change idea*, and gain enthueiism to press for- 
ward in the work. 

(Question: How can we learn to open the 
wii down of our soul ? 

Ant.: By prayer alone. We can shut the 
doors and windows of our houses and say there 
is no sun; and until we have faith enough to 
opi n the blinds the sun will shine in vain. So 
is there a great fountain of divine strength and 
light lying all about us, from which we can 
draw at any moment, simply by placing our- 
selves in a receptive condition. "Ask and ye 
aha 1 ! rei-eivi ; seek and ye shall find." 

','•.• '.' 'i . Do you not consider recreation 
needful to our best development ? Would you 
have us always thinking of eternity ? 

Ant. : I woold have you cease placing 
eternity away off in the future and think you 
are in eternity now. Oar everyday lives make 
us what we are. O: course we need reoreati n, 
and if our lives be permeated with the light, 
strength and love that is all about us, life cerwei 
to be a burden and is recreated daily into a j iy- 
ous Bong. 

At a reception given to a W. C. T. U. 
woman — I have forg t en who now — one of 
your number was Biugiog and I stood by the 
piano, On the wall opposite was a picture of 
a cross, lying npon the ground, wreathed with 
br-a'itiful fl jwers. As I am a little short- 
sighted, I did not at first comprehend, but 
a t-r peering a little I understood. All the 
heavy crosses, all the trials, all burdens, were 
in the world more than 1800 years ago. We 
talk sometimes abont the Cross of Christ. Toe 
cross was a Rjman instrument of • x cation. 
Had the Jews executed Jesus He wouH have 
been stoned to death; but He bore the Roman 
cross. He brought no cross, no trial, no weak- 
ness, no tribu anon, no sorrow, no sin — tbey 
were all here, every one of them, when He 
came, bat He brought love, patience, peace, 
joy and divine healing for every woe. II 
wreathed an ugly instrument of torture with 
the blossoms of purity and holiness. He 
taught m that, no matter what hard or menial 
task is laid upon us, we can soar above it, as 
the lark soars into the blue ether. 

The Decisive Hour. 

One of the illusions ie that the present hour 
is not the critical, decisive hour. Write it on 
your heart that every day is the best day in 
the year. No man has learned anything right- 
ly until he knows that every day is doomsday. 
Tis the old secret of the gods that they come 
in low disguises. 'Tis the vulgar great who 
come i ... d with gold and jewels. R al 
kings hide away their crowns in their ward- 
robes, and affect a plain and poor exterior. In 
the Norse legend of our ancestors, Odin dwells 
in a fisher's hut and patches a boat. In the 
Hindoo legends, Hari dwells a peasant among 
peasants. In the Greek legend Apollo lodges 
with the shepherds of Admetus, and Jove liked 
to ruBticate among the poor Ethiopians. So, 
in our history, Jesus is born in a barn, and His 
12 peers are fishermen. 'Tis the very principle 
of science that Nature shows herself best in 
beasts; it was the maxim of Aristotle and Lu- 
cretius, and in modern times, of Swedeoborg 
and of Hannemann. The order of changes in 
the egg determines the age of fossil strata. S > 
it was the rule of our po> ts, in the legends of 
lairy b e, that the fairies largest in power 
were least in B ze. In the Christian graces, 
humility stands highest of all in the form of 
the Madonna; and in life this is the secret of 
the wise. We owe to genius always the same 

debt of lifting the ourtain from the common, 
and showing us that divinities are sitting dis- 
gaised in the seeming gang of gypsies and ped- 
dlers. In daily life, what distinguishes the 
master is using those materials he has, instead 
of looking about for whit are more renowned, 
or what others have used well. "A general," 
said B inaparte, "always has troops enough, if 
he only knows how to employ those he haB, 
and bivouacs with them." Do not refuse the 
employment which the hoar brings you, for 
one more ambitious. The highest heaven of 
wisdom is alike near from every point, and thou 
must find it, if at all, by methods native to 
thyself alone, — Emerton. 

Our Neighbor's Dog. 

He was a big, long-legged, lank-built fellow, 
with a coat the color of a wet sand-bank, and 
answered to the name of "Old L ; on." 

He was the valued property of a neighbor's 
family who always had ready some fresh evi- 
dence of Old Lion's wonderful sagacity and 
bravery, cherishing him and telling of his doings 
almost as fondly as they would those of an in- 
dulged child ; bat to their neighbors he was 
simply a great awkward, overgrown, yellow 
dog, with the redeeming trait of not being 
spoiled by so much petting. 

Ooe sultry midnight ia August, those of as 
at father's who slept iu the two bed-rooms 
opening frrm our dining-room, were suddenly 
awakened by the tonnd of some large animal 
leiping through the mosquito netting that 
screened a window in thediui g-room, left wide 
open that hot night for greater circnlation < t 
air, and pouncing heavily upon the floor. Then 
came a quick pi t r of big feet across the 
room, a wneezy sniffing and snuffing at our bed- 
room door that had been left a j ir, more stealthy, 
ecratchy footfalls and the rustle of a frt ably- 
starched v ilance as this midnight prowler crept 
in under our bed. 

Oi course, there speedily fallowed a smothered 
chorus of shrill screams as we frightened little 
girls hid our heads un ler the ooverlet and 
faithfully g ve warning of supposed peril. 

Father and mother and the rest of the house 
were soon routed, lights brought, weapons has- 
tily mustered — anything, everything, from a 
warped ourtain stick to an andiron hastily 
caught from the grate — and on caationsly peer- 
ing uader the lifted valance, we saw our neigh- 
bor's dog, old Lion, crouching close to the wall, 
his great yellow eyes blazing out at us like 
balls of fire. 

We ooax 'd and scolded and threatened, then 
pelted him with extemporaneous missiles and 
poked him with the curtain stick that snapped 
with the first rap.hke the dry cedar sliver that it 
was, trying to rout the creature from under oar 
bed, but stir he wouldn't, but fiercely growled 
at all our weapons, beating his rat like tail 
upon the fl jor and showing gleaming teeth 
when cuffed with the broom-handle. 

" Who knows," one of the deshabille robed 
group eaid, her face blanching with the thought, 
" who knows but that some thief or old tramp 
intends breaking into this house to-night, and 
old Lion kcew it and has come to protect us ! " 

"That's just it!" we whispered with chat- 
tering teeih, tightening onr grasp on our 
mother's skirts. " Someone is prowling round 
here to-night, intending to creep in by and- by 
to murder us in our sleep, and that wise old 
dog scented him and has come to fi^ht for 
our lives I " 

A low growl and a harder rap of the deter- 
mined tail from under the bed told as old Lion 
was listening and was trying to express assent 
to our frightened suspicions. 

"That's why he won't come out! He 
means to be on the watch and all ready to 
spring on to the dreadful man when he comes 
creeping into the room ! " Slater Mary said, 
reaching in to pat the great yellow head. "You 
dear, brave old doggie, you ! You are bright 
and smart, after all ! H >w could you know 
that a bad old tramp meant to steal in here to- 

Bat whether oar neighbor's dog took stubborn 
possession of oar room that night from the 
noble purpose of protecting ub from detected 
danger, or because he had sniff. d peril for his 
own sleek head, and thus sought refuge from 
it, we never knew. 

Whether bravery or cowardice sent him 
plunging through the taut netting that barred 
our windows, weoannot tell, though his owner 
was positive, and enumerates to this day 
among the shrewd and brave exploits of old 
Lion — long ago a victim of fox poison — the 
story of his wonderful instinct and noble cour- 
age that led him to break into our home that 
midnight and faithfully guard ue — watching 
over as, or rather under us, till daylight 
without a sleepy wink of his big, staring eyes, 
growling at every leaf rustle outside, and thus 
thwarted the purpose of some sly thief or evil- 

But we are not so sure, no tramp being seen 
in the vicinity at that time and loupcervier 
tracks being plainly discernible that morning 
in the muddy wood road near old Lion's home. 

— Portland Transcript. 

Is his early life, Theodore Parker had kept 
school; and so a wealthy woman, who disliked 
I'm, once took oocasion to remark to him : 
' My mother told me ntver to have anything 
o ro with a school-master. " "It is evident, 
madam, that you have obeyed your mother's 
instructions," was the reply. 

Jan. 11, 18S0.J 

f ACIFie I^URAb p RESb. 


"Uncle Tobias." 

"Come in, Uncle Tobias, and have some 
lunch," I called to the old man, as he paused in 
his wood-sawing and " heaved " a weary sigh. 
He came in with an unwonted air of dejection, 
rubbed his feet carefully, hung his old hat on 
the peg, and sat down, so unlike his bright 
cheery self that I asked, " What's the matter, 
Uncle Toby?" You see he had worked for my 
father ever since I could remember, and now 
he worked for us, Ned and me, since we were 
married. * 

" Wall, Miss Clark, I might as well tell ye, I 
s'pose. I don't know but what I have fallen 
from grace, sure enough," he said, with a queer 
expression of mirth and anxiety, looking up. 

"How's that? I am sure I hope not," I 

" Wall, ye see, ever since the Parson preach- 
ed that sermon 'bout the angels singing ' Glory, 
Glory ' forever and ever, world without end, 
I've been sort of oneasy in my mind. Now, 
Miss Clark, you may think I'm an orful sinner, 
but 'pears to me, 't'ward be kind of tiresome 
like to hear even the angels continually singing 
one word over and over. But it never came 
inter my mind till lately, since Miss Gibson be- 
gun to take boarders." 

"What made you think of it on that ac- 
count?" I asked. 

" Wall, ye see, them summer boarders of Miss 
Gibson's we see them pooty often; they come 
inter the gardin and ask for poseys, and when 
we don't see them we alters hear them. There's 
one of them men folks that whistles continually; 
now if he would only whistle Yankee Doodle 
or Antioch, or something sensible, why I could 
stand it, but it's just whistle, whistle all the 
time, no sense, no tune, till it seems as if I 
could only change it to steam-power it might 
do some good. Fust thing in the morning, 
whistle, whistle, and noon and night; good 
thiog he has to sleep like the rest of us. 
That was bad enough, but now it's worser than 

" Why, how's that ? " I asked, deeply inter- 

"Wall, ye see, there's more boarders come, 
and 'mong them is a female singer. Crackie ! " 
he exclaimed. " I wish females of all kinds 
was as dumb as our canary. My wife she 
feels bad about it; but I says, 1 don't complain, 
our canary is the most sensible female I know 
of, cause it don't try to sing.' Wall, Monday 
afternoon 1 was out in the gardin digging pota- 
toes, some of our airly ones, when I heeredsuch 
a noise coming from Miss Gibson's. I rushed 
inter the house, and says I, * Wife, some of 
them tarnal boarders have got spasms sure; I 
heered them holler.' She was so frightened 
she didn't mind the Bware word, but set down 
the apples she was paring, klipppd on her bun- 
nit, and ran for Miss Gibson's. She allers was 
a good nuss and kind to help when any one's 
sick; so I hunted round and found all her 'arbs, 
and had them ready to stew; I was certain sure 
she'd want them, as I heered that same kind of 
a holler when she got to the gate. Pooty soon 
she corned back, kind of meek-like, hung up 
her bunnit and went to paring apples. ' Who's 
siok?' siys I. 'Nobody ain't sick, it's Miss 
Cordelia Smith, the new boarder, singing the 
skale,' says she. Upon that I went out to fin- 
ish my digging, and the hollering — I mean 
singing — was louder than ever; it sounded like 
ah ! ah ! ah ! as near as I make it out — I can't 
tell ye," he said after several vain attempts, 
"jest how it goes. People say, ' Of two evals, 
choose the least,' but which is least I do'n no; 
with both of them together I 'bout fallen from 
grace; but, Miss Clark (pausing to give me a 
chance to stop my laughter) I've 'bout made up 
my mind what to do. I've got some fine large 
beans in my gardin, nearly ripe. I allers told 
my wife I was going to stew them and ask my 
enimies into dinner, so I guess I have to ask in 
the whistler and the singer," he said chuck- 
ling, as he took down his bat. 

" What kinds of beans are they ? " I inno- 
cently asked. 

"Castor oil," says he, and went out. — 
"Mitt" Clark. 


^"oUJNgJ^OLKS' QobUJvlN. 

Their Punishment. 

Mrs. Youngbride — How does your break- 
fast suit you this morning, darling ? Mr. 
Youngbride— Just right 1 I tell you, Annie, it 
may be plebeian, but I am awfully fond of calf's 
liver. Mrs. Youngbride— So am I. Don't you 
think, George, it would be real nice and eco- 
nomical to keep a calf, then we can have 
calf's liver for breakfast every morning. — 

Extortionists. — "Wby|do you call that color- 
ed man a blaokmailer ?" " Because he is employ- 
ed at the posttffioe. And that aint the worst of 
it." "No?" "No, sir; his wife tikes 
hush money." "You don't say so 1" "I do. 
She's a ohild's nurse." — Chicago Ledger. 

Scraggs : You say you've been orrtained ? 
Tramp : I have taken holy orders. Scraggs : 
Just explain yourself. Tramp : I asked the 
minister for a doll jr this morning and he told 
me to go to the devil; and here I am. — Lowell 

Augustus : My dear, that book you gave me 
awhile ago to prop mv feet with — ah, it was a 
cruel thing to do ! His wife : Really ! Dar- 
ling, what has happened ? Augustus : I Why, it 
was a novel by Henry James, and it put my 
feet to sleep.— Boston Beacon. 

No, children, I cannot tell you a fairy story, 
for in my young days my parents, who were 
very strict, never allowed us children to read 
or listen to such stories, but I can tell you many 
true incidents of my girlhood, which perhaps 
will amuse you somewhat. 

The one I have in my mind happened when 
I was about eleven years old. It was a levely 
evening, the moon being full, I remember, the 
sky without a cloud, and the sleighing and 
coasting excellent. My parents had company, 
several of the neighboring families, and among 
them our neareat neighbors by the name of 
Coombs, all excepting an aged aunt who lived 
with them, and who volunteered to stay at 
home that evening and see to the children — a 
brother and sister about the ages of my brother 
and myself. 

My brother Sumner and Richard Coombs 
had lately become the possessors of fine new 
sleds of which they were very proud. They 
were going to try them that evening on the 
" big hill " running down to the river. 

The bright, beautiful moonlight, the clear, 
still, mild evening, the splendid condition of 
the bill for coasting, and the swift, new sleds 
all combined to make us happy. For awhile 
Caroline and I watched the boys as they flew 
down the hill and drew their sleds back again. 
Seeing we were not invited to take a trip, we 
meekly asked if they would not let us slide a 
few times, they well knowing that we could 
manage a sled as well as they themselves. 

They said no 1 girls'd better be in the house, 
and they were going to slide till ten o'clock, 
adding that it was of no use to wait, for they 
shouldn't let us use their sleds. 

Well, we were disappointed, and Cal, a girl 
of much spirit, was rilled with resentment at 
our treatment. We saw our evening was 
spoiled, for girls in those days had no sleds or 
skates of their own, but bad to depend upon 
the possible kindness of their brothers. 

As we were walking sadly homeward, Cal 
stopped short and exclaimed: "They'll get 
their pay for this — we'll give them a good 
scare !" and then gave me her plan of oper- 

As the boys started from the top of the bill, 
she ran and climbed up near the top of a small 
maple tree, while I bid under a brush fence 
near by. 

She settled herself on a stout limb, drew her 
dark shawl entirely over herself, and as the 
boys came puffing up the long hill, she gave a 
long, deep growl, and began clawing the bark 
and twigs off the tree. 

The boys stopped in amazement, and looked 
first up into the tree and then at each other, 
with fear plainly depicted on their faces. 

" It can't be the girls," said Sumner (show- 
ing that his conscience troubled him), "be- 
cause there is only one, and no girl could growl 
like that, but let's try to bring it down ! " 

They then threw a few pieces of the hard 
crust of snow at it, when the creature burst 
into a howl of rage and gathered itself up as 
though to spring upon them. 

The boys "staid not upon the order of their 
going," but went at once, scrambling up the 
bill and dragging their sleds after them. 

But we, the conspirators, did not realize the 
danger we were in, for the boys ran to the 
houte of the nearest neighbor, Mr. Welch, and 
got Tom to come out with his gun to shoot the 

The first words we heard were: " There, in 
the top of that tree 1 take good aim and you'll 
bring it down at the first shot ! " 

At that I began to scream, "Djn't shoot, it's 
Cal I " and she began to climb down the tree. 
However, my warning was not quick enough to 
stay the hand that held the gun. She had got 
' nearly down, and as Tom fired, she fell to the 
ground, only a few feet, and lay groaning in a 
most heartrending manner. 

Well you may be sure there was a panic 
We all ran to her, and in answer to the boys' 
question as to where she was hit, she put her 
hand to her heart and moaned faintly. 

" O Cal I don't die, and you may have my 
sled forever," said her brother, while Sumner 
was imploring her to forgive him, and' poor 
Tom was wildlv inquiring if he was to be hung 
"No, Tom," said Cil sweetly in a fain 
voice, " I will tell them not to hang you and 
they won't." 

As for me, I could only put my arms about 
her and cry. 

While the boys were conferring together she 
whispered to me, " I'm not hurt at all, but 
don't let them know it." 

"Well," Sumner said sadly, " we must carry 
her home," which they proceeded to do. 

It was no easy matter, for poor Cal was a 
large, fleshy girl of thirteen, and rather un 
wieldy to carry. Besides, she was continually 
exhorting them to carry her very carefully, so 
she could live to get home I 

The little procession moving slowly along in 
the moonlight must have looked rather melan 
choly, though hardly picturesque. I went 
ahead and whispered a few words to Aunt 
Betty, who threw the old gray cat from her lap 
on to the floor and stood gazing at the poor 
grief-stricken boys while they stood awkward- 
ly holding the unfortunate victim by the feet 
and shoulders, and oaating apprehensive 

glances first at Aunt Batty, then at their fair 
burden, and last of all at each other. I shall 
never forget that tableau 1 It makes me laugh 
every time I think of it ! Even now, after 
all these years, I can see that little group gath- 
ered together in the large, old-fashioned sit- 
ting-room, poor Cal the center of attraction. 

Well, the boys deposited their burden on the 
big settee by the fireplace and stood at a re- 
spectful distance. Cal give two or three un- 
earthly groans and Richard wailed, " Aunt 
Betty I she's goiog to die 1 I know she is 1 
and we thought she was a panther ! " 

" And oh I what will become of us ?" cried 

" Aud oh, what shall I do, what shall I do 1" 
from Tom, " I know I shall have to be hung 1" 
Aunt Bitty, knowing the truth from me, 
stood looking severely at us all. After a few 
minutes of this dreadful suspense and torture 
for the bovs, the sufferer called the boys to her 
side, as they supposed, to receive her last 
words and benediction. "Boys," she said in a 
husky voice, "boys — if I should come out of 
this alive, will you solemnly promise to lend us 
girls your sleds and skates, and bows and ar- 
rows — and — and — " her voice growing weaker — 
"draw us to school every morning on your 
sleds ?" 

You should have seen those boys ! " Yes, 
yea, yes !" they all spoke at once in their eager- 
ness, and Tom promised of his own accord to 
build us a playhouse in the spring. Where- 
pon Miss Caroline got upon ber feet and 
calmly walked across the floor and ended by 
executing a little waltz which shocked Aunt 
Betty so she dropped speechless into her old 
straight-backed rocker. 

Well, the expression on those three boys' 
faces ! An artist would have made his fortune 
if he could have transferred the picture to can- 

In the midst of the surprise, Mr. and Mrs. 
Coombs walked in, and of course had to be told 
the whole story. 

After it was concluded, Aunt Betty turned 
severely upon her brother and said, "Silas, 
you see how these young ones are going to de- 
struction, and it's high time something was 
done !" 

Mr. Coombs, who had been troubled by a 
strange kind of choking cough during the re- 
cital of the evening's mischiefs, turned to Aunt 
Bstty with a curious twinkle in his eye, and 
said, "Well, sister Betty, if you can tell me 
which one most deserves punishment, he or 
she shall be attended to; but I guess it would 
puzz'e 'most any jury to decide I ' — H. F. 
Crocker, in Portland Transcript. 

As for copper, no one can justify its use 

Dr. Jackson gives the following wholesome 
advice to those who purchase catsup : "In the 
first place, avoid a highly colored article, for 
the chances are that much coloring matter has 
been added to disguise the color of half- 
ripened or rotten tomatoeB. Again, do not 
buy a low-priced article. When you see an 
array of catsup bottles in a window, with a 
price-card on them showing that they are 
being sold at half-price, don't you buy that 
catsup; it is not fit to go into a human 

The writer has known of a bargain-hunter 
who walked four squares out of her way to get 
a catsup that was sold five cents cheaper than 
better grades. Examination showed that catsup 
to be filthy; it was a network of moldy fiber. 
Considering how long a bottle of catsup will 
last, five cents is a very small saving to the pur- 
chaser, yet that much difference in price 
means a great deal to the manufacturer, con- 
sequently he cannot afford to put as good 
tomatoes in it, nor make it up so carefully 
as the better quality, so that this grade con- 
tains most of che rotten tomatoes, the sweep- 
ings, etc., all colored up nice and red with 
rosaniline. Whose fault is it that this kind 
of preparation is on the market — the manu- 
facturer's ? Not exactly. It is the fault of 
the bargain-hunter, who wants to get something 
for nothing — the bargain-hunter who holds a 
5-cent piece so close to her eye that she can- 
not see the dollar behind it. — Boston Herald. 

G(oOG) ^EyVLTH. 

Poison in Pickles. 

X)0MESTie QcOJ^OrvlY 

Dr. Jackson, a Pittsburg physician, recent 
ly analyzed a number of samples of pickles 
and catsups. In almost all the matter he found 
more or less salicylic acid, used by the manu 
facturers to prevent fermentation. In two> 
thirds of the samples there appeared fungi or 
molds, which indicated that the tomatoes had 
begun to ferment and grow moldy before the 
salicylic acid was added. Arsenic was found 
in one Bample and sulphuric acid in another 
The coloring matters used were largely cochi 
neal and aniline red. About one-third of the 
pickles analyzed contained impurities and adul- 
terations. The matter was chiefly in the vine 
gar, and the former was in both vinegar and 

Of the ten samples there was copper present 
in two, oil of vitriol in seven, lead in one, iron 
in two and zinc in one. This is certainly a bad 
showing. Out of all the adulterations used, 
cochineal is really the only harmless one. As 
for the lead, iron and zinc, it is assumed that 
their presence was accidental, as a result of the 
action of the acid on those metals with which 
they had come in contact. 

Salicylic acid is a very common adulteration 
of foods and drinks; milkmen have used more 
or less of it, and it is said that it is a frequent 
ingredient of lager beer. In fact in almost every- 
thing in the line of foods which undergo fer- 
mentation, this acid has been used as a preser- 
vator. Manufacturers contend that it is harm- 
less in the quantities in which they employ it. 
Could the consumption of the foods and drinks 
containing it be limited, this agent would not 
of course do much harm, but appetites cannot 
be anticipated. Many people crave acids, and 
some are very fond of catsup, and eat it 
freely with almost every kind of meat. 
Physicians give salicylic acid for acute rheum- 
atism, but it cannot be continued long, for the 
reason that the stomach very quickly beoomes 
irritated and intolerant of it. This acid is a 
poison and capable of producing death in large 
doses. Even if small doses are taken for a 
long time the nutrition of the indulger is so 
impaired that he loses flesh and strength. As 
to the effect of the mold found in the catsup on is only necessary, says Dr. Jackson, 
to state that a number of years ago an experi- 
ment found that when rabbits were fed on 
moldy bread their ears sloughed off, deep ulcer- 
ations made their appearance and finally death 
resulted. Diluted sulphurio acid is sometimes 
given as a medicine, but only that which has 
been prepared with exceeding oare. In the acid 
generally used to adulterate vinegar there is 
very likely to be a trace, at least, of arsenic. 

Raised Cake. — Two cups sugar, two cups 
bread dough, three-fourths cup butter, one cup 
raisins, one egg, half-teaspoonful soda, nutmeg, 
cinnamon. Add more flour if the dough is too 

Lemon Pie. — One lemon, one cup sugar, 
three eggs, one cup water, half-tablespoonfui 
cornstarch, one tablespoonful flour. Cook over 
a kettle. Bike crust separate. Frost with the 
whites of the eggs. 

Spiced Molasses Cake, — One cup sugar, 
halt-cup butter, stir well together; three eggs, 
one cup molasses, one cup sour cream, one tea- 
spoonful soda, one teaspoonful cloves, nutmeg 
and cinnamon, 2h cups flour. 

Cornmeal Gems. — One cup granulated meal, 
two teaepoonfuls flour, two teaspoonfuls sugar, 
one heaping teaspoonful baking powder, one 
egg and sweet milk enough to make a thin bat- 
ter; bake in gem tins in a well-heated oven. 

Cream Cake. — Five eggs, one pint of sour 
cream, one cup of sweet milk, one cup of but- 
ter, four cups of sugar, two teaspoonfuls of 
soda, four of cream of tartar, flour to make a 
stiff batter. This makes a very large and de- 
licious cake; bake 40 minutes. 

Breakfast Cakes.— One pint of flour, one 
pint of water and two eggs. Take half the 
water and stir in part of the flour to prevent 
lumping, then as it thickens add the rest of the 
water and flour. Beat the eggs thoroughly and 
add last with a small pinch of salt. The pans 
must be very hot and the oven quick. 

Christmas Doughnuts. — One cupful of 
white sugar, two eggs, three tablespoonfuls of 
butter, one cupful of new milk, one teaspoonful 
of cream of tartar, three-fourths of a teaspoon- 
ful of saleratus, a pinch of grated nutmeg, one- 
half teaspoonful of Bait and flour to roll. 
Cream the butter and sugar, add the eggs and 
beat well, stir in the milk and mix with the 
flour in which the soda and cream of tartar 
have been sifted. Cut in rings and fry in hot 

Charlotte Russe. — Split ten lady fingers 
and arrange them in a mold. Dissolve one- 
third of a box of gelatine in a pint of rich milk. 
Whip three pints of cream to a froth, beat the 
yolks of six eggs, and mix in half a pound of 
sugar; then beat the whites and add them, 
strain the gelatine over these, stir quickly, 
pour in the cream, flavor with vanilla and pour 
into the mold. Set on ice for a time, and orna- 
ment the top with whipped cream, or ice with 
fancy-colored icing. 

Angel Cake.— In making angel cake the 
whites of the eggs should be beaten to a stiff, 
white froth, then the sugar beaten gradually 
into them, and finally the flour and cream of 
tartar should be added and the mixture beaten 
thoroughly. Now place in a very moderate 
oven and bake slowly. Thorough beating and 
slow baking are what give a fine, moist texture. 
The cream of tartar gives the cake that pearly 
whiteteaB, and neutralizes the peculiar flavor 
of the whites of the eggs. 

Mutton Potpie. — Cut most of the meat from 
three or four pounds of the less shapely parts 
of your mutton, and put the bones over in 
plenty of cold water; then out the meat in 
thiok slices and these in inch squares. Cut also 
half a pound of salt pork in thin strips about 
2 inches long by half an inch wide. Add a small 
onion with two cloves stuck in it, and simmer 
the whole for an hour longer until the meat is 
quite tender. Have your crust ready, pre- 
pared as for chicken potpie, drop it in with a 
handful of chopped parsley or a little thyme, 
and boil until the crust is done. Roll three or 
four milk crackers, and add this powdered 
cracker to a cup of sweet cream. Take up the 
meat and crust, then drop this in, and let 
come to a boil and pour over. 


fACIFie frURAb fRESS. 

[Jan. 11, 1890 


Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Office, 220 Market St., N. E. cor. Front St., S. F. 
OT Take the Elevator. So. It Front St."Wk 

Our Subscription Rates. 


year. While this notice appears, all subscribers pay- 
ing $8 In advance will receive 16 months' (one year and 
13 weeks) credit For 12.00 In advance, 10 months. For 
$1.00 in advance, five months. Trial subscriptions for 
three months, paid in advance, each 80 cents. 


_, pi 

agents and olerks are required to adhere to these terms. 
No new names entered on the list without payment in 
advance. Our premium offerings are subject to these 
terms. _ 

Advertising Rates. 

1 Week. I Month. S Monthi. 1 Tear. 

Per Line (agate) $ 26 $.60 $1.20 $ 4.00 

Hall inch (1 square). . . 1.00 2.50 6.60 22.00 

One lnch....V........ 1.50 6.00 18.00 4100 

Larse advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
In extraordinary type, or in particular parts of the paper, 
at special rates. Four insertions are rated In a month 

Registered at S. F. Post Office as second-olassmail matter. 

DEWEY & CO., Patmtt Solicitors. 

A. T. D1WBT. W. B. BWBB, 8. B. BTROHQ. 


Saturday, January n, 1890. 


ILLUSTRATIONS.— Improvidmt Methods of Cut- 
ting T mbor, as Instanced in the Memorial of the State 
Board of Forestry, 33. The Sats'ima or oonshiu; G.rden Scene on Greenfields Ranch, Near 
Bakcmfield, Kern County, 41 

EDiTOKLALB.-Shockii g Waste of Timber, 33. The 
Week; Trm s Declared Unlawful, 40. 

COKKPSHONDHlNCi!, —Napa Valley Notes, 34. 

THE STABLE.— French Bret di of Horsec, 34- 

ENTOMOLOGICAL. — Tne Introduction of the Ve- 
dalia Atain, 34. _ 

THE APIAK Y. — What Should Bee-K«epers Do, 34. 

POULTRY YARD. — " Kouen or Pekin;" Profit in 
Capons; Garlic for G pes. 35. 

HORTICULTURE.— The Prune in California, 35 

PAT R )NS OF HU8BANDKY. — Failure of 
Justice: From the Master's De«k; Another Orange In 
Northern California; Another Fine Start; Grange elec- 
tion-; Wh'> are the f it; Hi- Position of Women; Next 
Thurs lay's Meetingi; Invite Tnem to S(ieak, 36 In 
stailation at Merced Grange; Kn.-evi.le Grange Install* 
tion loint Installation; Stockton Orange; One Farm- 
er's Exoeriei.ce; How Farmers Win In Politi »; Ne* 
Hampshire Mate Grange; I he Interstate Commerce 
L-w; Adjourned Meetiug of the Executive Committee, 

THS HOME CIRCLE. — Winter Sunshine; The 
Power o( the J nirit; The Decisive Hour; Our Neighbor's 
D >g, 38. " Uncle TobiaB;" Chaff, 39. 

YOUNG FOi-iKS' COLUMfc.— Their Punishment, 

Q(j Jd HEALTH. —Poison in Pickles, 39. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY - Various Rec'pes, 39 

den; The Satsuma or Oonshiu Orange; Garden and 

8tM«t I norov. ments at Redlands; Suggestions on 

I awn-Making, 41 
AGRICULTURAL NOTES. —From the various 

counties of California, 42 
PUBLIC AFFAIRS. -The Single-Tax Sytem and 

My Critic; Double Taxa'ion; Free-Tride Fa'lacies, 43. 
THE I OU -*I8 T — Caiifornians in Belgium, 44 
FRUIT MARKETING. — Eastern Fruit Markets 


SHEEP AND WOOL— Dog Taxes; Mohair Sale in 

New York - 6 
AGRICULTURAL El>' GINEER. — Suggestions 

for Controlling our Rivers. 4rf. 

Business Announcements. 


Bo-vens Academy, Bfrkel'y. 

Churn— G W. Amies St Co. 

Demorest Fasnion ft Sewing Machine Co., N. Y. 

Gang Plow— D. N & <\ A. Hawiey. 

Horses ai'd Mares-Killu. & Co. 

Ora' ge Trees— Mrs. N. M. Frascr, Penryn. 

8tump Puller-Geo Harvey. 

Tree*— Eliwanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y. 

tS" See Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

The prophecy of clear skies with which we 
sent the Rural to press last week held good 
for only a day, for the morning after New 
Year's the clouds resumed their unwelcome 
work and very heavy precipitation of rain and 
snow continned, The old overland line 
crossed the mountains almost in a snow tunnel 

the imaginative reporters say, while the 

southern route was beset by washouts and 
landslides. This, however, is now happily 
past, and for the sake of sunshine during the 
day people are quite willing to undergo the 
measure of cold which comes with the nights. 
Thna far the temperature has not fallen unusu- 
ally low, and only tender garden plants have 
been hurt, but of course it is just at this time 
that severe freezing is feared, and people are 
naturally nervous. With the return of sun- 
shine, tield-work has been resumed except on 
moist, heavy land, and a more cheerful feeling 
prevails. As previously stated, expectations 
are for a very fruitful year. 

Trusts Declared Unlawful. 

A little while ago the country was greatly 
agitated ever the spread of anarchical socialism. 
The people stood aghast before the Haymarket 
outrage in Chicago, and the civic authorities 
hastened to stamp out the evil as they would 
the plague or a fire. But in the meantime 
there has been steadily and silently growing in 
our midst a more mischievous and alarming 
evil, one that threatens to strangle the leading 
industries of the land. It diff.ra from Chicago 
anarchism in the agencies it uses. The poor, 
beer-soaked, fanatical anarchist throws bombs; 
the capitalistic anarchist proposes to so manipu 
late the law governing partnerships and corpora 
tions as to manufacture a vast shield to protect 
thieving schemes. 

Such is the attitude of the so-called trusts 
or combines that have so alarmingly multiplied 
of late. The following indictment may be filed 
against the trusts : 

1. They tend to build np monopolies and 
drive small capitiliets out of business. 

2. They destroy competition, the great 
minifier of profit and equalizer of prioee. 

3. They amass fortunes at the expense of 
the community by increasing the price of com 

4. They build np an oligarchy which wields 
its own interests against that of the community, 
thereby endangering personal freedom and 
menacing the existence of democratic institu- 

It is a matter of gratification that our courts 
so far have been so prompt and pronounced in 
trying to arrest the spread of this evil. Judge 
Birrett of New York was the first to declare 
the Sugar Trust a "criminal enterprise," and 
his opinion has been ratified by the Supreme 
Court of that State. And now Judge W. T 
Wallace of this city has dealt the trust-method 
of doing business another staggering blow. It 
will be remembered that on the 5;h of Novem 
ber, 1888, the Attorney-General, G. A. John 
sod, filed a oomplaint in the Superior Court of 
this county and oity, alleging that the American 
Sugar Refinery of this city had violated its 
charter by joining the Sugar Trust, thereby dia 
regarding the purposes for which it was incor 
porated by surrendering the management of its 
concerns to a body of men known as the Sugar 
Refineries' Company, usually called the Sugir 
Trust. That said company is not a corporation, 
but is an unlawful combination and monopoly 
acting in the restraint of trade, and that the 
American Sugar Refinery Company by amalga- 
mating with the Sugar Trust had ceased to 
maintain its identity and exercise the functions 
for which it was created and had therefore for 
feited its charter. These allegations Judge 
Wallace has in his decision ably and lucidly 
maintained. After stating a finding and a few 
established principles, his honor says : 

The stated purpose for which the " Ameri 
can Sugar B. finery Company " became incor 
porated was the production — the competitive 
production — of sugar to supply human want 
the business franchise granted was not for the 
sole benefit of the corporation or its stockhold 
era, but, in a measure, for that of the public as 
well; the understood commercial policy under 
lying the grant, and to the observance of which 
the defendant, by accepting it, stood commit 
ted, looked to the promotion of trade in that 
commodity — the promotion of trade necessarily 
denotes the enoouragement of rivalry in the 
business — competition on tqual terms is con 
oeded to be the life of trade, and to invite and 
promote that competition is the established pol 
icy of our laws. As competition tends to ere 
ate trade, so monopoly tends to destroy it 
This is the axiom which underlies the Constitn 
tion and general legislation of this Ssate, and 
upon which the decisions of its courts have 
habitually, not to say uniformly, proceeded 

We quote this clause of the opinion because 
it has an ulterior bearing. Judge Wallace here 
clearly holds that a corporation is not created 
for the sole benefit of the incorporators, but for 
the welfare of the public as well, and that 
monopoly injures trade by destroying competi 
tion in business. Now where shall we place 
the limit to this principle ? Jay Gould controls 
the telegraph. A few railroad barons control 
transportation. A trust is a. partnership of 
corporations, and such a combine is declared 
illegal and void; then why not be equally 
prompt and stern in limiting the powers of 
corporation managed by one or more men ? The 
only difference is that in one case we are under 
an oligarchy and the other under a despot. 

But let us not shout before we are out of the 
woods. Trusts are lucrative and will not die 

easily. The action of the North River Sugar 
R finery Co, in commencing to wind up its 
affairs looks as if it had been compelled to go 
out of business by the foroe of Judge Barrett's 
decision, but the New York Times says "the 
scheme is an attempt to throw over the Sugar 
Trust as it stands the cloak of a Connecticut 
charter, in order that the trust may carry on 
its business as heretofore and in defiance of the 
courts of the State of New York." An effort 
may be made here to flink Judge Wallace's 
decision by a similar subterfuge. It is under- 
stood that an appeal will be taken to the 
Supreme Court, which, if it furnishes no hope, 
may at least give the protean business time 
enough to change its shape and color, and it 
nny emerge in another form. 

But why stop here ? The whole family of 
trusts are illegal associations of capital, secret 
or semi-seoret financial conspiracies, the object 
of which is to artificially enhance the price of 
an article by monopolizing its manufacture and 
exercising a policy of brutal force and terror 
against all possible competition. We have the 
Standard Oil Trust, the Cotton-Seed Trust, the 
Ribber Trust, the Cattle Trust, Coal Trust, 
Gas Trust, and the B;ef Combine, so graphically 
described by our correspondent, Judge Black- 
wood, in the Rural of Jan, 4th, that monopo- 
lizes and controls the live-st ckjmarket through- 
out the Northwest and Middle States and levies 
a tax on every pound of beef, pork, mutton, 
lard, fish, and is steadily crowding the small 
traders who do not come under the wing of the 

The Citrus Fair Open. 

It was a happy circumstance that, after all 
the busy weeks of preparation under dripping 
clouds, there were clear skies and fine weather 
for the opening of the citrus fair at Oroville on 
Tuesday evening. 

The great pavilion, elaborately decked with 
evergreen and bunting, inclosirg a grove of 
orange trees, and piled with the fruits of Butte, 
Yuba, Sutter and Placer oountles, held some 
2000 people, besides the exhibits, on that happy 
occasion, and there were speeches by Chairman 
Fogg of the Executive Committee; Pres. Green 
of the State Bjard of Agriculture; E litor Price 
of the Oroville Mercury, and Managing Direct 
or Hancock, interspersed with music, vocal and 

The reports that have so far come to band 
are aglow with enthusiasm over the wealth, 
beauty and promise of the exposition, which 
bids fair to be a memorable success. 

A Lease with Privilege of Porchase Up 
held. — Judge Harris of Fresno oounty has just 
rendered a decision of considerable moment in a 
land case. In 1SS3, before the land had been 
tilled, a looal company leased it to tenants with 
the privilege of purchasing at graded prices 
during the term of the lease, ranging from $6 
to $15 per acre. Before the lease had expired 
land made a sharp advance in price all over 
Fresno county, and to avoid fulfilling the obli- 
gations of its contracts, the company claimed 
to sell the land as a whole to third parties, and 
when the renters tendered their money and 
demanded their deeds, they were told the com- 
pany was powerless to act. Suit was brought 
by the plaintiffs to compel the conveyance, 
and Judge Harris sustained them in his de 
cision. This will give to every renter who 
tendered his money for the land the privilege 
of paying the graded rates for the land, which 
is now held at $60 to $75 per acre. 

Growing Cotton. — There will be wide trial 
of cotton in California this year. The Califor 
nia Cotton-Mills Co. of East Oakland is send- 
ing out large quantities of the seed free to in 
tending planters who merely have to pay the 
cost of transportation from the mills to their 
farms. The University Experiment Station is 
sending out the same seed in small parcels by 
mail, the applicants only paying postage of six 
cents on the small sacks sent them. This die 
tributlon will induce the growing of cotton the 
coming summer by several hundreds of people. 
Some have sent to the mills for seed enough to 
plant large tracts. Mr. Rutherford, superin 
tendent of the mills, promises soon to give us 
tome interesting facts concerning the chance 
for the profitable growth of cotton in this State 
and concerning some of the special products 
now being made at the cotton-mills. 

Co-operative Fruit-Planting. 

We are oooasionally ooneulted by oity people, 
especially by young men who know nothing of 
sgricultural affairs, as to the advisability of 
their forming societies for orchard planting, 
with the agreement that each member shall 
pay in a oertain amount monthly, with which 
land shall be bought on time and orchards 
planted and oared for under hired supervision. 
We are usually conservative about encouraging 
such ventures, because those who propose them 
know absolutely nothing about the manage- 
ment of such an enterprise and the estimates 
they make upon the ultimate profits of snch an 
enterprise are too often based upon some excep- 
tional oases of large returns, and their estimates 
of cost are based upon some very low figures, 
given, perhaps, by some man who does his own 
work and manages the affair just as any skill- 
ful, practical man, working in his own interest, 
would do. To start such an enterprise with- 
out knowledge of the business, depending 
wholly upon hired managers, and expecting the 
low outlay and high returns which are some- 
times secured by the most experienced and self- 
denying men in conducting their own business 
— all this is apt to be misleading. We have 
no doubt that such fruit-plantings by using the 
small savings of many people could be made 
successful providing the hired managers were 
wise and devoted, but in the difficulty of get- 
ting such help largely rests the danger in such 

If a suitable location is made, and wise 
service and supervision caa be secured, it 
would be easy to develop fruit lands on the co- 
operative plan. Oae way to do it is that adopt- 
ed by the San Diego Lemon Company, to 
whioh allusion was recently made in the 
Rural, and as similar undertakings may at- 
tract effort in other parts of the State, we give 
an outline of the steps proposed in the matter: 

The directors for the first year are Frank A. 
Kimball, H. L. Story, John Katie, James P. 
J nee and J. W. Collins. The company has a 
oapital stock of $250,000, divided into 250 
shares, valued at $100 each. The company 
controls 300 acres of Sweetwater mesa land, 
and also has a call on 600 acres more, including 
oontraot for purchase of 15,000 trees. A water 
right from the Land & Town Company to irri- 
gate goes with the land. 

The management offer about $200,000 of the 
capital stock of the company to first applicants 
on the following proposition: Ten per cent — 
$10 per share, payable immediately; 10 per 
cent, payable Jan. 1, 1891; 5 per cent, pay- 
able Jan. 1, 1892, and 5 p r cent, payable Jan. 
1. 1893; a total value ot 30 per cent, or $30 per 
share, payable in three years, and disbursed 
under the management of a board of directors 
chosen by the stockholders themselves. 

The plan outlined, however, upon which the 
proposed payments are to be expended is: To 
plant 100 acres of budded trees the first year, 
100 acres the second year and the balance the 
third year, after whioh the income from the 
orohard will pay for the land on the easy terms 
secured, and exceed expenses by a largely in- 
creasing balance annually. At the end of this 
third year, it is further estimated that without 
further outlay, after the payment of the 30 
cents on the $1, as above proposed,, the stock 
will have a par value of 100 cents on the $1. 

Thus it appears that the projectors expect 
that they can bring the plantation to a paying 
point at the end of the third year from planting, 
and that subsequent profits will work the 
advance of the stock to par value. This result, 
as we have said, will depend upon good man- 
agement. With neglect or bad management a 
co-operative enterprise would be far from pay- 
ing at the end of three years, or perhaps at the 
end of any series of years. The San Diego 
enterprise starts under great advantages, be- 
cause the directors know the location, know 
the crop, know the treatment which trees and 
trait require, and all that. For this reason co- 
operative planting by residents of the oountry, 
based on specific anticipations warranted by 
experience, is a much safer proceeding than for 
city men to combine in a business of whioh 
they know nothing and for both the establish- 
ment and future conduct of whioh they must 
depend wholly upon hired skill and experience 
— possessing in themselves not even the ability 
to judge whether their servants are competent 
or their work promising. 

We do not mention these things to discourage 
enterprise. We enjoy enterprise and desire to 
promote and encourage it, but we desire also 
to see enterprise well established and proceed- 
ing upon adequate knowledge and experience. 
Ill-considered undertakings are the bane of 
industrial life. 

Jan. 11, 1890] 

f> ACIFK3 t^URAb p>RESS. 



In a Flower Garden. 

Oar engraving presents a photographic view 
in a well kept Kern county garden located on 
Greenfields Ranch, as the property is appro- 
priately called. The situation is about ten 
miles south of Bakersfield, and the ranch is one 
of the several belonging to Uaggin & Carr, and 
the view represents a part of the ornamental 
horticulture which surrounds the superin- 
tendent's cottage. In the foreground, the large 
circular bed is planted with geraniums and 
pinks arranged around the fan palm in the 
center. To the right is a large locust tree, up 
the trunk of which a Cherokee roee has grown, 
reacbiog nearly to the top of the tree, forming, 
when in bloom, an immense bouquet nearly the 
size of the tree itself. Upon the left is an end 
view of the cottage, with its veranda opening 
into a long grape arbor which extends to the 
building, tbe roof of which is seen in the dis- 
tance. Upon the veranda is Bsvis, the faith- 
ful watch-dog of the ranch, and just beyond his 
figure is the trunk of the weeping willow whose 
graceful branches are seen above the grape 
arbor. This willow is but 12 years old and has 
a trunk six feet in circumference. The picture 
is quite suggestive of the quiet and warmth of 
the California valley in summer-time — a good 
plaoe for a day dream, or, as its products show, 
a good place also for industry, as the heart of 
man is inclined. 

The Satsuma or Oonshiu Orange. 

We give herewith a pretty picture of the 
Oonshiu, or, as Prof. Van Daman calls it, the 
Satsuma orange. The engraving is made from 
a photograph given ns by H. E. Amoore of the 

THE SATSUMA OR OONSHIU ORANGE— From a Japanese Photograph. 

Los Angeles which were the finest we have 
seen, b°ing of extra large size, sweet and of de- 
licious flivor. It is quite certain that the mar- 
ket will take very large quantities of such 
fruit. So far as we have heard, the tree is 

Japanese Tree Importing Co. This variety of | proving as hardy as was promised in this 

are infested and some not; the best fruit com- 
ing from Aridayi Kishiu and tbe worst from 
Suruga. Trees debarked for distribution in 
this State are said to be thoroughly inspected. 

Arroyo Grande's Winter Blooms.— We 

in San Lui« Obispo, brings forward 277 
'ies, that b*ing the nu^b^r poured upon the 
sanctum floor of tbe Herald by an amateur 
g ower of the neighborhood. There were 78 
roses. 30 chrysanthemums, 18 geraniums, 2L 
carnations, 15 fuchsias, and smaller numbers of 
other plants, making the to 
varieties^in bloom on Christmas morning. 

Garden and Street Improvements at 

At a meeting of the Redlands, San Bernardino, 
Horticultural Society, a committee appointed 
to present a llet of trees suitable for planting 
as ornamental to streets and private grounds, 
presented the following list: Monterey Cypress, 
LAwson Cypress, Italian Cypress, Guadalupe 
Cypress, Tooart Gum, Acsohs, Eucalyptus 
Flolfolia, R°d Grim, B'ue Gum, Monterey Pine, 
M'drone. S'quoia S-rrpervirenn or redwood, 
Sequoia Oiparit°a or biff tree. L ; booedru» De- 
currens. AtlanMo Cedar, Cedrus Libani orC*dar 
nt Lebanon. Cedrus Deodara, Grevillea, C>m- 
nbor tree, Eugenia Australia, Auricria Bid- 
wpIH. AnnVaria Imhricata, Pepper. Stercniias, 
Mountain L«nrel, Magnolia Grandiflira, Pittos- 
nornms R^tinispora hardy palms. Litania Bor- 
bonioa. Ohamerop" Exoelsa. and others 

Considerable dieoussion then ensued as to the 
moritfl of the plan suggested to secure broader 
.i^owa'ks and narrower roodway, on s»'l the 
100 foot avenues except B-ookside. M°s»rs. 
Soeneer. Harris. Rowe, Rogprs and others 
expressed themselves in favor of the plan, which 
was most favorably received bv the meeting 
an if. h»q been bv cir-z^ns generally. 

Briefly stated, the plan is thie: To increase 
the width of each sidewalk to 30 feet, leaving 
all hedoeq as at orepent; the space for walking 
to be 10 feet wide, and 20 feet to be devoted to 
ornamental trees and plants, especially snch 
Winds as will properly shade the streets. The 
roadways will then be 40 feet wide with a park- 


(orange has been frequently mentioned favora- 
bly in the Rural from imported specimens 
which have come now to be quite largely mar- 
keted in San Francisco. The large numbers of 
trees planted in this State during the last few 
years are also coming into fruit. Mr. Amoore 
Drought us this week some ;Oonshius grown at 

State, and its being grafted on tbe native Jap- 
anese stock is held to be oonduciva to that 

Part of the Japanese fruit sold in this city is 
badly covered with soale, and some is appar- 
ently free from soale. Mr. Amoore tells us 
that in Japan, as in California, some districts 

alluded in our last issue to the friendly contest 
between different California localities whioh 
should exhibit the greatest number of varieties 
of fl >wers in bloom during the holidays. The 
greatest number at that time was 151, shown 
by a Santa Cruz amateur, Sinoe then Salinas 
i City has shown 156, and now Arroyo Grande, 

like strip cn either side planted to ornamental 

Suggestions on Lawn-Making. 

A Belmont gardener gives the Times and 
Gazette the following advice: A point to be 



[Jan. 11, 1890 

observed in laying ont a garden is not to over- 
crowd. An over-planted garden baa a bad, if not 
worse ( tlect, than one that is sparstly planted. 
The neatest and at the same time the least ex- 
pensive decorations is a smooth, well-kept lawn 
with a border of well-splected plants, a few 
shrubs or small bed to break the monotony. 
This can be easily and oheaply constructed by 
following a few simple rnles: After preparing 
your ground, which should include draining it 
well ((or you cannot obtain a good lawn except 
on well-drained soil), dress with about one foot 
of well-rotted cow manure, pulverized and well 
worked in. Then lay ont your walks, dig out 
the soil IS inches, fill up the trench with stone 
and any refuse you may have to within four 
inches of the top, leaving it open until yon have 
finished sowing your lawn, for there will be 
considerable stone and rubble from raking the 
lawn which you can put in the trench after 
sowing your seed. Fill np your walk with 
well-sifted gravel or shell from the beach. This 
will make you a good dry walk and will also 
act as a drain. A good mixture for seed is one- 
quarter of a pound of white clover to one pound 
of Kentucky blue grass; sow 56 pounds to the 
acre; rake in well and roll. If you have no 
roller, use two planks; stand on one while you 
move the other; water well in dry weather; 
when weeds appear dig them out with a table- 
knife; by going over tbe lawn onoe or twice 
you will destroy the weeds and the grass will 
have a free chance. 

Agricultural J^otes. 


Coyote and CowCatcher. — lone Echo, 
Jan. 4: As the lone train was on its down 
trip on Tuesday morning, and a short distanoe 
below Carbondale, a coyote got on the track in 
front of the looomotive, and a lively race en- 
sued. Once started, the coyote didn't have 
time to get off the track, so he let out all the 
speed there was in him, but old " 108," which 
before this has outrun horses and cattle, wanted 
to add to its glory by defeating something still 
faster, and it sucoeeded. With a yelp, the 
coyote disappeared under the cow-catcher, his 
last race ended, his last sheep devoured. He 
who had escaped the tempting bait of poisoned 
meat, and tbe erring aim of the sheep- herder's 
rifle, had lived to add glory to the record of old 
" 108," the " flyer of the Amador Branch." 
On the return trip in the afternoon tbe train 
was slowed up and the fireman picked up the 
body of the animal. It bad only suffered a 
broken neck, but that was suffioient, even for a 
coyote. The race began in Amador county 
and ended in Sacramento county. The slayers 
deny the accusation that they gave the animal 
the best of the race until they crossed the Sac- 
ramento line, where the scalp bounty is double 
what it is in this county. 


The Flooded Fields. — The Orland Newt, 
havirg lately addressed inquiries to well-known 
citizens in various parts ot the county, asking 
their opinion regarding the effect of so much 
rain upon the crops, says, Jan. 4 : The great- 
est amount of damage done has been below 
Colusa, by overflow, not only in drowning out 
grain, but in preventing tbe sowirg of grain 
which would otherwise have been put in. Mr. 
Thayer of Grand Island estimates the damage 
to be about $200,000. At Arbuckle the pros- 
pent is better, and at Maxwell Mr. Harden 
thinks it is good for a large harvest. Back 
from the river, the greatest damage has been 
caused by farmers being unable to sow their 
grain by reason of the continuation of the 

storm About Orland the greatest damage 

has been caused by not having the grain in the 
ground. It is estimated that from 20 to 30 per 
oent of the crop is not sown. The outlook is 
more promising for the fruit crop, and stock- 
growers are rejoicing In the abundance of feed, 

Contra Costa. 
Remarkable Milch Cow. — Martinez Qazette, 
Dec. 28: Mr. S. Blum has a cow about seven 
years old, three-quarters Durham and one- 
quarter Jersey, that has been furnishing four 
gallons of milk daily for many months. Recent- 
ly tbe milk began to diminish in quantity; it 
was of the usual good quality, and the cow 
presented no unusual appearance. When the 
quantity diminished to a gallon and a half, the 
milking was stopped, but within an hour after 
the order to that effect bad been given, a fine 
healthy calf was dropped. We know of no 
similar case in which the yield of milk was so 
long continued. 


New Year's Blossoms. — Bakerefield Cali- 
fornian, Jan. 4: In the front yard of Jos. E. 
Smith's residence stands a beautiful tree which 
has 11 camellias from half open to full blown, 
and by actual count there are 140 buds. Moat 
of the flowers are perfect, of creamy hue, with 
the faintest tinge of pink, although some have 
suffered a little from the pelting rain of last 
week. But the tree is a sight worth beholding. 
Los Angeles. 

From Orchard and Drier. — Pomona Prog- 
rest, Dec. 26 : The crop in C. E. White's Nav<jl 
orange orcbard on Holt avenue has been con- 
tracted for by the Pomona Fruit-Packing Co. 
at $2 75 a box on the trees. Every one who 
has visited Mr. White's orchard and knows 
anything about orange- packing, estimates that 

the crop now ripening will yield not less than 
$500 an acre. Mr. White is one of the best 
truit growers in this locality, and his orchard 

is now in full bearing Geo. Harrison has 

this week sold his evaporated re -led peaches 
for 24 cents a pound. He had 6429 ponnds of 
the evaporated fruit from four acres of five- 
year-old peach trees, and has received a check 
for $1542.72 for the whole crop. That is at the 
rate of $;I84 an acre. Mr. Harrison says that 
picking, slicing and evaporating the fruit, put. 
ting it in saoks and storing it has cost $175.45. 
He took unusual good care of bis fruit, and has 
made good money for his work, and interest 
at the rate of 22 per oent on his investment. 


Editors Press: — We have about IS inches of 
snow here in Bound valley, and much more on 
the hills and mountains. There is reported to 
be from two to five feet between Sissons and 
Adin. The weather is very cold — mercury 3° 
below zero this morning. Fine sleighing here 
now. Don't some of you 

Folks who live down in the valley below, 
Where the delicious oranges grow, 
Wish you were up here to wallow in snow, 
And to take a ride some pleasant day 
Out in a Modoc county sleigh ? 
The stockmen in this vicinity have been 
very busy for the past two weeks gathering in 
their stock from the ranges and taking it to 
the feed-yards. There are a good many cattle 
and horses out yet, and suffering for want of 
feed. The heavy fall of snow oame rather un- 
expectedly and many did not have their stock 
located before the snow came; therefore it is 
difficult to find them, and it is feared that, if 
the winter be very severe, there will b; quite a 
loss. — H. K., Adin, Lec. 27, '89. 


Green Corn in January !— Napa Regitler: 
To Rev. Richard Wylie the editor's family is 
indebted for a delicious dish that graced their 
table on New Year's D»y. It was sweet corn 
— a dozen ears — freshly plucked from stalks 
growing in the donor's garden on Randolph 
street. Never have we tasted sweeter or bet- 
ter developed green corn. These compliments 
of the season were accompanied by a freshly- 
picked orange, ripe and sweet, from a tree in 
the same yard that yields the January harvest 
of corn. 


A Fruit Device.— Quinoy National: 
Richard Jacks of Meadow Valley, this county, 
has just received a caveat for a very useful in- 
vention in the shape of a fruit-picker. This 
consists of a V shaped iron with a shaft or base 
at right angles with the sides of the V. This 
V- shaped iron attachment is placed at the end 
of a long pole. Connected with the perpen- 
dicular sides of the V is a long hose or spout 
into which the fruit falls when detached from 
the tree, and by means of which it is conducted 
into a box, barrel or whatever receptacle may 
be desired. By means of this appliance, one 
man can stand on tbe ground and in half the 
time do the work of four or five picking in the 
old-fashioned way with step-ladders, buckets, 
baskets, scaffolds and the like. The fruit is 
conveyed to tbe ground without bruise or 
break. It is one of the most simple and at the 
same time useful inventions that has ever come 
under our notice. Every man in this great 
fruit State who owns an apple, peach, plum, 
orange or pear tree will want one of Jacks' 
pickers the moment he lays eyes UDon it. Mr. 
Jacks will go to the State Citrus Fair at Oro 
ville and introduce his machine. 

Bananas Ripen at Sacramento — On the 
3.1 inst. S. II. Gerrish brrugbt from bis G -tie t 
garden to the Record-Union office some ripe 
and delicious bananas grown by him. Tbe 
trees on which they were grown are 20 feet in 
higbt and measure 27 inches in circumference. 
They have no protection at any time, and are 
strong, healthy trees. 

San Bernardino. 
A County Exhibit in N. Y.— Chino Cham- 
pion: San Bernardino county will soon have 
an exhibit of its products both of soil and mine 
in New York City. The citrus fruits will be 
shown on the growing tree and in the box of 
commerce. Deciduous fruits will appear in all 
their bsst prepared styles for market. The 
cereals and vegetables will be fairly well repre- 
sented. The mineral collection is specially re- 
markable. Almost all know that gold and 
silver are plentiful; the existence of mountains 
of iron ore is not so well known. This ore will 
cut a prominent figure in the exhibit, thanks to 
the liberality of tbe Santa Fe Co. and tbe en- 
ergy of Messrs. Clum and Scott. The exhibit 
will embrace samples showing that good ooal 
exists near South Riverside. San Bernardino 
county petroleum, like iron and coal, is un- 
known in the markets, but it exists, and some 
evidence of it will be exhibited. Bituminous 
rock of the Chino hills will be there; also build- 
ing-stone approved by the best architects, and 
excellent marble in the rough and finished 
product. The valuable clays for earthenware 
and the finished products from them will be 
there. In short, all that has ever been said about 
San Bernardino county fruits, grains, veg- 
etables and minerals will be in a good degree 
verified by this exhibition. 

San Diego. 
Citrus Settings. — Eioondido Timet: P. A. 
Battens this week took orders for 3000 citrus 
fruit trees, all to be planted in the Escondido 
valley this season; and other tree men also have 

reoeived large orders for citrus and deciduous 
trees. A low estimate of the number of trees 
to he pltnted in this vicinity the present season 
is 20.000. Abont four years ago, when the 
matter of buying this 12 000-acre ranch was 
talked of, the question of citrus fruits was can- 
vassed. The old inhabitants shook their heads 
and did not think that trees of that kind would 
do any good. Some Navel oranges were put 
out on the Hicks place, and to-day they have 
as fine oranges, nearly ripe, as can be shown in 
the State, and one lot has already been sent to 
Eagland as samples. The trees put out from 
one to two years ago show splendid growth. 

San Joaquin. 

To Pump In or Out. — Stockton Independent, 
Jan. 2: The syndicate owning the larger por- 
tion of the Moss tract of reclaimed land just 
west of this city, and the other owners of land 
within the levees, have made arrangements to 
set up a big pump on the lower end of the 
tract, which will be used in wet seasons to 
pump out seepage water and in dry spells to 
pump water from the river for irrigation uses. 
J. D. McDougald, one of the owners of the 
southern end, and W. P. Middleton, one of tbe 
Sin Jose owners, went to the proposed pump 
station yesterday to select a looation for the 
machinery and commence the work. The 
pomp will have a capacity of raising 5000 gal- 
lons of water a minute, and will be put in work- 
ing order as soon as possible. Tbe larger por- 
tion of the land has been leased to a S. F. 
produce firm and will be divided into small 
tracts for gardening purposes. 

Santa Barbara. 
Winter Watermelons. — Santa Maria Time*, 
Deo. 28: T. J. Hignutt, who resides a mile or 
two northeast of town, walked into our sanctum 
the other day with two fine ripe watermelons, 
just pulled from the vine. He tells us that he 
has new potatoes and other green vegetables in 
abundance, and pumpkin and tomato vines in 

Santa Clara. 
Disliked Dishorning. — 8»n Jose Tim's, 
Deo'. 31; Saturday afternoon W. J. Burnett, 
who lives near Milpitas, concluded to saw eff 
tbe tips of the horns of a Jersey bull. He tied 
the animal up and cut off the tips as desired. 
When released, the animal turned on Mr. Bar 
nett and ran him down. Finding his horns un 
serviceable, be jumped on Mr. B and tried to 
stamp him. A lad who was standing by, catch- 
ing up a club, beat off the aninal. The injuries 
to Mr. Burnett are reported quite severe. 


Wild Honey Galore. — Glazier Pioneer, 
Deo. 28: List Sunday Andy Cox, Sam Hens- 
ley, Bill Kalbaugh and tbe Bartle boys cut 
down a big four-foot pine for wood. When the 
tree fell, it was found to be a mere shell for 
over 30 feet and the cavity filled with honey. 
Bee trees have been rather scarce in these 
woods, and it appears as if all the bees bad 
united their forces and congregated in one bee 
tree. The honey was frcz;n, so the log was cut 
up in the shape of barrels, bottoms and heads 
nailed on, and stored away for summer use. 


Bounty on Coyotes. — " A member of the 
Sheep Association" writes the Santa Rosa 
Republican that the stock-raisers east and north- 
east of Windsor have combined to exterminate 
their enemies. "Bisides what the county is 
giving, $15 for each coyote, we are paying 20 
cents on every 100 sheep. We have to make 
it worth a man's while to trap. We have made 
a district with boundaries, and what the county 
pays, with our own contribution, makes the 
bounty about $26 for each coyote. Now a 
man trapping will catoh foxes and wildcats, 
which are all enemies to stockmen, and be has 
the hides of any animal he can catch. If 
the stockmen in other parts of the county would 
band together and form distrusts similar to this, 
we would soon have all the pests caught. If 
something is not done, sheep-raising in Sonoma 
county is a thing of the past; coyotes are as 
bad on hogs and oalves, and I think every 
stockman ought to see that no coyotes are 
brought in from other counties." 


The Creamery.— Times, Jan. 2: Thestock- 
holdere ot the Yisalia Creamery met last Satur- 
day and deoided to locate their manufactory on 
the ranch of L. M. Howell and adjioent to the 
Yisalia R. R , a short distance west of the city. 
Twenty per cent of the capital stock was 
called for, payable on or before the loth of Jan- 
uary. A meeting of the Directors was held 
after the stockholders' meeting adjourned, and 
elected officers as follows: D. K. Zamwalt, 
Pres.; W. H. Blain. V. P ; 8. M. Gilliam, Sec. ; 
Bank of Visalia, Treas. A railroad switch will 
be constructed by the Visalia R. R Co. to the 
creamery, so as to facilitate the shipping of 
products from the establishment. Tbe most 
improved machinery for the manufacture of 
cheese and butter will be procured, and a sub- 
stantial bnilding erected as soon as tbe weather 
will permit. 

Vines on Alkali.— S. T. Gilliam of Tule 
River stated to the Times a few days ago that 
he had been successful in growing vines on 
black alkali land. lie dug a hole IS inches 
tquare and of the same depth, filled it with 
sand and planted his rooted vines in It. The 
vines grew as thriftily as if planted on richer 
soil. The experiment is worth trying by those 
who have alkali land. 

Miles of Wheat. — J. J. Cairns, the big 
wheat-grower of Tulare oounty, by the lBt of 

February next will have 22 000 acres of land 
seeded to grain. He is farming land near the 
18 mile house, tbe Jones ranch, and an exten- 
sive bodv of land on Deer Creek. He employs 
nearly 100 men, and about the same number of 

Live Stock Business. — Visalia Delta, Jan. 2: 
From last April to the end of tbe year L. D. 
Whitt shipped from here to Sacramento and 
S. F. 60 oarloads of cattle and 99 carloads of 
aheep. K -sides these he drove between 400 
and 500 cattle to Fresno. 

Sharing the Waters. — The trouble that 
has been brewing for several months between 
the Tule River riparianists and sundry ditch 
companies is likely to be settled by compro- 
mise. Several parties on both sides have al- 
ready signed away their water rights on condi- 
tion that all olaimants do the same and then 
that an irrigation district be formed, subdi- 
vided Into five smaller districts and governed 
by a board of fire directors. In this way their 
interests will be pooled and no one of either 
party be compelled to relinquish his ohance for 
a portion of the waters of tue Tule. Toe Pio- 
neer company will extend their ditch as far as 
will be necessary to supply the entire district. 
This district now in contemplation is not pat- 
terned after districts organized under the 
Wright law. 


New Yfar"s at Ventura. — Videlte: Yester- 
day (N iw Year's Da> ) we ascended to tbe sum- 
mit ot Telegraph Hill just north of town, on an 
observation tour. Toe elevation is nearly 700 
feet above the sea level, and affords a delightful 
view of the surrounding country. . . .In the dis- 
tance may be seen the vast chain of mountains 
that skirt the northern boundary of the county, 
rising to tbe bight of from 8000 to 9000 feet 
and covered with snow. On the other band 
was the broad Pacific ocean stretching south- 
ward until the vision was obscured by the 
bending skies, and dotted with islands green 
as emerald .... We know of no more inspiring 
view than is afforded at this time of year from 
this elevation. Mr. Grant has planted palm 
and fig trees on the very summit of the hill, 
which can be seen from almost any part of 
town. We plucked ripe figs from the tree, 
and ate ripe tomatoes from the vine. Beans 
were in bloom, and corn more than knee high. 
Wild flowers were blooming in rich profnsion, 
among which we may menticn purple lupines, 
scarlet painted cups, yellow poppies, rose-colored 
alfilarilla, ete. And all this on the first day of 
January, 1S90. 


Maricopa Horticulturists. — Phceiix Her- 
ald, Vic. 26 : The fruit growers met last even- 
ing and t ff;cted their permanent organization, as 
follows: Pres., Dr. J. W. Chandler; V. P ,H. W. 
Adams; Sao, and'Treaa ; II R. Patrick; Direct- 
ors, Cnandler, Adams, Patrick, D vereux and 
McMillan. The name adopted is 11 The Maricopa 
Fruit-Growers' Association." Marcus Smith 
of Diytona, Florida, was introduced and gave 
a very interesting account of his experience in 
gardening, farming and fruit-growing. 


Live Stock Thriving — Reno Gazette, Jan. 
2: P. L. Piannigan, who arrived last Sunday 
irom Grant county, Oregon, with 9000 sheep, 
says there is no snow between Ssieo's mount- 
ain and Pyramid lake, but that there have been 
heavy rainfalls through that country, and that 
the hills and desert are thoroughly soaked; that 
all the way from here to Oregon, cattle, horses 
and sheep are looking fine and doing remark- 
ably well. 

Selling Horses North. — Oregonian, Jan. 
3: R. Perkins has recently purchased 1500 
bead of horses from Nevada parties. They are 
of mixed breeds, and are to be delivered to h ; m 
April 15th on tbe pasture in Nevada. Several 
hundred of them will bs brought to this 
market, and will weigh from 1000 to 1500 
pounds each. Several hundred will be taken 
to Umatilla oounty, another band to the White 
Bluffs country and several hundred to British 
Columbia. There has been a large demand for 
horses in this section during the past few years, 
and the supply has been pretty well exhausted. 
In Nevada there has been very little demand, 
and a large stock has accnmulated, so it is 
probable that Mr. Perkins was able to secure 
1500 at reasonable rates. It used to be that 
Oregon shipped horses to California, but things 
change as the years roll round. 


A Heap of Jackrabbits. — Pendleton Ea>t 
Oregonian, Dec. 27: A grand jackrabbit hunt 
was held yesterday on Despain gulch, north of 
town. The hunters were divided into two 
commands, one of 15 under the leadership of 
Wm. Hale, and the other of 17 was headed by 
Wm. Temple. After the hunt was over, a 
counting of rabbit scalps showed that 150 had 
yielded up the ghost. Mr. Temple's party 
were victors by the small majority of two. 


Christmas Flowers. — On Christmas Diy 
a beautiful bocquet of roses, chrysanthemums 
petunias, marigold, Eoglish ivy and mvrtle 
helped to brighten up the office of the Wash 
ington Farmer. These flowers were picked on 
Christmas eve In the dooryardof Mrs. Geo. W. 
Miller of Gibraltar. 

Jan. 11, 1800.J 

f ACIFI6 f^URAb f RESS. 


The Single-Tax System and My 

Editors Press : — In yonr Issue of the 14\h 
alt., Mr. Owen of Santa Cruz has an article 
under the head "The Single-Tax System," 
which I think might have been very good had 
he written on that subject; but as he did not, I 
am compelled to draw on my imagination as to 
what the character of the article might have 
been had he written one. Therefore, to answer 
arguments in favor of single taxation before 
they are made, might be considered a little 

My critic did say, however, that he " hoped 
to see farmers discuss this question fully, as 
they are the interested parties." 

Now, dear critic, I am impelled to^ call 
your attention to a little neglect on your part 
in not reading the newspapers. Had you done 
so, you would have learned that the last 
meeting of the California State Orange — a body 
of men, all farmers, as intelligent ai can be 
grouped together in this State — bad before it a 
series of resolutions which I had the honor of 
introducing, condemning in the most emphatic 
manner the single-tax system. Those resolu- 
tions the State Orange passed without a dis- 
senting voice. 

Again, when the National Orange held its 
session in Sacramento in November last, the 
single-tax question came before it, and they, 
too, were as unanimous in condemning the per- 
nicious system of single taxation as was the 
State G:ange. The National Grange was com- 
posed of leading farmers from every State in 
the Umou, except six — men who are abundant- 
ly able from education and experience to pass 
intelligently upon all questions relating to 
their own interests or those of the oountry at 

My critic thinks the statistics I gave, taken 
an they were from the U. S. census and the 
official election returns of votes given for Mr. 
Cleveland and Mr. Blaine, "were misleading, 
and subjected my argument and conclusions to 
ridicule." Well, in reply to this I will say 
that all I intended to do was to give the 
facta and my conclusions therefrom, and in no 
instance would I have dared to arrogate to my- 
self the power to supply the readers of the arti- 
cle with reasoning powers. 

My oritic seems to have a confusion of ideas 
when he attempts to reason from cause to ef 
feet. He seems to think, although his thought 
is not very clearly expressed, that the absence 
of a single-tax system has something to do with 
land tenure, assessment of cultivated and un- 
cultivated land, the price of land, mortgages on 
farms, etc. The discussion of these questions 
in connection with the single-tax system is as 
relevant as it would be to discuss the princi- 
ples of the Keely motor or the immaculate con- 
ception. My critic says: "If Mr. A. is at all 
familiar with the subject of land taxation, he 
knows that if he is farming a 40-acre piece, he 
will be taxed at a valuation of $45 per acre, 
while if Senator Stanford has an adjoining 
tract, equally good except that it is unim- 
proved, bis tax valuation will be from $5 to $15 
per acre." The inequality of assessment here 
referred to is undoubtedly a hypothetical case, 
but if it has really occurred, it is a gross viola- 
tion of the law. The law requires that all lands 
of equal value, whether cultivated or not, shall 
be assessed at the same rate. Therefore I 
would advise my critic to aid in the election of 
assessors who will not violate their oaths of of- 
fice in the discharge of their duties rather than 
to seek remedies in impossible ways — at least 
that of attempting to foist upon farmers the 
odious single-tax system. 

My critic relates a oase where a party owns 
1000 acres of land that has been assessed at $15 
per acre. Another party wanted to and did 
actually purchase a portion of said tract and 
paid $200 per aore for it. He now asks, " Will 
Mr. Adams apply the principle of the single- 
tax syttern to this case and give us his conclu 
sions in a future issue?" To apply principles 
to oases — acts, conditions or things — we should 
know what the acts or conditions are. You 
say that " A had land that was assessed at $15 
per acre, but would not sell it for less than $200 
per acre; that B desired a portion of said laud 
and was willing to and did actually pay the 
price asked." According to our laws and the 
laws of all civilized countries, the transaction 
was honest, and it is evident that B, the par 
chaser, considered it more honorable to buy 
and pay for the lind he wanted than to de- 
spoil A of his property under the guise of the 
single-tax system. 

The effect of the single tax, as I under- 
stand it, would be to create a governing class 
who would be entirely free from any respon- 
sibility of contributing in dollars and cnts to 
support the Oovernment. The rich and affluent, 
the indolent and the lazy, who would number 
at least three- fourths of the voters of the 
United States, would constitute the governing 
clasB who would grow sleek and fat off of the 
many offices they would create and apportion 
among themselves. The farmers constituting 
the great bulk of taxpayers and the few other 
landed proprietors upon whose shoulders the 
support of the Oovernment would fall would 
constitute the other one-fourth of the voters, 
and all that would be required of them would 
be to pay their taxes promptly and not to 
grumble about it. 

Now, dear critic, as between tb.e condition of 

things here portrayed, being as I believe the 
legitimate outgrowth of the adoption of the sin- 
gle-tax system, there is no more analogy than 
there is between Barnum's baby hippopota- 
mus and the ablest advocate of the single-tax 
system. Amos Adams. 

Patadena, Jan. 2, 1890. 

Double Taxation. 

Editors Press: — Mr. Merrill's communica- 
tion in a recent number of the Rural Press in 
reference to the double taxation of alfalfa, fur- 
nishes a striking illustration of the motive or 
animus of our present system of taxation. The 
assessing of alfalfa roots and summer-fallows as 
improvements of the land, while it illustrates 
the greed of the system also shows how easy it 
is for the collector to find and assess everything 
the farmer has. 

In like manner it lays its greedy hand upon 
all forms of wealth produced by labor. If a 
man build a house, or manufacture cloth or 
agricultural implements, along comes the as- 
sessor and fines him for bis industry as though 
he bad committed a crime. Entering the abode 
of the poorest wage-worker and finding nothing 
to assess, the diligent collector hurries to the 
contractor who employs bim and levies on his 
wages for his poll tax. These examples might 
be multiplied to show how the farmer, the 
wage-earner, the merchant, in short, bow all 
producers are taxed to the extent of the law on 
what they have or what they consume. 

It is easy to see that this form of taxation has 
a strong tendency to discourage the production 
of all forms of wealth, and this is proof enough 
that it is a bad system, and it is easy to bring 
other proof equally conclusive. 

While our present system thus industriously 
taxes all the farmer's improvements, as well as 
all other products of labor, thus crippling in- 
dustry and laying the burden of the govern- 
ment on those least able to bear it, let us ask. 
Is it equally efficient in hunting up and tax- 
ing the wealth of the rich ? 

By no means. From some unexplained 
cause the assessor seems to lose bis keen scent 
and inquisitorial energy when he enters the 
mansion of the millionaire. And so it happens 
that the ease with which the millionaire's 
wealth escapes taxation is only equaled by the 
certainty with whioh the farmer and wage- 
worker are taxed. The troth of this assertion 
can be proved by many examples. Govern- 
ment bonds are not taxed; most of the money 
of the banks dodges the asses or; vacant land 
held for speculative rise in value is assessed 
much lower than improved land lying along- 
side, and most of the wealth of the wealthy is 
either assessed at a small percentage of its 
value or escapes altogether. Thus in numer- 
ous ways the wealthy can 'and do elnde the 
tax-collector and so shift the burden they ought 
to bear to the farmers and other producers. 

And so the more we investigate the practical 
workings of our system of taxation, the more 
we are forced to conclude that its inevitable 
tendency is to take from the many and give to 
the few; to vastly increase the fortunes of the 
wealthy and reduce the mass of the people to 
poverty. The rapid increase in the number of 
our millionaires during the last 30 years, to- 
gether with the inconceivable amount of 
wealth they control, should force us to earnest- 
ly consider Mr. Merrill's pertinent question, 
Where will all this end ? 

It needs no prophetic vision to foretell that 
our end will be as the end of ancient Rome, 
where they had muoh the same system of tax- 
ation as now torments as. With them, bow- 
ever, the assessor had greater inquisitorial 
power, being authorized by law to extort from 
the unwilling citizen by rack and thumb- 
screw such a statement of his wealth as would 
satisfy the assessment. But the fruits of the 
two systems are much alike. Their lalifundia, 
or great estates, are surpassed in extent by the 
landed possessions of our lords of the soil; their 
proletariat finds a parallel in our tramps and en- 
forced idlers, and with them, as with us, the 
economic conditions that forced vast fortunes 
upon the privileged few reduced the mass 
of the people to poverty, degradation and 

But what shall we do ? Will farmers, for in- 
stance, derive any permanent benefit from an 
organization such as indicated by Mr. Merrill 
in the nature of a trust that would oontrol the 
production and output of their commodities ? 
How do farmers like trusts, anyhow ? Do they 
think that the sugar trust, or the salt trust, or 
the twine trust, is beneficial to the country at 

Can any system which seeks to restrict rather 
than to encourage production promote the wel- 
fare of the whole people ? Assuredly not. The 
trust being founded on principles which are 
fundamentally wrong, can be productive of 
nothing but evil consequences. 

In conclusion allow me to suggest that we 
oarefully consider a small change in our system 
of taxation which it seems to me will secure j us- 
tice and equal rights to all. This change or 
reform proposes : 

1. To exempt money, all improvements on 
land, together with all products of labor, from 

2. To assess all taxes on land aocording to 
its value, or in other words to tax ground rent. 

This is the substance of a reform, which, 
though short and simple, yet means a great 
deal; and as a general rule those who study it 
I most love it best. 

' It is quite likely that farmers who hear of it 

for the first time will object to it, as it would 
seem to throw most of the burden of taxation 
on them. But w hen they come to understand 
as well as to feel the injustice of our present 
system, they will then be able to appreciate 
the beauty, simplicity and justice of the reform 
proposed. The study of the subject of taxa- 
tion is sure to prove both interesting and profit- 
able to all who desire to secure to others as 
well as themselves those "inalienable rights" 
for which the fathers contended. 
139 Tenth St., San Diego. A. Harvey. 

Free-Trade Fallacies. 

Editors Press: — The meeting of Eastern 
farmers at St. Louis, some time ago, tried to 
lay the blame for their troubles on our pro- 
tective tariff, and formulated a petition to 
Congress, praying that body to reduce import 
duties in order to induce foreign countries to 
remit their import duties, to the end that said 
petitioners might receive a higher price for 
their wheat, etc., exported to said foreign coun- 

This well illustrates the intelligence of the 
average free-trader. The 1 basis and substance 
of all free-trade arguments from Cleveland up, 
is, and must be, that the tariff taxes the pro- 
ducer for the benefit of the manufacturer. It 
was pointed out during the last campaign by 
protection papers, that the foreign manufact- 
urer, in many case* — steel rails for instance — 
paid most of our tariff. Free-trade papers 
hooted at this idea as absurd, but an associa- 
tion of free-traders formally announces that 
they are paying the duties on imports into for- 
eign S ateB. 

It is a very poor rule that doesn't work both 
ways, and the farmers of the United States 
must be having a tough deal, indeed, if they 
have to pay import duties both into this coun- 
try and into .England, Germany and France 
also. The free-traders of those countries claim 
that their consumers pay the import duties. 
Free traders here claim the same thing, and 
then turn around the next day and claim the 
reverse — anything, in short, to catch gudgeons. 

It is to be hoped that farmers are getting to 
understand their own interests, and that a high 
tariff is a necessary wall of protection against 
foreign cheap, poverty-stricken labor. Protec- 
tion is undoubtedly selfish, but a very desirable 
and proper selfishness — simply self-protection. 
Auburn, Cal. W. 8. P. 





Always gives a bright natural color, never 
turns rancid. Will not color the Buttermilk. 
Used by thousands of the best Creameries and 
Dairies. Do not allow your dealer to convince you 
that some other kind is just aBgood. Tell him the 
BEST is what you want, and you mu<t have Wells. 
Richardson A Co's Improved Butter Colob. 
For sale everywhere . Manufactory . Burlington, Vt. 


A Portfolio of beautiful baby pic- 
tures from life, printed on fine 
plate paper by patent photo 
process, sent free to Mother of 
any Baby born within a year. 
Every Mother wants these 
pictures ; send at once. Giva 
Baby's name and age. 



Save Time and Wearisome Labor ! 



Invented by E. M. T. Hilgard, one horse and a boy can 
do the woik of eight or ten men in gathering and buoch 
iug the p'unings ready for burning or loading on waeon 
It is stronglv made and its construction is so simple 
that with ordinary fair ueage it shoul I last a lifetime. 
Its cost will be saved iu one season's \v\>rk on 65 aores of 
vines. Address, 

421-427 Market St., San Francisco 


Runs Easy 

BY O'E MAN. Write for descriptive rntalogne con- 
taining testimonials from linmlriMtit <it ppople who hiivo 
sawed tnm 4 to » cords doily. Sfi.iwO now suoccssl'ully uscil 
Agency inn bo had where the re is a vacancy A NKVY 
INVENTION for lilm:- saws sent frw with each aochlw, by 
the use of this tool everybody ran lile their own Buwa 
no-v and do it belter th in the greatest expert cuu w ith- 
out It. Adapted to nil cross-cut saws. Every one who 
owns a saw . should have one. Ask your dealers or write 
Hnuth Ciliiiil Street. Chlciiirn. III. 


Mahopic,PutnamC3.,N Y . writes 
Dr. Stth Arnold's Cough Killer 
cured nie of 
ovtr twenty va>s *to I have used 
it with universal success in my 
family ever ninca. 25c, 50c and 
$1 > or bottle. 




For Bilious and Nervous Disorders, such as 
Wind and Pain in the Stomach, SICK HEADACHE 
Giddiness, Fulness, and Swelling after Meals, 
Dizziness and Drowsiness, Cold Chills, Flush- 
ings of Heat, Loss of Appetite, Shortness of 
Breath. Costiveness, Scurvy, Blotches on the 
Skin, Disturbed Sleep, Frightful Dreams, and all 
Nervous and Trembling Sensations, &c. THE 
TY MINUTES. This Is no fiction. Every 
sufferer is earnestly Invited to try one Box 
of those I'llls, and they will be acknowl- 
edged to be a Wonderful Medicine. 
" Worth a guinea a box." 
BEECH AM'S PILLS, taken as directed, 
will quickly restore females to oomplate 
health. For a 


they ACT LIKE MAGIC:— a feu- doses will 
work wonders upon the Vital Organs ; 
Strengthening themuscular System ; restoring 
long-lost Complexion ; bringing back the 
keen edge of appetite, and arousing with 
the ROSEBUD OF HEALTH the whole phy- 
sical energy of the human frame. These 
are "facts'"' admitted by thousands. In 
all classes of society ; and one of the best 
guarantees to the Nervous and Debilitated 
WORLD. Full directions with each Box 
Prepared only byTH->*i. Blil'CHAM, 
St. Helens, Laiicashi.e, England. 

Sold by Druggists generally. 
B. F. ALLEN & CO., 365 and 367 Canal St., New 
York, Sole Agents for the United States. 
who (If your druggist does not keep them,) 

PRICE 25 CENTS A BOX. Men'ion this Paper. 

^acific oast 


A CREAM SEPARATOR that makes 2 per cent 
more Butter than any machine yet introduced and 10 per 
cent more than pans. Send for Circulars, 

203 Fremont Street, San Francisco. Cal. 



Established 1856, 

Largest and Oldest Piano House West of tlie Rockies 





Sold ob easy installments when desired. Write for 
illustrated Catalogue. 

Warerooms, 20 O'Farrell St., near Market, S. F. 


Made of steel, lighter, stronger, cheaper, mom 
ower, everlasting and competition distanced, 
'or proof order on trial, to keep the best a d 
»ret any other along-side if you can. Rtversibk 
full Circle mSmzSzZZ**- lie!/. Titles, all size.,. 


Addresfc for 

clrmiani and location ftf »-^Ul^ "Western and Southern 
StorehouJM »nd ApenU p. K. DEDERICK & CO. 

No. 4 Dederick's Works Albany, n.y. 


f ACIFie r^URALo f RESS. 

[Jan. 11, 1890 

(She (5ourist. 

Californians in Belgium. 

Editors Press:— We left Amsterdam at 
12:30, anived in Brussels at 6 P. M., and put 
np at Grand Hotel de Saxe. Having a little 
spare time before we left, we took • run 
through an old Da ton church founded In 1408, 
whioh had some very fine pulpit carving and 
other oddities ; also visited the K ing's palace. It 
is a large, plain stone building on the outside, 
and a person would hardly believe the beanty 
it contained within. Nearly every room was 
finished or covered with polished marble of the 
finest kind. It made a peculiar and rich room. 
Fine pictures were on the wall and on the ceil- 
ing. Each picture was emblematic or had a 
meaning and was appropriate to time and 
place. The equestrian statue of the father ol 
the present K ng was in one of the large rooms. 
We regretted very much that we had to hurry 
throogh so rapidly, as we probably shall never 
see another marble palace like that, and it was 
a mystery to us bow the economic Hollanders 
ever allowed th mselves so much extravagance. 

The trip was through a level country, with 
canals, ditches and levees everywhere; splen- 
did green grass and thousands of the black 
and white Holstein or Dutch cattle in every 
direction. There were no fences, but some good 
large barns and good farm houses. I do not 
know that I ever went through suoh an extent 
of level ground and such fine feed and crops. 
In one town, about half the place was occupied 
with nursery trees, shrubs and flowers and of a 
very fine growth, and showed a good deal of 
skill in their tiaining. 

With all this rich soil, I had no desire to live 
on it, but would like to have owned a few 
hundred acres to turn my stock io to see them 
grow and get fat. We passed through The 
Hague and Rotterdam, large, fine places on 
level ground with water nearly on the surface. 
Q lite extensive improvements were going on 
at Kitterd.m, on the outside of the city, which 
showed thrift and prosperity. 

We intended to stop at Antwerp, but con- 
cluded to go on to B usstls and stop as we 
oame back to take steamer for London. We 
were more favorably imprer-sad with Brussels 
than any city that we have seen on the continent, 
outside ot Paris. Tnere is a life, thrift and 
cleanliness about the oity that takes right away 
and makes a parson feel at home at once. The 
merchants have large show windows and have 
a knack of showing off their goods in a tasteful 
and attractive way, and oauses a desire to buy 
something out of every window. We went to 
the lace manufacturers, which was a source of 
great joy tj the thre laiiea in our party. It the 
skill o( the fair hand* in this city oan prtvant. 
our ladies are determined that mo qiicoes and 
cold weather shall forever after be a stranger 
to them, while Mr. H. and myself sit in 
silent meditation, pondering the price of hop- 
and bouqiets in the future. Statues, monu- 
ments and columns are plenty. We took a 
ride on the eleotrio street road which worked 
well for a di-tance of about a mile, and some 
of the way np grada. A great many wooden 
shoes are worn in this country, and the first 
pair 1 saw I thought from the siza that the 
owner was about to perform some great feat in 
water-walking, so with purse in hand I followed 
him for awhile, desiring to purchase tickets for 
his exhibition. I soon saw so many with the 
wooden snoes that I thought I mignt see some 
of their feats without pay — a thing that never 
occurs in this country — so I savad my guilder 
and called at the corner to inquire the prioe of 
sobeidam schnapps. 

We were shown through the Hall of Justice, 
whioh is a large, fine building, and everything 
seemed well arranged. We were shown a 
room where eveiy day, at certain hours, civil 
marriages were solemnized by the propar official. 

We then went through the rain to visit the 
cathedral — a large, fine building, but no com- 
parison to some that we have visited. Candles 
were burning by the hundred; men and women 
were at their devotional exercises. A big, 
burly six footer, with brass buttons, cocked 
hat and long wand, stalked through the aisles 
and waved back the visitors. I took a seat in 
one of the low chairs facing, as I supoosed, the 
most oonapiououB place in church. He tapped 
me on the shoulder and turned around my 
ohair, as much as to say, that view is go d 
enough for you heathens. I gave him a low 
bow and child like smile by showing my dis- 
sent to his judgment, and moved off to another 
part of the onuroh to commune with what 
seemed to me best. 

Porters or commissioners are standing on the 
streets everywhere, especially at stations and 
hotels, dressed with white blouses and brass 
binds around the arms with numbers. Mr. H. 
wanted to go to the bank to draw some funds, 
and was very near to it when he asked one of 
these men the direction. Two of them started 
with him to the bank, and as be was about to 
disappear in the door, both yelled out in broken 
Eiglish, " Commission, commission." Mr. H 
said: " I did not ask you to go to the bank, I 
merely asked tne direction." 

He <\eut in and gut tome funds, and ai hn 
oame out, my repeated again " C hi mission I" 
II - 8 * • i. »ii useleS-J to talk to them. So he 
pulled out two pieod* of 8 viss moo y that a 1 
other natives refuse to take and gave each a 
pieoe. While they were examining them to 

ascertain the value of the queer coin, Mr. H. 
slid away. 

It reminded me of the story of the man rid- 
ing through a country that was full of 
« elves, and they made chase, while he would 
gun a little time by occasionally throwing out 
a piece of meat or a bundle of something for 
them to examine and fight ever. They will 
stand at the hotel, and when a hack drives up, 
the driver will take gripsack off hack, and these 
porters will snatch it up and run in and demand 
a fee. Tbey continually play into each other's 
hands, and the best way is to have as little to 
do with them as possible. D Flint. 

Hl UIT CDa^keting. 

Eastern Fruit Markets. 

Editors Press: — Being, as is well known, 
somewhat extensively engaged in frnit culture 
in this oounty, dnring my reoent visit to 
the Eastern States I naturally made icquiry 
among the Eastern fruit dealers an to the ex 
Nntof the market for California frnit in the 
Eistern towns and cities. My inquiries ex- 
tended all along the line of my j mrney — St. 
Paul, Chicago, Columbus, 0., Pittsburg, Soran 
ton and other points. Ac all points the reply 
was the same: At reasonable prices all the dried 
fruits of California whioh could be sent East 
would be readily taken by consumers. Green 
or raw fruits, especially cherries, apricots and 
peaches, were not in euch universal demand. 
0*ing to their being picked while yet a little 
unripe, they were deficient in that exquisite 
flavor so desirable in raw fruits. Suoh is 
found to be the excellence of California dried 
fruits that the use of them is largely supersed- 
ing that of canned fruit as more economical. 
Prunes and apricots are the favored California 
dried fruits in the E istern markets. In some 
plaoes there was complaint that many of our 
dried aprioots, owing to exoessive sulphuring, 
are deficient in fruit flavor. The same com- 
Dlaint was made as to our dried peaches. In 
Columbni, Oaio, nur dried apricots, owing to 
this deficiency of flivor, could scarcely be sold 
at any prioe. L t California fruit curers make 
a note of this. A light sulphuring while it im- 
proves the appearance of the fruit does not 
eensib'y Injure its flavor; bnt the exoessive use 
of sulphur, as is practiced by many, injures 
and in many cases destroys the fruit flavor, and 
consequently its intrinsio value. Tnis exces- 
sive sulphuring, if continued, will in a short 
time work a great injury to the profitable 
marketing of our dried fruits. Wherever 1 
went I talked with fruit dealers as to the ef- 
fect of sulphur on dried fruit. They all con- 
demned its excessive application. Many lots 
of dried apples, exceedingly inviting in appear-, were found to be almost unpalatable for 
the reason that the apple flivor which they 
ought to have was wholly destroyed by the ex- 
oessive use of sulphur. 

I need not remind the California fruit-drier 
thit hist quality of dried fruit can only be 
made from nrst quality ripe fruit; that cleauli- 
n-ss in handling is another requisite; that first 
quality dried, when open for exhibition, must 
oe free from black or otherwise damaged spec- 
imens of fruit; must be free from dust, straw, 
or clods of earth. Cili'ornia fruit at the East 
now has the repntation of being the cleanest 
dried fruit cffired in the markets there. Snch 
is their reputation in this respect that many 
dealers do not now think of inspecting the 
fruit they order for the trade, baiog satisfied 
with a sample shown them. 

The California Petite prune has obtained 
such a reputation for superior excellence in the 
Eastern States, that it has the preference over 
the French prnue of the same grade, and at a 
price in advance of that at whioh the Frenoh 
article is offered. S ime buyers even obj ct to 
the tarm " Frenoh" being inserted, as descrip 
tive of the prune in their bills of purchase. I 
would BUggest that hereafter our French prunes 
when put up for sale be marked " California 
prune." Suoh marking would give it a dis- 
tinctive character from all other prunes, and 
still nothing different in name from anything 
foreign. a the Eistern markets are well supplied 
with a great variety of berries, there is no 
great variety of domestic tree-grown truitsever 
found in their markets; only apples and peaches 
and a few p am and pluns in their season are 
s en. Although tbe EaUern fruit-grower has 
1 arned how to make successful war on the cur- 
culio, he has not learned how to oombat the 
plum blight. Last year almost all tbe plum 
orchard) on the east side of S.-neca in 
New York State were seriously injured, and 
some oroharde totally destroyed by this blight. 
It is a new thing in their oroharde and as yet 
the orchardists know not how to combat it. 

On the whole, I think the markets East will 
take, at prices which will be found remunera 
tive to the California fiuit-grower, all the good 
dried fruit we can send them. While farming 
in the States east of the Kooky mountains is in 
a most depressed condition, the tn<vns and 
cities all seem to be flourishing. Njw and 
well-built houses, neatly painted, would seem 
to be the rule and not the txopti n. Tne 
fai mers do not and never did buy much dried 
truit. It they could nit make their o*n they 
ilid without. B t the p ipu.alion of the villages 
and towns is rapidly gaining on the farmiug 
population and seems to be prosperous. It is 
that class of population whioh buys and oon 

sumes our dried frnlts and passes by our oanned 
fruits as too expensive. 

This year the apple crop east of the Rocky 
mountains, except in Michigan, was a very 
shoit one; also the peach crop was nothing 
extraordinary. All the peaches of best quality 
were readily taken by the trade, leaving only 
the poorer qualities to be made Into dried fruit. 
This kind of dried fruit is sure to be neg'ecttd 
by the consumer if he can get a better. Hence 
the great demand for our California dried 
peaches this year. Before the 1st of April I 
think there will be no California dried fruit at 
the East for sale in first hands. On the whole, 
I think the future for California dried fruits in 
the E tstern markets is very hopeful, if osre is 
taken to put up and send only ti rat-class fruit, 
and if care Is also taken in the sulphuring 
process. W. C. Blackwood. 

Hay wards. 

you can certainly 

Grain Crop Estimates —The D.oember re- 
port ot the D partmeut of Agriculture contains 
estimates of the prinoipal cereals by States, in- 
cluding area, produot and value. The reported 
area of corn is 78 319 651 acres, which repre- 
sents an increase of per cent over th<" ace- 
age of 1888. The wheat acreage, 38.123 859 
acres, shows it to be 2 I 10 per cent greater 
than the aggregate for 1888. A revHon of the 
acreage gives a smaller area in Iowa, Neb'aska, 
Oregon and Washington, and larger in K ansas 
and Dakota. Dairying and meat produotion 
have for years been encroaching on wheat- 
growing on the eastern side of the great spring 
wheat belt, as crops of wheat in Kansas, II 
inois and other S ates are from year to year 
the result of variable meteorological condition". 
The acreage of oats is placed at 27 462 310 
acres, an increase of If ss than 2 per c»nt. The 
\ield per acre of corn is very nearly 27 bushels, 
tbe largest rate of yi»ld since 1880. The prod 
uot as estimated is 2 112 802 000 bushels. The 
largest yields are w>s; of the Mississippi, Iowa 
taking the tint rank in the aggregate prod iced 
The yield per acre of wheat is nearly 12 9 
bushels, or one-tenth of a bushel grtater than 
the November average of yield per sore. The 
total product, as estimated, is 490 560 000 
bushels. Tbe product of oats is 751 515 000 
bushels, at the rate of 27 .4 bushels not see. 
The aggregate of all cerra s is abont 3 450 000,- 
000 bushels, or at least 53 bush Is per oapita. 

A Land-Clearing Machine — A Santa Rosa 
inventor has devised a machine for olearing land 
that is attracting attention. Concerning a re 
cent trial on Guy Crosse's place in Rinoon val- 
ley, the Democrat says : With its use stumps 
and trees which it would take an experienced 
and stalwart wood-chopper half a day to re- 
move from the soil, are dragged out by the 
roots, soarcely the smallest fibrous vestige be- 
ing left in the ground, in two and three min 
utes, and apparently without the expenditure 
of great force. Tne ease with which these 
stubborn impedim- nts to agricultural develop- 
ment are removed is due to the meohanicil 
construction of the machine, which is in the 
form of a cap tin. Around the drum of tbe 
capstan a heavy cable winds, the other end be- 
ing attached by means of a heivy ohain to the 
stumo or tree. This cable is 160 feet in length, 
and, by means of a patent block, any part of it 
can be hitohed to the tree. The shaft whioh 
turns the drum is 15 feet in length and is drawn 
with ease by one horse. Dividing the length of 
tbe shaft by half the diamater of tbe drum- 
five inches — it gives the multiplying power of 
the machine as 36. By the means of another 
Mock, the power of the machine is increased to 
72 times that of the horse whioh turns tbe 
shaft. The machine works on a hillsids as well 
as on level ground, and two acres of land may 
be cleared without changing its position. 

Gopiiers Avoid Bone-Dcst. — Saoramento 
valley exohangts note the fact that Wm. Wolf- 
skill of Yolo oounty believes that he has found 
a complete protection against tbe depredations 
of gophers in young orchards. This is simply 
burying a handful of ground bone near the 
stem of the tree. The odor of the bone-dust 
keeps the gophers away. I a his own experi- 
ence Mr. Wolfskill has found this simple 
remedy unfailing, and he had been sorely 
plagued by the pests. The bone-dust is also 
valuable as a fertilizer. It should not be ap- 
plied directly to the tree, but placed around it 
at a few incbes di-tanoe. 

The Park Nursery Co. of Pasadena— Byron 
O. Clark, man igei — olose their neat price-list 
of ornaments 1 stock with a heartv recommenda- 
tion of the Pacific Rural Press to fruit 
growers as being " the best adapted to their 
needs of any horticultural publication on this 
coast, and alike valuable to the home oircle." 

i^sses orf}on<Lyfo 
Or?e parT °f 

"Perry Davis' 


. ofTevr . 

~1ffy if- _ 

Jo y c JK ro at, } \j\ h1h 

The Regular Annual Meeting 

Of the st^ckhoTders of the Grangers' Bank of Cali'ornia 
for the election of Directors f >r the ensuing year will 
take place at the i fH e i f he Bank, in the City i f San 
Francisco, St ite of California, o . Tuesday, the 14th day 
of January, 1890, at 1 o' lock r. m 


ALBfc.Hr MONTPELLIKH, Cashier and Manager. 
San Fr-n<-i«co, December 18, 1889. 

■ ill I r»j|Wiril l,ur e<»''l*tiy Mimplctotlic vholoal* 

W« » ailaWlil SaiS land retail Inda, W« are the law* 
hianuraftiirerslnoarllrjflinthrr worM. I II ■ i .1 sal irt pal I. IVrnia- 
Btot pncltlno. BnBf f rrt.anr*<l r.r witc 1 ". n t\ - rf I - 1 in- < 'r. For rull 
lcrmsaii(treu.CcQU.-ODiaiairic.Co. Chicago, III.. orl'lDoiaaaU. O* 

gm £*f\ M UBY, WO I \ |H 11-. ■■ In advasre 

^sa SB a. J .ill i >wed each mouth, bteady employojeut at 
home or traveling No soliciting. Dut en. de- 
livering and making collect! ns No Postal Cards. Addreaa 
with stamp. HA PER t CI). PtqOa, O 

Kohler & Chase, established 1850. The lead- 
ing house of the Pacific Coast. Any one wishing to 
buy a first-class piano for a low figure should write 
for illustrated catalogue. Each instrument repre- 
sented by this firm is of a high standard of work- 
manship. They have the largest assortment to se- 
lect from, and are sold on easy terms. Catalogues 
sent free upon application, and all orders by mail 
promptly attended to and satisfaction guaranteed. 
The Decker Bros. , the leading upright, indorsed by all 
artists. Kohler & Chase, 137-139 Post street, S. F. 

Any one wishing to rem a well-improved farm of 
480 acres in a healthy locality, at very moderate cish 
rent, can learn particulars by applying to "Cash 
Rent," Box 27, Tulare. Cal. 

Any ambitious young man or woman among our 
readers is advised to read the ad. "Practical Short 
hand,'' page 610. 

Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
quested to examine its contents, term of sub- 
scription, and give it their own patronage, and 
as far as practicable aid in circulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influenoe in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription 
rate, $3 a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 
-ents, if ordered soon enough. If already a 
■ ihanrlhAr. pleaan ahow th« papxr tn nthora. 



Sure Cure for Diabetes, Catarrh of the Bladder, and all Disorders of the Liver 

and Urinary Organs. 

Manufactured by SIERRA CHEMICAL CO., San Francisco, Cal. 

Laboratory. 9484 MImIod Htreet. ALL DBUOaiBTB. 

Jan. 11, 1890.] 

p ACIFlfc f^URAb f RESS. 


Seeds, Wants, fctc. 

Nevada City, Cal. 


|\|uts, p runes \ Q rapes 

The Largest and Finest Collection of " Nut- 
Bearing" Trees to be f una In the 
United States, and Excelled 
nowhere in nurope. 




Introduced into California in 1871 by Felix Oil'et; and 
also of the great market walnuts of the world, 

Mayette, Franquette and Parisienne 

(Large, light-colored shell, beautiful ) 

All walnut seedlings positively "guaranteed" to be 
"Second Generation" Trees, that Is, grown from nuts 
borne on the "original," as it is the case with Praspar- 
turiens Trees, or on trees grafted from the Original, as 
are all the other kinds. 

One-year-old "Second Generation" Tree", with plenty 
of roots, of the following kinds: Prseps>rturien8, 
Cluster, Mayette, Franquette, Parisienne, 
Chaberte. Vourey an 1 Culoug, at $45 to $30 
per hundred, according to sizes. 

One-year-'ld ' Third Generation" Prseporturlens, 
or trees erown from nut« borne on "Second Generation" 
Trees, at $12 to $15 per hundred. 

By mail, Second Generation Trees of all kinds, $5 per 
dozen; Third Generation Prreparturiens $3 per 
dozen (these prices including racking r.nd nniling). 

WalLut Trees grown from the Original, or trees grafted 
from the Original, or Second Generation Trees, are too 
scarce to permit gliiog special rates to the trade. 


Lot d'^tite and Saint Catherine, propagated, 
"true to the root," from the prune districts in France. 
Also all other leading kinds. 

Two hundred and forty-one varieties of GRAPES 
from all p rts "f the world, including the earliest table 
and market virieties known, soue as much as 25 days 
earlie.- thm "Sweet Water." 

Sixfy-one varieties of ENGLISH GOOSEBER- 
RIES all shapes, colors and sizes. 

etc., French, E glUh, German and American STKAW- 
BKKKi Kg. 

Harriett Prar Trees, one year "Id, at $15 to 
$80 per hundred; guaranteed to be genuine and free 
of insect pests. 

Oranges and Lemons. 

Portugal Orange, BUdah (Algeria) Mandarin 
Orange, Corsica Lemon, Large- 
Fruited Lemon, 

Imported from the island of Corsica, on the Mediterra- 
nean coast, and expressly grafted for the California trade. 


By FELIX GILLtCT. of Nevada City. Cat, «n efsay on 
the different modes of Buddiig and Qr. fcing the Walnut, 
bo difficult to grift; il u-rtrated with eiglu cuts made 
after nature and of natu>al tize. Will be sent with 
Descriptive Catal gue, u der the gam 1 ) cover, to al- 
alia, ess on the receipt of 25 cents in postage stamps. 

tSTSend for General Descriptive Catalogue, Illustrated 
with 3/ cuts, representing Walnuts, Chestnuts, Almonds, 
Filberts, Prunes, etc. 


I do hereby caution Nurserymen all over the United 
States that have been in the habit of stealing my Walnut 
and Chestnut cuts, arrd approp iating them to kinds 
that th y do not represent, that I hav« had all th* cuts 
of m\ General Dmcriptivi Catalogue and tho e of my 
Essay on Grafting the Walnut duly " copyrighted," and 
that here if er I will prosecute any one guilty of such 
contemptible piracy. 

1 w.ulJ also caution ny Calif >rnl» pa'rons againct 
buying noni agen s pu porting to be mine, as I hive no 
agents wh never throughout the State fur the sale of any 
of my stock. 

Nevada City, Cal. 

&eeds 9 


It contains description and price of Grass, Clover and Field SEEDS, Australian 
Tree and Shrub SEEDS, Native California Tree, Shrub and Flower SEEDS (the 
largest assortment of Vegetable and Flower SEEDS, offered in the United States), uefl 
varieties of Forage Plants, Grasses and Clovers especially recommended for the Pacific 
Coast. Holland, Japan and California Bulbs. LaTjre Assortment of Palm SEEDS, 
new and rare Plants, new Fruit. Our stock of Fruit Trees consists of the best varieties 
of Prune, Plum, Apricot, Apple, Peach, Cherry, Olive, Fig and Nut Trees, Grapo. Vines 
and small Fruits. Address 


411,413&415 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal. 


Half a Million 1 & 2 Year Old Trees; Straight, Clean & Heavily Eooted. 
Grown in Sandy Soil Without Irrigation. 

Japan Walnuts, Cork Oaks. 

The New California Strain of GLADIOLUS, LILIES, TIGRIDIAS, and Other Bulhs. 


Bnrbonk'M Experimental Orounels. 

We claim to be one of the largest growers and importers of Flower Seeds in America. In order to introduce 
them as widely as possible we make this HUDQC PChCUTCll RCCCS For 25c- in postage stamps or money 
we will send by mail one pkt. each of the UnrntoLUtrl I LU UiTLil. following Valuable Seeds: New Din- 
mond Aster, very handsome colors; Mixed Balsams, immense size, double as a rose; Catliopsis, Golden 
Wave, new, very showy; New Hyb'ld Caillarrtrla. unrivaled for beauty: Phlnxdrumundii Candiflora 
Splendens, 15 distinct shades; CIANT SHOW PANSIES. immense size, rich and velvety; New Mam- 
moth Verbena, 12 choice colors; New Clant Zinnia, lamest in the world; 10 Seed* of ANNUAL NUT- 
MEC PLANT, great value, never before offered; AmarTlfiue Cibbosus, highly ornamental ; ono Beau- 
ll*"l Everlasting Flower, M full-size plt*° , with directions for culture, for 25c. 5 Collections, $1.00. 

Catalogue with each order. SAMUEL WILSON, Mechanicsville, Bucks Co., Pa. 

The Public Want rh ti^ 

Would they not be most likely to obtain such by buying 
directly from the trowert I can buyseed at half 
' t it costs me to raise it, but, could not sleep sound 
should I warrant seed of this class. For the same 
reason 1 make special, effort to procure seed stock 
directly from their originators. \ ou will find in my 
new. seed catalogue for 1890 (sent free), the usual 
extensive collection (with the prices of some kinds lower 
than last season) ami the really new vegetable* 
nfj-oocl prtoiniee. You should be able to get from me, 
their introducer, good seed of Cory Corn, Miller Melon. 
Hubbard Squash, All Seasons and Deep Head Cabbages and 
many other valuable vegetables, which I have introduced. 

JtAMJiS J. II. GliEGOKY, MarbleheiiU, Mass. 

_____ Plants, Roses, Shrubs, 
OrrnP Fruit and Ornamental 
A P r 1 1 _\ Trees, Grape Vines, 
ULLUU Small Fruits etc. 



bend ten cents for our illustrated catalogue ol 
about 150 pages, containing a certificate good for 
ten cents in seeds, etc, Or send for our 33 page 
abridged catalogue and price-list free. 
36 years. 24 greenhouses. 700 acres 

STORRS & HARRISON CO., Painesviile, Ohio 

ELBMiil IT 1 1 a- n_TTJ_^S_HI^"_r, 

JP1& Trees and Cuttings for Sale. 

WHITE ADRIATIC, GENUINE SMYRNA, SAN PEDRO, and various other varieties. 
All kinds o! GRAPE ROOTS and CUTTINGS. 

M. DENICKB, Fresno, Cal. 

Contracts taken to prune Fig Trees scientifically. Box No. 452. 

If You Want 

Wild Oats, Red CLver, Red Top, Timothy, Blue Grass, Etc., 

Send orders to 


Wholesale Dealers iu Field Seed 

efts CO., 

117 to X25 O" 


Sacramento, G*vl. 



Tltl ll Itt l.I.. KKVlHULDIt A ALLEN, 

Dealers in all ki .ds • f Seed*. Being In the c nter 
ot the Ciover a' d Ttrrjolhy dist ict, we cau sell at 
lower piices tha" any other market. Write for 
prices. Send for Catalogue f"r 189 i. 1426-112S 
SI. Loui* Ave, KamuM < i I .» , Bio. 




fc k I 


The best berry for long distance shipments. Will not 
rotor melt down if pne-ked dry. Headquarters H.r nil 
leading varieties of Berry Plants and OKA PIC VaMCS 



havinK^onacreaiiiCultivntion. Ciitnlnjruc free. 

WM. STAHL, Quiricy, 111. 


Two-Year Old 


Apply to 

Trenton, Sonoma Co., Cal. 


The famous H >vey Seed Store 
of Bos on, and llovcy Nura r e- 
« f Uawbridge, MaoB.i hare b on 
moved to Last Pasadena, Cali- 
fornia, wh re tne busiuesd will 
be conducted as 
liny in himI riou cr and 
Need More, 
0. H. Hovky, Manager, 
Eaftt Pasadena, Cal. 
tiend (or complete caUlotfUo. 


To clear up balance of stock we of- 
fer to sell NATIVE OraDge Trees 
(Riverf-ide, Washington Navel and 
Mediterranean Sweet), size of tree, 
2 to 4 ft., budded on Stock Grown at 
Penryn, at $50 a hundred. 

Another lot same as above, only 
size of tree under 2 ft. ,at $30 a hun- 

Do not write for discounts; these are our lowest fieures , 
Full remittance must, in all cases, accompany orders. 


Penryn, Placer Co., Cal. 

Mrs. N M Fraser, 

Frkd C. Milks, 




COMPANY, of Santa Babara, off ra for sale an ex- 
tensive stock ol OLIVE TkEES of different size and ajje, 
as wt 11 as 

Budded Orange & Lemon Trees, 

ORANGE SEEDLINGS, PALMS, etc. For price list 
and particulars, apply by mail to 

1106 Broadway, Oakland, Cal., or 

C. P. E -.TON, Box R Mania Barbara. 


Nurseries & Greenhouses, 

Pomona, Los Angeles Co., Cal. 


Orange Seedlings, 1 year old; Mission & 
Nevad Ho Olive; Adr alic & Smyrna 
Fig; Soft Shell Walnut; Guava. 


Writk for Pkice List. 


are those put up by ^ 


Who are the largest Seedsmen in the world. y 
D. M. Ferry & Co's 
Illustrated, Descriptive and Priced 


for 1890 w 

be mailed r KEE to all ap- 
d to last season's customers. 
It is better than ever. Every person d 
using Garden, Fltr.ver or sield 
Seeds should send for it. Address i 



2129 Tenth St.. Sacramento, 

Has for fale a fine lot ol OLI T E S grown in the open 
ground, namely: Mai zaniilo or Queen's Olive, 2 to 3 ft., 
at $30 per hundred or $150 p?r thou.-and; 12 to 18 inches, 
$2n per hum'red or $175 per thousand. Nevardillo Blanco, 
}2r> i er hundred. Picholine, 3 Co 4 reef , $18 per hundred 
0' $140 per tr.onpand; 12 to 18 inches, $8 per hundred or 
$60 per thousand. 


We have m^st of the leading fruits in June buds or 
dormant budn. 1 X. L. and Golden State Almonds, 
Muir and Lovell Peaches; Winter Seckel Pear. 

Texas Umbrella, Carol list Poplar, Locust, California 
and tCasteru Black Walnuts. 

Leading varit ties of drapes including Catawba. 

Fruiting and fl .wcri g Pomegrana cs. young Date 
Palms, Kedd ng Picholine Olive -, etc , etc. 

J. It. jI'llINGtll & ..UtLHKItT COX, 

Woodland, Cal. 


An opportunity to buy Fruit Trees and save money. 
On accoi nt of our lease on nursery ground being tun out, 
we think it better t • put prices below usual rates t > parlies 
about to plant socner th >n remove our stock and re- 
olaut. We winply tay, write for priccn; or come and 
look at the tre s. All the favorite standaid varieties of 
Pears: a line lot of Birtlett. Half piic. at the Nursery. 

T. t ORLEY, Eant Oamand Nursery, 
Old County Hoad, bet. ^4th and 25tb Ave'a. 


A feV thousand Genuine Cuthbert Raspberries; 
Suckers of 18S9 growth, with young Fibrous Roots. 

"J. L.," Cordelia, Cal. 

J. Seulberger's Descriptive Catalogue 

-.09-51 1-r, 1 Seventh .Street, cnhlind, Cal. 


These Grapes in >kj the llnest seerllesi raisins known, 
f'orsaleby J P UN'HTuTr, » UDa olty. . al. 

Seeds, Etc., Continued on Page 54, 




[Jan 11, 1890 

Why Not? 

[Written far the Kuril Press by 12;..] 
Why not finish up the farmhouse on the in- 
side as well as the outside and make home at- 
tractive to the boys, tnd keep them from the 
country bar rooms by pleasant surroundings 
and choioa reading matter ? 

Wny not build a Bhed that will effectually 
store all of the farm machinery and so save 
each year the interest on several thousand 

Why not build a comfortable shed for all 
the stock, where it can be sheltered and fed in 
tin. • of storm ? 

Why not put np a warm, dry house for the 
poultry and have eggs in abundance when they 
command the highest prises, and s»ve your ma- 
chinery from being used as a roost ? 

Why not put up a hav-shed and save yonr 
hay instead of piling it up loose to be convert- 
ed into a manure heap by the first storm ? 

Why not use two-strand fence wire without 
barbs and save several valuable horses each 
year ! 

Why not determine that in this year yon 
will step up and out of the old rut and join 
with the live, energetio and prosperous farmer 
of the day who cultivates his soil with his 
brains as well as his muscle, and by so doing 
break away from the money-lender, who growe 
rich on the " old way " fanner, while the latter 
sees his mortgage grow right ahead and over 
his crops with every assurance that in his old 
age it will stay with him and bs his leeacy to 
his children after him? Wake np ! For the 
farmer of to-day must not only " hold the 
plow or drive " to succeed, but he must be 
able to bring to bear upon his business the 
same system and advanced ideas that the suc- 
cessful merchant employ*. Tho successful 
farmer must be a man of 1890 ideaB and not 
one of 1849 

How to Kill Fowls Witbout Hurting 
Them — H L »ays in the Fanciers' Journal: 
To bill fowls without their knowing it, I take 
about two feet of strong string, tie the ends 
together, then catch the fowls to be killed, pass 
the string (looped as it will be) round the legs 
above the feet, then slip the other end of string 
through the loop, hang the bird up by its legs 
by the string to a convenient nail in a post or 
wall, then with a stick about the size of a 
man's finger, and a foot or two long, I give the 
bird a smart hit on the back of the head. I 
then tike a long-bladed knife, put it into the 
mouth beyond the skull, with the sharp edge 
directed to the brain, and make a sharp cut in 
drawing it out, which sets the blood flowing 
out of the mouth at once, and in a very short 
time the bird is dead. The strike with the 
stick deprives the bird of all feeling, as the 
gaih with the knife is not noticed, and if the 
blow is given at the back of the head instead of 
the front, the bird gives only a violent shudder 
instead of Sipping its wings, but in neither 
case is it from felt pun, as the brain has been 
broken in with the first blow. It would be a 
glorious day for diseased fowls and old hens if 
the birds sent to market had their heads 
" chopped off" before h»ine offered for sale. 

Oar Agents. 

Our Frisnds can do much In aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

J. C. Hoao— San Francisco. 

B. O. Bah sv— San Francisco 
Chas M M odv- San Fiancisco. 
W. W. Timobalds -Los Angeh s Co. 
E. FibCiiKR— Central California. 
Oso. Wilson— Sacramento Co. 

E. H. Scharkfls— Fresno Co 

C. Edward Robertson— Humboldt Co. 
Frank S. Chapin— Butte Co. 

Wm. II. Hilueary— Oregon. 
E E. Drming— Oregon. 

Clydesdales from Australia — Mr. John 
S:jU has j jet arrived from Australia, bringing 
six head oi Clydesdales, two stallions and fonr 
mires. Tnis is the sixth time Mr. Scott has 
brought horses of the same class to this State, 
which fact would seem to show that there is not 
only a demand for Clydesdale horses here, bat 
is also an indorsement of the fair dealing and 
good judgment of Mr. Soott. The horses are 
on view and sale at the B*y District track, and 
information regarding prices, terms, etc., may 
be had of K Hip & Co., 22 Montgomery street. 

Agricultural Directors — The Governor 
has appointed directors oi district agricultural 
associ>tions as follows : District No. 12 (Like 
and Mmdnoino,, Dr. C. W. Aby of Miudle- 
town, vice Q V. P. Day, removed from the 
county, and Divid Alexander of Upper L»k». 
vine self, term expired; fo' DUtrict No. 19 
(Santa B»rh»ra), C. P. Low, vice self, term ex- 
pired, and A. H .yman, vice F. M. Sentenny, 
removed from the county. 

White Gophers — The Gridley Herald 
Biys that the recent overflow of the alfalfa bot- 
toms of the O.-d ranch brought to the surface a 
family of snow-white gophers. El Light 
captured several, and his children are making 
pets of them. 

Turkeys Fkoz-n to Death — A carload of 
live pjuary Iroui K aiM, h iund to San Fran 
oi-oo, arrived at Weill, Nevada, on the 2J. 
with all tbe turkeys, about 500 in number, 
frozen to death. They perished in transit from 

We Will Give a Year's Subscription Free to 

to every reader of this advertisement who will cut out of any paper in the United 
States, and send to the address below, the advertisement of any illustrated paper or 
magazine containing- so much high-class matter for so little money as the following 
advertisement of the New York 


Ledger for 1890 announces s 

Prof. tT. IT. Comstock, of Cornell University, will contribute a series of six 
useful papers on the study of insects. Prof. Comstock treats of bugs that are useful 
to the agriculturist, as well as those that are destructive. He points out in the clearest scientific way how to destroy the 
pests of our grain, rice and cotton fields, of our orchards, our gardens, and our vineyards. His articles are of inestimable value. 

STft/t l¥tfir"E TflHTVfiS FR03I UNFREQUENTED LANDS. A series of eight 
™ * * articles by HerbcrtAVard, the companion of Stanley in Africa. 

These articles will cover five years' adventures in Africa, and they will be illustrated by sketches made by Mr. Want on 
the spot, and by photographs taken by him in Africa. These pictures will throw much light upon the manner and customs of 

the hitherto unknown cannibal tribes of Africa. Rev. E. I{. Young, the celebrated missionary, will furnish fifteen 

articles on the experiences and adventures of himself and his wife during twenty years' residence in British 

America* twelve hundred miles north of St. Paul. Leo Hartmann, Nihilist, writes twelve skctchos showing how 

the intelligent people of Russia are becoming Nihilists in consequence of the despotism of the Russia:; form of government. 


_ The first of these souvenir supplements will be a 

Poem by Johu G. Whittier, illustrated by Howard Pyle, aid engraved by H. Wolf, B. G. Tietze and E. A Clement. 
The next souvenir will be a beautifully illustrated poem by James Russell Lowell. 

SERIAL STORIES KKAUTIFUEEY ILLUSTR ATED. Continued stories will be con- 
' A tributed by such wholesome and captivating authors as Eraiucs Hodgson 

Green, Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, Robert Loots Stevenson, Col. 

W. C. Kitchin, Robert Grant, Frank H. 

Burnett, Anna Katharine 
Thomas W. Knox, All 
Converse, Harold Frederic, and others. 

continued articles. 


These articles were written especially for the " Ledger " by 
writers whoso reputation and capability establish them as the 
persons most eminently fitted to treat that particular subject assigned to each. The Hon. George Bancroft con- 
tributes three articles on The Battle of Lake Erie, beautifully illustrated. Hon. Henry W. Grady 

furnishes six articles on The Wonderful Development of the New South. James Parton contributes 

a series of articles on Incidents in the Life oi Andrew Jackson. Rev. John R. Paxton, D. D. 

contributes six articles on Experience in My Army Life. 

I*OI*UL VR l:\FOIUIATI01\o Throughout the year tho" Ledger" will contain hundreds 
* of sketches of popular information which will supply an 

amount of beneficial information that will be of inestimable value to those who are in search of something instructive and 

useful. Prof. Alexander M. Stevens will explain the manners and customs of the Mold Pueblos, a peculiarly strange 

tribe of Arizona Indians. Dr. Eelix L. Oswald is, by special arrangement, contributing a series of popular scientific 

sketches, embracing the observations of the writer during his investigations into the unfamiliar phenomena of natural history 

and occult science. <J. E. Holder contributes an extended series of articles on singular aspects of animal life on sea 

and land. His articles are brimful of information. 

COMPLETE IN EACH NUMBER. Hundreds of illustrated 
short stories will be given during the year from the pens of such familiar and 
fascinating authors as Madeleine Vinton Dahljjren, Col. Thomas \V. Knox, The Marquise Lanza, 
Margaret Del and, Julian Hawthorne, Harold Frederic, Harriet Prcscott Spofford, Clara 
Wnitridge, George P. Parsons, Marion Harlaud, Mary Kj le Dallas, Amy Randolph. 

IIUjPRESSIVE PAPERS. 711686 P a P 9rs are a medium through which the readers of the 
" "Ledger "will be entertained by man" of the most eminent men 

of the day. The benefit dorived from these articles will in itself compensate any one for the price of the " Ledger." 

Murat Halstead contributes a series of papers on The J OUrneyingS Oi a Journalist, being tho experience of 

the author during his travels Around the Globe. Rev. Dr. McOosh, ex-President of Princeton College, furnishes a 

series of papers on the present state of religious thought and development, entitled On the Border Land of 

Religion. Hon. ( leorge Bancroft tells of A Day Spent With 1-iord Byron. Prof. Eliot Blauvelt 

explains how Egypt fell into a state of ruinous distraction, consequent on the decline of the Roman government, and how 

every species of barbaric rudeness superseded the refined habits of the people. Rev. Dr. Henry M. Field contributes 

a paper on The Lopez Expedition, the first of a series of articles descriptive of thrilling historical episodes. Many 

other highly impressive papers are in preparation by M. W. Hazeltine, E. L. Godkiu, Rev. Dr. John Hall, 
James Parton, Prof. W. C. Kitchin, Rev. Emory J. Haynes, and George Frederic Parsons. 

HOUSEHOLD ARTICLES. S * articles will be contributed by Miss Parloa on 

_ American ( ookery, explaining why it is imperfect, 

and giving some ways by which it may be improved and economy practiced. Dr. Julia Holmes Smith will write a 

series of articles on Common Sense in the Nursery, offering valuable suggestions concerning the care of children. 

OT II Va \\ FEATURES. The "^dger" will also contain Historical and Biographical 

— . — _ sketches, Poems, Ballads, Travels, Adventures, Science 

Items, Answers to Correspondence, and a vast quantity of matter interesting to the household. 

Send Only $2 for a Year's Subscription 

Or Send Six Cents for Sample Copy and Illustrated Calendar Announcement, to 

ROBERT BONNER'S SONS, 319 William St., New York. 


On Seven Simple Principles. 

"Swift as Speech, Plain as Print, Easy as A. B. C." 


^ $51)00 in piizes to students by mail. Outline, first 
lesson, specimens etc., 10c. No postals answertd. 
Mention this paper. E. J. M tltSH. A. M , H. I)., 
Pres. National Sch'l Puon., Columbus, O., or Santa 
Barbara, Cal. 


One San Leandro 2 Gang Plow— Myers 
Bottoms and Shares, for $40.00. 

D. N. & C. A. HAWLEY, 214 Bush St. 

San Francisco, Cal. 


flGRflVi flo » c o . ; ; 

< > * < > 

© o 220 Market St., S. F. © 


The German Sayings and Loan Society. 

S20 California Street. 

For the hall-year ending D;c. 31, 1SS9. a dividend has 
b en declined at the rat i bl Ave anil forty-hu dredths 
(5 40-100) per rent per annum on Terra Deposits, and four 
and one-half (* 1 2) per cent per annum on Ordinary 
Deposits. Payable on and after Thursday, Jan. 2, 1880. 

GEO. TOL'RNY, Secretary. 

Engravings made from photographs, drawings and original designs, for newspaper, hook, card and Job printing. 
Engraved prints enlarged or reduced, cheaply and quickly. Also copies of manuscript, legal documents, wills, 
contracts, signatures, portraits, buildings, machinery and printed documents reproduced with accuracy. Photo- 
graphs, Btereoscopio views, etc. duplicated, enlarged or reduced. Slides for magic lanterns made from photographs, 
ithographs, and steol or wood graving, etc. Satisfaction guaranteed. Agents wanted In all cities and in all 
towns. Address, for further Information, D«wmr Engraving Co.. 220 Market Rt. San Francisco. 



1 1 j Ids. 


ih 37 Inches 

Auk your ... 
dealer . /ib. Bt* .«.,j7 A 

Breech Loader. 

r~ One Gun and 

50 Buck Shot, prepaid, on receipt of 

ZJf One Gun and OO 

Btael Barrel! and Sprlagi. No Reports. No Exploiioo. 
ENCLE SPRINC CUN CO., Haileton, Pa. 

J.F. rJouoiiTON, President, J. L N. 8HEPARn, Vice-Pros., 
Chas. R Stohy, Sec'y, R H. Mahill. den Ag't. 

Home Mntoal Insurance Company, 

216 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 


Losses Pall Slsce Organization tl.841.n45 00 

A -<■■ Ja-uarr 1. 1889 813.163 70 

Capital, Paid Vp in Gold 30n,00u 00 

NKT SURPLUS, orer everything 2*7,951 M 

Jan. 11. 1890.] 



heal tjtate birectory, 


eral Real Estate dealers. See advertisement 624 
Market St. 

BRIGGS, FERGUSSON & CO., City and Coun- 
try Heal Estate. 314 California St. 

McAFEE & BALDWIN, City and Country Real 
Estate. 10 Montgomery St. 

O. H. STREET & CO., General Real Estate Agents. 
415 Montgomery St. See advertisement. 

CHAS. HENDERSON & CO., City and Country 
Real Estate Agents, 304 Montg mcry St. , San Francisco. 

GEO. BEEBE & CO., 607 Market St. Large tracts 
Timber lands lor sale. Government locations made. 


BE NET ICT, KDDOLPH & 00.,City and Country 
Real Estate Agts., Notary Public, 457 Nintli St. .Oakland. 

D. W. PRATT, City and Country Real Estate. School 
Lands a Specialty. 459 Ninth Street, Oakland. 

O. C. LOG A N, City and Country Heal Estate and Loan 
Agent. Office, 481 Ninth Straet, Oakland, Cal. 

GASK LL & VANDEHCOOK, City and Country 
Real Estate, 458 Ninth St., Oakland, Cal. 

M. J. L A YMANC E & CO., Auctioneers and Dealers 
in City and Country Real Estate, 466 Eighth St. .Oakland. 


HUTCHIN SON & LE*VITT. Valley Alfalfa and 
Apple Land U. S. Locations made. Inquiries ans'd. 

Fresno and Merced County Lands 
lo Rent and for Sale. 

75,000 Acres ]>3tt Lincl in the 

Wheat and Sugar 

abov.- C tunties, to rent for a term of years. Also, 

inn nnn Arroc »'fiMR»w».^t. 

IVUjUUU MLI CO Alfalfa and Sugar 
Baet Land, with water for irrigation, for sale in 
tracts of from 20 acres to large tracts suitable 
for colony purposes. For particulars apply to 


402 Kearny Street, San Fianclsco. 




Garibaldi Bulldlns, 


P. O. Box No. 7. 

Land To Rent Near Pixley, Tulare 

Without irrigation. Section 15, Township 23, Rarge 
24, one-half mile southwest or A. N. Towne's orchard and 
vineyard and about ihrte miles from Pixley. The land 
is very level and easy ti I rtak up and cultivate. Will 
rent it for two years; the fir t year at a nominal late to 
a careful cultivator, and the second year on reasonable 
terms. Also S. K. { of section 13, T. SI R. 23 W , 9 miles 
west of Tulare City. Will >ent the whole or any part. 
Address. LUKE SMITH. Pixley or LAND 
OWMES, P.O. Box 2517. San Francisco. 


in 10-acre tracts for sale, $100 per acre. The same 
selling by other parties at $125 to $140 per acre. 
Address or call on HE LA D INDEX, 

Keleeyvllle, L-ke Co., Cal. 

J. L. HEALD, Pres. 

C. B. MORGAN, Seo'y 


Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers, 


Portable Straw-Bnraing Boilers & Engines. 


Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notice. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery, 

Including Orape Crushers and Stemmers, Elevators, 
Wine Presses and Pumps, and all appliances used in 
Wine Cellars. Irrigating and Drainage Pumps. Heald's 
Patent Engine Governor, Etc. 

To the Farmers and Gardeners 

or THE 


We wish to call your attention to our Seed Potatoes, 
now in our bins and ready for immediate shipment. We 
are the Large-t Growers of the Best and Mo-t Popular 
SEED POTATOES of Fancy Varieties on this Coast; hav- 
ing had in over 200 acres of different kinds the past season. 

Our Potatoes are all raised without irrigation and will 
keep well. We wi 1 ship on Short Notice in lots from 
one sack to cailoads. Send stamp for Catalogue and 
prices to BALDWIN & HASTINGS. 

Florence. Cal. 



100,000 Stocking Supporters 


By A Reliable House! 

Every lady has heard of M ME. DEMOREST. Her 
name is a by word in every house in the land. Her 
celebrated Patterns have been in use over 40 years. 
We are the publishers of the well-known publication, 

Mie.Demorest's Illustrated MoDtily Fashion Journal 

and we wish to incrence its circulntion 200,000 copira 
during the next 90 days, and to that end we will give 
away to new subscribers 

Demorest Celeb'd Corsets HIM 
" Shoulder Braces ' \ j j 
M Stocking Supporters ■ 

FASHION JOURNAL is a 36 page paper, beautifully 
ill ustrated, covering every possible Held of Fashions 
Fancy Work, Home Decorations, Cooking, t-tf., 
each department being under the special supervision 
of the bc«t known contributors. It Is besides re- 

Flete with matters of interest to mothers* and is 
urthermore filled with 1 1 lust rations* stories, 
sketches* humor and matters of general interest. 


_ Sizes 18 to 30. 
Give your Coiset 

Every line of reading is carefully guarded by an 
editor, who receives #5,000 per annum, and noth- 
ing m published in its columns but the bent and purest 
reading matter. It may be admitted to any house- 
hold and your children may read it as well as you. it 
numbers anions i's subscribers the wives of thousands 
o" clergymen throughout the country. It is the best 
Fnohlon paper published in the world. It tells you 
"'What to Wear** "When and II w tct Wear It. » 
It gives you all the latest styles in Ladies' Huts. Bonnets, 
etc. it is always abreast of the times, and everything 
Yvithin its piiges is new and orlglnnl. It also contains 
the latest Fashion iioyvs from abroad by our Special 
London and Paris correspondents. 


Be Mme. Demorest Corset 

fiend us 50 Cents for one year's subscription to 
our JOUUNAL ami '.'"> cents additional to pay postage 
and packin/r, ?5 CKNTN in all, and we will mail 
you one of thes. handsome COKhETS FttFK. 

How To Obtain 
Two Articles 

MB Of: 




Stocking Supporters 

Mzl Send us 50 Cent, for one year's subscription to our JOURNAL, mid 25 Cents additional to pay 
fSpoetagennd packing. Ti» Cent" la all, and in will mail yon t"i-s<> t»o article*. One I'nlr of 


We do exactly as we guarantee. Our house has been establi 

we can refer you I o nny Commercial Agency, Bank Expr 

land. Make all remittances either bv Draft. Postal Note, Money Order, or R» gistere 

ed for over 40 tears, and 
re or Business Fi 


Address ail communication 

We ki 
and atlvl* 

When postal note is not procurable, send stamps. 


This offer should be taken advantage of at once as we will give away no more than 100,000 

ow the UemorcHl Fnahlon I Sewtac Mwelilne Co. to be a thoroughly rellnblo firm 

B our rentier, to ncecpt their offer.— EDITOR. 




AND ■ 

Machinery of all Kinds. 



Patent Water Tube Steam Boilers. 

Estimates Furnished on Application. 
tr Send for Catalogues. 




bmall, Light. ' 
into the field, and at- 
chine Wheel. 



The Most Complete MOW- 

as ouiy puuuus. Lau ue carried 
atached to Mowing Ma- 



Ground Made into a PERFECT SEED BED. 


Send for New Circular, with full description, FREE. 


189 and 191 WAVER STREET, NEW YORK. 



Is now manufactured and eold only by R. S. CHAPMAN, he having purchased all rigrhts for 
same. These Pumps have been greatly improved in material and woikmanship, and are tho 
best and most economical machines in the market to-day. The 

New Cliir\ax No. 2 

Is a douhlo pump mounted on a 50-gal Ion barrel and equipped complete with two lines of 
hose, spray tips, extensions, shut-off valves, etc. This outfit has just been perfected for 
the season of 1889 00, and is especially desirable in large orchards where economy ia 
material and labor is necessary. Address all communications to 


18 California St. . San Francisco. Cal. 




University Avenue, - Berkeley, Ca\ 


References to parents of pupils who have entered the 
University from this school. Send for circular. 

T. S. BOWEN8. B. A., 



A Home School 

Winter Term will begin January 6, 1800. 

Location delightful and healthful. Instructors experi- 
enced and competent. Infiuem es, trnth moral and social, 
of the most doiraMe nature. Curriculum of studies em- 
braces every branch of study ncided in ihor. ufth prep- 
araNon for business or for enttance to the be*t colleges of 
'he United States. For particulars address the Principal, 

Santa Kosa, Cal. 



24 POST ST., 8. F. 

C College Instructs In Shorthand, Type Writing, Book- 
;eeplng, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the En- 
rllsh branches, and everything pertaining to business, 
'or six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
Individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school has 
His graduates In every part of the State. 
laTSriND for Circular. 

E. P. HEALD, President. 

r\ S. BALKY. Socrotarv 


Sewing Machines 



To any Point on the Pacific Coast. 

Write for our " ON TRIAL " Proposition, which will ex- 
plain the plan of how you may try the '-NEW HOME " 
before you buy. 


A Million New Home Machines 

Which hive been sold, every one delights the owner. 
Do not fail to write now, and we will also send \ou a lot 
of beautiful advertising matter which will (lease you. 
If j ou want a Sewing Machine we want to hear from you. 
fou cannot afford to buy until the NEW HOME you try. 

As we say in writing polite letters, " Awaiting your 
valued favors, we remain, Truly yours," 

The New Home Sewing Machine Co, 

CHAS. E. NAYLOR, Manager. 

725 Market St., History Building, 





For This Popular 


Send for circulars and samples to 


42 Market St., San Francisco. 


irW^tS^i,,, Perrettlon < Mil lit "lira the — 

liquid automatically ,and will spray H 
100 Im per liimr. Cheapest and Best. ■ 

o (lulllts fir Horxr- Power. Circular* free. 
> Hint E PI Ml" < O. Lorlport, N.V. m 

BH HB HB If* 9 



mid Farmer*, with no experience make an 
bonr (luringspurc tiim 1 . A. 1). Batkn, Nil W.KhIj 
Dins Ave., Covington, Ky., made 821 one ila. . 
HHl one week. So can you. Proof* and eafu- 
l»su« free. I. E. Shbparo dt Co., Cincinnati, O, 



[Jan. 11, 1890 

Good Agents 







Sewing* Machine, 

Throughout the Agricultural ami Mining Districts. 

Only a very small capi'al requ'red A man w th $200 
or $100 ami k tcmi SAD secure a County Agency and soon 
build up a fine b jsiucss. 


Is now so thoroughly advertised, and so well and favorablv 
known, that it is exceedingly easy to sell, and being once 
sold, alwAjs gives 

Alosolvito Satisfaction. 

Our Factories are acknowledged to he the finest ap- 
pointed and b st equipped in the world, giving us un- 
equal ed facilities for producing uniformly perlect Sew- 
lLg Maihines, whi.h practically 


and to prove this asper'icn we gladly refer to the con- 
tented i/Wners and users of 

Mare Than a Million 


Already acid. Write for our " Terms to Agents " and 
secure a good buiness f or 1S90. 

TheNew Home Sewing Machine Co. 


Pacific Coast Distributing Office and City Salesroomsi 
725 MARKET ST., History Bjilding, SAN FRANCIStO. 

CHAS. F. NAVLOll, General Manager. 

| The New 8 Year! 9 New Year 

New and True Muiic Books. 

CHOICE SACBRD SOLOS, 31 fine songs $1. 

ennu i: sA< Kt:i> soi.os. fori rl 
SONS Cl.tssn s. Soprano and Tenor, 80 son 

MHtl CIiASMIC*). Lo« Voice, 47 songs $1, 



CIiAfWIC voi'ti, iin;rs,!l«' rery best $1. 

KVKRKSTS ALBVH of SOXiS _ I -,-lect'ns,$l. 

MAI' l» V. Mil ITB'ft ALBUM. I dsongt...$l 
sULLirA.V'SVOl'Al. A I.HI' K.anu rs work, SI 
r«PVLAK BOJfCI COH.KCTIOW. 37good»g9.$I. 
GOOD OLD MINGS we mtd fusing, 115 songs. . |l. 

CULLtCGK SONGS, 150,000 sold tOc 

COLLKOG SONGS for It ANJO. forGultar.ea.Sl 
RiVMES & TUNKS; Osgood. Swt home muslc,$l. 


PIANO CL&S-I S, Vol. 1, 44 pieces $1. 

PI Si NO CLASSICS. Vol. 2, 31 pieces $1. 

CLASSICAL PIANIST, 42 pieces $1. 

POPULAR PIANO COL.' ECTION, 27 pioces,$l. 
YOU.- G PEOPLE'S CLASSICS, 62 easy pes. $1. 

The above are all superior books. 

Any bo k mailed forreta'l t rice. 


C. H. DITSON A 00.. 8K7 Bmarfwav. New Vork 

The Celebrated H. H. H Liniment. 

The H. H. H. 1. 1 u I incut la for the treatment of 
he Aches and Pains of Humanltv, as well as for the all 
ii. • ut- of the beasts of the fields. Testimonials Iron 
importers and breeders of blooded stock prove its won 
derful curative properties. No man has ever used It for 
an ache or pain and been dissatisfied. 

H. U. MOORE & SONS, Stockton, Cal., Proprietors. 
For 8ai.ii by all DRnooisTS 





7*s nnn tons capacity. 7k nnn 

I OjULHJ storage at Lowest Rates. • <J t VUU 

Onl.Orx' fin., trniw . nm<-« son p»l SLmnmi 1 


« 132 Post Street. 

Itisafact universally con- 
ceded that the Knabs sur- 
passes all other instruments 


iSl&Reci Seal Granulated 98% Lye 


Trade , 
;'.rjnij;3!ed • 

, Mark- 



And other insects it has no equal. Use 5 (rations of water to 1 lb. of RED SEAL LYE. 

This Lye is powdered and packed In sift log-Top Cans, and any desired quantity 
may be used and balance reserved for future use. One can will make 10 to IS lbs* 
best Hard Soap or 800 lbs. Soft Soap. Useful for Softening Water, Removing 
Ice, all 111 toy Hatter and Foul Odors from sinks, closets, drains, waste-pipes, etc, and for 
m—%!ZrlY Genera ' Scrubbing and Disinfecting purposes. 


. f.M . m. km la a T, k*. — Mr. Johnson, who resides near San Jose, after consulting with many of the most prom 
lnent fruit-growers, has come to the conclusion that after using and trying many experiments (other than Pure Red 
Sell granulated 98 per cent Lye, free from any salt), that its use is to be preferred above all other preparations. 
Mr. Cooke siys if coal oil is used it will enter the bark and kil it; on the contrary, if the alkiti wash is employed 
it will form a coating through which the troublesome insects cannot penetrate, w hile at the same time it is peifectly 
harmless to the trees. 

Packed al'o in cms holding 35 and 50 lbs.; it comes much cheaper when bought In car lots. For sale by all 

grocers in the United s ate?. Apply to 

M. LOVELLi, No. 116 California St., San Francisco , Cal 





The Home Benefit Life Association 

Non forfeitable, Simple and Straightforward, Lowest Rates. 

LOSSES PAID, OVER $500,000. 

Home Offices, 101 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Occupies two elegant buildings, containing over 70 rooms. Employs the ablest teachers, h%s the largest 
ittendarc- and is the m- st highlv recommended of any private school on the Pacific Coast. Board, Room and 
Tuition for six month*, $12S. Board, Koom and Tuition for fifty-two we- ks, 8244. 

iVCirculara rontai nl ug Kules. Rate* of Tuition anil Board, and Courses of Study sent 
free to any address; also, beautiful specimens of Penmanship. Addre-s, 

TRASK & RAMSEY, Stockton, Cal. 






I KUMA M, HOUKKK A (JO., Ageuir, 



Write for illustrated circular. 

.'/-.:... this paper. 

Francisco, Cal 


37 Market St., S. F. 

Semi-Portable Steam EDglnes, 1J to 15 H. P. 
"Hawkeye" Horse-Powers & Wood Saws, 
Enterprise Windmills, Pumps. 
Sorghum Mills. Evaporating Pans. 
Springfield Lawn Mowers. 
Blymyer Church, School and Fire Bells. 



Draw-Cut Meat Choppers & Other Butcher 
Machinery; Tanktosr Outfits: Steam Jack- 
et Kettles; Lard Press; Zimmerman Fruit 

tr Please send for Illustrated Price List; 
mentioning for which goods. 

Our Porghum Band Bock will be sent free 
on Application— Valuable to all Sorghum- 


Backus Stationery and Printing Co, 

27 Main Street, San Francisco. 

Stationers, Printers. Bookbinders, Publish- 
ers and Blank Book Manufacturers. 

We pay special attention to orders from the country. 
CATALOGUES and all kinds ol PAMPHLET work a 


PISTOLS ic« »1T,' 

All kinda ehr.prr than Before job 
Bay, send lump for 
'■talocue. Addrr.. 


i - ii Mala Rtreut, 

Works on aS^^^ 



nf two t\ere« »t h »lttliifr- * '"*n. a hnf and a borMM-imo|>erat« 
it. \n hcuv.v < hnln« "r nM* t*> hnmllc. The crop on a few 
acre* UW llr-i yt-ar will cay fur th* Machine. Ii will only cost 
fou a po«tiil enrri to wad tor an IHuMrau-d Oval<>rziir», (riving 
prlnr. tfrmn and ti"«t.nmniaK A<lir<>« (he Mi«n<ifnelur<*r«. 



" Oreenbank ■ 98 degrees POWDERED CAUS- 
TIC SODA 'tests 99 8-10 per cent) recommended bj 
the highest authorities In the State. Also Oonimor 
Caustic Soda and Potash, eto., lor sale by 

Manufacturers' Agents, 
104 Market St and 8 California St.. 8. F 


We namvsLY curi all kinds of Rupture 
and Kectal Diseases, no matter cf how Ions 
Btanding, in from 80 to 60 days, without 
the use of knips, drawwq blood, or Da- 
tuition from BUsiNRSS. Terms: No Core. 
No Pay, and No Pay until Cnred 
II afflicted, come and see us or send stamp 
f n pamphlet. Address: 

1R« Market Strnet. - Son Fr»nniR«n 

The Only 

that will cure 


I is Eleotricitj 

Pikuce's 11^01 I V#llftBistheonlyger> 

■oiue Kl^ctric Truss in the world, beaied Pamphk-ta-lo 
T.l o., 7U4 Sao'meato St., San Francisco, Cal 




Anthorlaed Capital 91,000,000 

Capital paid up and Reserve Fond 800,000 
Dlrldenda paid to Stockholders.. 075,630 

A. D. LOO AN President 

L C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 


General Banking. Deposits received, Gold and Silver. 
Bills of Exchange bought and sold. Loans on Wheat 
and country produce a specialty. 

July 1, 1889. A. MONTPELLIER, Manager. 


are grown from our trees. The Urgent stock of 


'or Timber Claims in the world. 350 acres; in 
Nu'aery Stock. All kinds of new and old 
Fruit, Forest, Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, 
g^i^n A aQ d Small Frni*" at hard 

\TAix It £4*9 times prices. iZT A paper 
devoted to Fru't-Growing, 1 year pp m% 
to all who buy SI worth of stock. X Itf<n 
Oar Nurseries are loo«ted within fifty miles 
of the center of the United States, and our 
shipping facilities are unexcelled. 

a^Send at once for Price List, to 
CABPeNTER A> GAGE, Falrbnry, Nebraska. 

Send Stamps for New Catalogue. 

Shot Guns, $5 to $300. 

Rifles. $3 to $50. 

525 Kearny Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



Before Buying a Sewing Machine. 
It Is the leader in practical progress. Send for price list 
J. W. EVANS, 39 Poet St., S. F. 




Sewing Machines. 

Simple in Construction, Light Run- 
„ ning, Most Durable and Complete. 
s^S^' Visitors always welcome. 


108 * HO POST 8T.. S F 





Bt F. 8. BURCH. 


8ixty-four pages, cloth 
bound, containing chapters 
on Milking, Milk Setting, 
Cream Raising, Churning, 
Working, Salting, Packing, 
Shipping and Marketing. 
A Hand Book for the Be- 
ginner. Full of useful in- 
formation and worth many 
times its cost. Price, by 
mail, 30 cents Address, 
DEWEY A CO , 230 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 


D. N. & C. A. HAWLEY, 
914 Rtish Stro»«t,, - - San Franrlaco. 

Jan. 11, 1890.] 



J0C ® R I e U L T U Rjk b G[ N (a I JM E E R 

Suggestions for Controlling our Rivers. 

Editors Press: — In times of disastrous 
floods the public will be more open to convic- 
tion concerning the importance of doing what 
we oan to control onr rivers and prevent the 
vast damage done by their overflowing, partic- 
ularly in washing away good soil, so that it is 
hoped the following suggestions and facts may 
tend to promote action toward these ends. 

Having lived for several years only too near 
the Santa Clara river of the S.iuth, and having 
snstained considerable damage, both from the 
reoent and other floods, the public importance 
of controlling this serious, continuous, and in 
great part needless waste of the resources of 
the country has been long impressed upon the 

It is quite within the truth to say that the 
loss along this one mountain torrent for only 
about ten miles, the region best known to your 
correspondent, has been 100 acres of good farm- 
ing land within the past six years. This is 
written with but limited reports concerning 
onr last flood. To estimate that this little 
county may have lost 500 acres of good farm- 
ing land in this time is putting it too low. In 
the flood of '84 over 70 acres were washed 
away from one ranch alone, Taylor's on the 
Ventura river, the best part of it. 

The publio is interested in this waste by its 
loss of property to levy taxes upon for all time, 
as well as by the loss to the owner, a part ot 
itself, many of whom are seriously crippled. 
To offset this loss there is no gain. If the loss 
to the State at large by this last flood runs into 
millions of dollars, as rumor already has it, 
surely the prevention of this for the future is 
of ereat public importance. 

Toe plan to be brought forward here had been 
in succ ssful operation several centuries, along 
the river Po in Northern Italy, before the great 
Goethe visited the country about 100 years 
ago. He was so struck by its great public im- 
portance, efficiency and simplicity that he gave 
an account of it in some of his writings and in- 
duced the Government of Weimar to try it on 
some of its small rivers. 

The physical geography of the valley of the 
Po is very like that of our Sacramento and San 
Joaquin basin; both being liable to floods from 
sudden melting of mountain snows; a long ex- 
tent of both valleys beiDg very flit. For ages 
the loss to population and property in the val- 
ley of the Po had been enormous, until the fol 
lowing engineering plan was adopted: This 
consisted essentially in building solid immova- 
ble jetties into the current, where it tended to 
encroach, or to spread out too much, making 
the current swifter and deeper so that it washed 
along much loose material, stones, etc., that 
had formerly caused frequent changes of chan- 
nel by obstructing old ones. Jetties being 
built along the whole course of the stream, on 
alternate sides as the current ri quired them, 
it was also prevented from making these dan- 
gerous changes of channel and confined to the 
most suitable course at will. The eddies 
formed below each jetty catoh and deposit the 
light particles, which in time amount to consid- 
erable soil, thus reclaiming flat land not needed 
for the water course. 

Our celebrated American engineer Ends fol- 
lowed practically the same plan in successfully 
deepening and keeping free one of the mouths 
of the Mississippi river, where he had to con- 
tend both with the enormous deposits brought 
down by the river, its current, as well as with 
the ocean tides. 

If, now, the river Po has been successfully 
controlled for oenturies, and the mighty Miss- 
issippi for years, sorely all Oalifornia rivers 
may be held within bounds, Sicramento and 
San Joaquin, as well as the mountain torrents 
of which there are so many. 

For broad, sandy bedded streams like the 
Santa Clara of the South, constantly shifting 
it* channel and making new distribution, its 
banks being almost entirely of rich farming or 
occasional sandy lands, the most suitable jetty 
that I have been able to think of would be one 
made by driving long, strong piles, such as the 
railroads use for bridges, at the proper places 
and angles to the stream, spiking strong planks 
to them from below the sand bed to as high a 
point as the water rises in fl ods. As the 
leneth of these jetties need seldom be over 25 
or 30 feet, and as they might often be a quarter 
of a mile or more apart, the expense would not be 
too heavy to be borne, especially if all riparian 
owners, as well as the public, shared in it 
equitably. Here the value of reclaimed land 
would be considerable. 

Of oourse the possibility of this- being done 
at all depends upon its being given in charge to 
some public authority, whether of State or 
oounties singly or jointly, so that some con- 
nected and sensible scheme could be followed; 
this to be determined by persons better 
acquainted with publio affairs or engineering 
than the writer. 

Surely some of our oounty money now wasted 
on plowing up the dirt roads once in awhile 
would be better employed in controlling the 
streams, and if the politicians would only allow 
us to enjoy as rational and pr< Stable roublic 
control ut our rivers, to lessen damages by floods, 
and of our forests, so closely associated with 
regu'ating the flow of the rainfall into the 
streams, to prevent floods, they would allow us 

to enjoy in this " free country " what some of 
the " effete monarchies of Europe" have had 
for generations. 

Might not our farmers disouss this matter 
with profit at their meetings, having united 
action in view ? M. 

Veutura Co., Dec , 1889. 

Dog Taxes. 

Editors Press:— Are dogs property ? and 
why are thf y not taxed, when they do so much 
damage, being allowed to run at large ? I know 
two persons who went through bankruptcy and 
yet were able to keep four dog». Does are kill- 
ing my sheep at the rate ol 20 to 50 per cent 
for years past. I know of several farmers who 
were obliged to give up keeping theep, mostly 
on account of these curs, and have known dogs 
to come a distance of eight to ten miles seem- 
ingly for the purpose of sheep-killing, This 
section of country is mostly hilly and rough, 
and better suited for sheep than any other kind 
of stock. There is a great deal said and written 
about protection of the sheep industry and 
diminishing of flocks, but nothing is said about 
this great evil, or rather nuisance. Is it not a 
matter worth giving more attention to ? and 
ought there not to be a law passed to tax these 
n-eless curs? It certainly wonld be a great 
relief to wool-growers. Hoping to hear' from 
othprs, John Hein. 

Napa, Dec. SO, 1889. 

Some States are careful about the collection 
of dog taxes, and the fund thus created is dis- 
pensed to those who can prove up sheep losses 
There is certainly in this State too much loose, 
worthless dog and too much sheep-killing. 
Oor correspondent is right in calling the atten- 
tion of wool-growers to the subject. Let us 
hear from them. It is none too soon to begin 
preparation of topics for next winter's Leg- 

Mohair Sale in New York. 

Editors Press :— Oa the 22d of November 
I shipped from San Francisco a small lot of fall 
dip of my mohair to New York and instructed 
to have it sold at the best price obtainable. 
On Deo. lOih the mohair arrived at New York 
and was sold on Dec. 18th. For the benefit of 
goat-breeders I copy : 

Account sales of three b>les inohair received from and 
sold f >r account of Mr. Julius Weyaod, Little Stony, 
Coluea Co., California. 

Three Balks Mohair Weighing — 
No. 1, 429 lbs. 
N .. 2, 416 " 
No. 3, 460 " 

1,295 fb«.— 51 lbs. —1,244 lbs. at 38c.S472 72 
Less 61 days' interest at 6% per annum. 4 02 

S488 70 


Freight as i er bill at 2c per lb §25 70 

Storage, labor and weighing 1 35 

(artage, SO;. Insurance, 50c 130 

Commission, 2J% 11 82 

S 40 17 

Our check for net proceeds $423 53 

Kitchino & Bicknell, New York, Dec. 27, 1889. 

This result may be encouraging to goat-breed- 
ers and is therefore offered for publication. 
Little Stony, Cal. Julius Weyand. 

An Excellent Report.— At the last meet- 
ing of tne State Board of Trade, Mr. Mills 
alluded to the pamphlet on the fiuit industries 
of the State as prepared by G;n. Chipman of 
Red Bluff as the best document of the kind yet 
prepared, and steps were taken to pnblish a 
large edition for K is tern circulation. Gsn. 
Chipman has long made a close study of Cali- 
fornia fruit-growing and has considerable in- 
vestments of bis own in this line. His writings 
always show care and candor. 

At a meeting of the S ate Board of Trade on 
Jan. 7th, a committee reported that there was 
apparently a shortage of about $950 in the ac- 
counts of J. Meredith JD .ivies, the former secre- 
tary of the board, and that Mr. D .ivies be re- 
quested to make the amount good, otherwise 
proceedings will be had to recover the same. 
A committee was appointed to consider a re- 
vision of the constitution and by-laws and to 
take steps toward incorporation. 

Oonshiu Orange in Florida.— J. P. Da Pass, 
director of "Florida Experiment Station" at 
Like City, Fla., writes Mr. H. E. Amoore, 
DtC. 31, in high oommendation of the "Sitsu- 
ma" orange. He says: " They ripen in Novem- 
ber and are fully ripe December 1st. In the 
New York market this past season they brought 
from $6 to $8 per box— $1 or $2 higher than 

Orange Planters should read the advertise- 
ment of the Aloha Nurseries. The best varieties 
are offered at rates so low that no one need hesitate 
about planting for experiment, or for investment in 
places where the orange is known to thrive. 


To loan in any amount at the very lowest 
rate of interest on approved security in Farming 
Lands. A. SCHULLER, Room 8, 430 California 
street, San Francisco, ** 

List of D. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 

Reported by Dewey St Oo.. Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific States. 


417.850. — Axle Lucricator— I. B. Abraham, 
S. F. 

417.851. — Ventilator — P. Abrahamson, S. F. 
417 852. — Tag Holder — Samuel Biuman, Santa 

Cruz, Cal. 

417.855. — Vineyard Plow — J. A. Bilz, Pleasan- 
ton, Cal. 

417.856. — Delivery Attachment for Can 
Machines— Jos. Black, S. F. 

417.860. — Book Rest— W. C. Dow, Fresno, Cal. 

417.861. — Gate — A. W. Edwards, Shingle 
Springs. Cal. 

417 865. — Water Wheel -C. J. Green, Placer- 
ville, Cal. 

417,866. — Scouring, etc., Composition — Hollo- 
way & Frey, S. F. 

418,036.— Harness— F. T. Livingston, Snoho- 
mish, Wash. 

417,876 — Mustache-Holder— W. H. Master- 
man, S. F. 

417,936.— Harvester — J. & W. Paterson, 
Stockton, Cal. 

417,882. — Miner's Candlestick— G. Peterson, 
Tuscarora, Nev. 

417,885.— Fruit-Pitter— Singuinetti & Steven- 
son, Vallecito, Cal. 

417.888. — Propeller— R. Stevenson, S. F. 

418,096. — Turntable Mechanism— Watriss & 
Heynemann, S. F. 

417,961.— Spray Pump — A. W. White, San Jose, 

417,894.— Leak Stopper for Vessels — W. 
Winchester, Mare Island, Cal. 

The following brief list by telegraph, for Jan. I, 
will appear more complete on receipt of mail advices: 

California— Mark Anlhony, San Francisco, station in- 
dicator; the same, st-eet or station indicator; John W. 
Bro*n, S n Francisco, section bridge; Jo eph P. Des- 
cabyo ar d K. Mjrtimer Peters, sash 10 k; Calvin Ewingf, 
San Francisco, collar-g'urKng machine; I aac S. Gold- 
man, Los Angeles (assignor of part to H. T'mkin and 
R. B Leare, San Diego) organ motor; S. K. Hackley, 
San Francisco hydrant coupler; An' rew G Norton, Ar- 
royo Grande, windmill; Alonzo P. Pavson, San Fran- 
cisco, setting speed and gauge for died^ers; John Rin- 
ged, Coronado, apparatus for utilizing surf-power; James 
H. Whitburn, Los Angeles, hydrocarbon burner. 

Notb. — Copies of U. S and Foreign patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in 'he shortest time possible (by mail 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business for Pacific Coast 
inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortest possible time. 

A River Convention. — The Sicramento 
Board of Trade has called a convention to as- 
semble in Sioramento, Jan. 17th, to prepare a 
memorial to Congress askiog that the Govern- 
ment take charge of the Sacramento river im- 
provement and build levees and relief canals. 
Delegates are being appointed by the B)ards of 
Trade in the otber river counties, and the 
meeting promises to be a representative one. 

The people of Hillsboro, Oregon, have solved 
the tramp question. No one is given any food 
until he cuts a definite quantity of wood or 
shovels snow for a fixed time. The moment 
the fraternity knew this was "strictly busi- 
ness," they gave the town a wide berth. 

The Annual Nutmeg Plant. 

This valuable plant is not like the trees that bear 
our nutmegs of commerce, but is an annual, grow- 
ing in a short time to a hight of from 2 to 2 : A feet, 
with branching habits and beautiful, finely-cut 
foliage. The pods or nutmegs are borne on long, 
slender stems, as shown by the above illustration. 
The flowers are composed of 4 to 6 petals, of a pale, 
delicate white color, and are the size of a 25-cent 
piece. The pods, which contain the nutmeg seeds, 
are in size and shape somewhat similar to the ordi- 
nary nutmegs, excepting they are four-sided and 
each corner is furnished with an upright spear or 
spike from % to 1 inch in length. The great value 
of this curious and useful plant consists of the seeds 
contained in these pods, which have the exact 
taste and flavor of our popular and highly-prized 
nutmegs, that are so much used in flavoring pies, 
custards, etc. After these seeds are ripe and dry 
they can easily be ground or crushed into a coarse 
powder similar to grated nutmeg, and make an 
excellent substitute for that useful article. Their 
rich, spicy and delicate flavor is preferred by all 
who have tried them to our imported nutmegs. As 
will be seen by an advertisement elsewhere in this 
paper, Samuel Wilson, seedsman of Mechanics- 
ville, Bucks Co., Pa., a lew seeds of this valu- 
able plant in connection with other choice and 
beautiful flower seeds at a price so reasonable that 
every one should give v them a trial and raise their 
own nutmegs. 

Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
quested to examine its contents, terms of sub- 
scription, and give it their own patronage, and, 
as far as practicable, aid in circulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription 
rate, $3.00 a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 
cents, if ordered soon enough. If already a 
subscriber, please show the paper to others. 

A Verdict from the South. 

The Pomona Progress says: The Pacific 
Rural Press, pub ished in S in Francisco, should 
be read by every one who is interested in the prod- 
ucts of the soil in California. It is the best jour- 
nal for the grain-producer, the fruit-grower, vine- 
yardist. hon y-bee rancher and poultner on the 
Pacific Coast that could be published. We have 
never seen a number of this publication, which 
comes weekly, that was not brim-full of practical 
ideas for all who earn their livlihood from the 
earth. The Press is edited with exceeding care 
in each of its many departments, and is more than 
worth its annual subscription price, three dollars (or 
less, paid in advance) a year. 

La Grippe is doubtless bad enough, but you 
may hive it and live through it. Bat if you 
tike all the remedies prescribed by the doctors 
and the newspapers and the old ladies around 
you, you will be dead as a mackerel in less 
than 24 hours. — San Joie. Herald. 


To loan on mortgage on ranches and city 
real estate below market rates. HOWE & KIM- 
BALL, 508 California St., S. F. ** 

Cheap Money for Farmers ! 

larg- sums below market rates. S. D. HOVEY, 
318 Pine street, San Francisco. ** 

Bekcham's act. like m;uric on a wpak sfomaoh. 1 



— AND — 


A Manual of Methods which have Yielded 
Greatest Success, 

— WITH — 

Lists of Varieties Best Adapted to the 
Different Districts of the State, 

— BY — 


What Readers Say of It. 

A Boon to Beginners.— Your work will be a 
boon to many who are just beginning the culture of 
fruit in California, and to those who are already 
pioneers in the work it will be a standard of author- 
ity and I nny say, library companion. —Prof. H. 
E. Van Deman, U. S. Pomologist, Washington, 
D. C. 

Condensed Information. — I have examined 
your work with great interest, and congratulate you 
on the amount of information you hive condensed 
into it. It will be a valuable addition to the practi- 
cal literature of the Sate.— Hon. Horace Davis, 
President of the University of California. 

On the Grape. — " Closely written and faithful.'' 
— Chas. A. Wetmore, Prts. Viticultural Commis- 
sion of Cal. " It is the best work of its kind ever 
published in California, and should be in the hands 
of every fruit and vine grower " — C. J. Wetmore, 
Manager Viticultural Commission. 

On Nursery Work. — Your work contains the 
best and most complete treatise on growing nur- 
sery stock I have ever seen. — |ohn Rock, Mana- 
ger California Nursery Company. 

On Pruning. — From my knowledge of the 
writer I was sure the work would be the best ever 
written on the subject, but I am surprised to see 
how complete and perlect it is. I have never seen 
such accurate directions for pruning condensed 
into so few words, or described in such pleasing 
language. — Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa. 

Thorough and Valuable. — The work is so 
thorouah and explicit Irom beginning to end that 
it is mo«t valuable to any one having few or many 
trees. It stands unrivaled among the many books 
on fruit culture that I have seen. — Alice F. Cam- 
eron, Loclnel, Pima Co., Arizona. 

1 rue and Exact — Wickson's work on Califor- 
nia Fruits is the finest I hive ever read, as he con- 
veys true ideas and facts by exact language. — J. B. 
You NT, Dixon, Cal. 

A True Guide.— It ought to be in every fruit- 
grower's hands, and especially in the hands of new- 
comers who are at sea in the methods of fruit-grow- 
ing in this State. A California -rancher, "though a 
tenderfoot, need not err in horticultural pursuits if 
he follows the well-digested advice la:d down in this 
book. — Mrs. Flora M. Kimball, National City, 

Valbable to Practical Men. — I have had 13 
years' experience and I find Wickson's "California 
Fruits" the most comprehensive work I ever read, 
and a fruit man ought to be ashamed that he does 
not own a copy. I think so much of it that my 
men are compelled to read it. — Robt. Watts, Elk 
Creek, Colusa county. 




Publishers Pacific Rural Press, 
220 Market Street, Elevator 13 Front Strest 



f> ACIFI6 F^JRAb f> RESS. 

[Jan. 11, 1890 

Breeders' Directory. 

Six lines or less in this Directory at 60c per Una per month 


PERCHE HON HuRS 18. Just arrived from France. 
Address, W.W.N! ... cor. West & 9th Sts., Oakland, t'al. 

PERCHEKON EORSES- Refer to large adver- 
tiseniont. Address. Capt. W B. Collier, Lakeport, Cal. 

L. V. WILiLlTS. Watsnmille, Cal. Breeder of reg- 
iBtered Percheron Horses. Black color a specialty. 

L. D. SCOT 1', Cliftjn, Fresno Co. Breeder of recorded 
Hereford Cattle. Youug Bul.s f r sale. 

HENRY HAMIi.TON, Westley, Cal., breeder of 
Kentucky JackB and Jennies, Draft Horses and Hol- 
Btein Cattle. Jacks, Horses and Mules for Bale. 

ELROBLAR HANCHO, Los Alamos, Santa Barbara 
Co., Cal., Francis T. Underhill, proprietor, importer 
and breeder of thoroughbred Hereford Cattle. Infor- 
mation by mall. C F. Swan, manager. 

A. Heilbron & Bro., Props., Sac Breeders of thorough* 
bred sixains and iruikshank Shorthorns; also Registered 
Herefords; a fine lot of youDg bulls in ea^h herd for sale. 

J. R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devons, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 

E. P. MWHR, Mt. Eden. Cal., breeder and importer of 
Clydesdale Horses and Uolstein-Friesian Cattle. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, CaL Thoroughbred 
Registered Holsieiu and Jersey Cattle. None better. 

P. H. MURPHY, Perkius, Sac. Co., Cal., Breeder of 
Recorded Shorthorn Cattle and Poland China Hogs. 

Station, S. F. & N. P. R. K. P. O., Penn'B Orove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

THOS. WAITE, Perkins, Sac. Co., Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Poultry and Registered Berkshire Hogs. 

P. PETERSEN, Sites, Colusa Co., Importer 6t Breeder 
of Registered shorthorn cattle. Young bulls for tale. 

JOHN LYNCH, Petaluma, breeder of Thoroughbred 
Shorthorns. Young stock for sale. 

J.H.WHITE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., CaL, breeder 
of Registered Holstein Cattle. 

R. J. MERKELEY, Sacramento, breeder of Norman, 
Percheron Horses and thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, importer and dealer in 
Eastern registered Shorthorns, Red Polled Cattle, Hol- 
stetns, Devons and Shropshire Sheep. 

PETER SAXE <St SON, Lick House, San Franoisco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past IS years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

F. H. BURKE, 401 Montgomery St., S. F.: Registered 
Holsteins; winners of more lirst prizes, sweepstakes 
and special premiums this year than any herd on the 
Coast. Pure Berkshire Pigs. Catalogues. 


T. D. MORRIS, Agua Calieute, Cal.; pure-bred fowls. 

Cal . ; send for illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

R. Q. HEAD, Napa, Cal., breeder of the choicest va- 
rieties of Poultry. Each variety a specialty. Send tor 
new Catalogue. 

CHAS. R. HARKWR. Santa Clara, Calif. White 
Plymouth Rocks, exclusively. None better anywhere, 
EastorWest. If you want the latent and best improve- 
ment in poultry, get genuine White Pl> mouth Rocks. 
Write for prices. Eggs, »3 per 13; packed to go safely 
any distance. 

GALT POULTRY YARDS breed the choicest 
strains of Ply. Rocks, Lt. Brahmas, P. Cochins, etc 
Eggs in season, carefully packed, 83 for 13; $5 for 26. 
S. W. PAL1N, Ualt, Sac'to Co., >.al. 

JOHN McFARL'NG, 700 Twelfth St., Oakland. 
Cal., Importer and Breeder of Choice Poultry. Send 
tor Circular. 

W. O. DAMON , Napa, J2 each for choice Lt. Brahmas, 
Wyandottes, P. Rocks, White and Brown Leghorns 
Eggs, $2 per 13. Beet Seed for sale. 

O. J. ALbKK, Lawrence, Cal. Pure bred poultry. 

A. O. RUSCHH*-UPT. Brooklyn Hights, Los An- 
geles. 16 breeds of pure-bred Poultry. Circular free. 

E. H. FREEMAN, Santa Clara, Cal.; breeder and 
importer of best strains of thoroughbred poultry. 


L. U. 8HIPPEE, Stookton, Cal., Importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys s> Berkshire Swine high graded rams for sale 

fl. W. WOOLSEY St SON, Fulton, Cal., importers 
k breeders Spanish Merino Sheep; ewes 45 rams for sale. 

R. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and importer. 
South Down Sheep from Illinois and England for sale. 

Ferry, Cal., breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams for sale. 

ANDREW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see adv't 


JOSEPH MELVIN, Davisville, Cal., Breeder of 
Poland-China Hoga 

WILLIAM NILKS, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circulars free. 

TYLER BEACH, 8an Jose, Cal., breeder of 
thoroughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

ANHRFIW SMITH. Rattened Oltv. Oa|. : «« adv't. 

Fine Bred Shepherd Puppies For Sale. 

Apply to P. O. Box 80S, Napa Olty, CaL 


Ducks, Turkeys, Geese, Peacocks, Etc. 


Publisher of "Nlles' Pacific Coast Poultry and Stock Book,'- 

a new book on subjects connected with successful poultry and stock raising on 
the Pacific Coast. 1'ricc 60 cents, post-paid. Inclose stamp for information. 


Jersey and Holstein Cattle. Also, Poland China and Berkshire Pigs. 

Address, WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles. Cal. 

New Importation 




Has arrived with his new importation, consisting of 


These young Stallions were selected in England and 
France, with care, by mytelf personally as to the wants 
of the Pacific Coast, and are prize winners in their native 
country. If you want a Stallion, come and have a look. 
Prices and terms satisfactory. AH horses warranted as 
breeders. Catalogues sent on application. 


Petaluma, Cal. 

Draft Horse Breeders, Attention 


A Number of fine Youug Pure-Bred 


Imported from Scotland and registered in the Clydesdale 
Stud Book. Among them are: 

BOGWOOD (5561), Vol. X, C. S. B. 

BELTED CRUISER (6481), Vol. XI, C. S. B. 

CANNY JAMIE (6574), Vol. XI, C S. B. 

Thev are of good dark colors with the Regular Clvdes- 
dale Markings, and are the 1'inet.t Horses that hare ever 
been imported to this State. They are the property of 
A. V. WIU-ON, Efq., North Yakima, W. T., and will be 
sold for a reasonable figure. They may be seen at the 
Mt. Eden Farm. For [>edurees and particulars, call on 
or address, A. V. WI S'>N, NortQ Yakima. 
W. T. , or H P. MOHR, Mount Eden, Ala- 
meda Co., Cal. 

Percheron Breeding Farm. 


For 15 young animals bought of M. H. Dunham as 
foundation stock, 119,600 was paid at one time. 

Blood of Brilliant Largely Represented. 

8ales show this to bo the most popular strain of the 


Two-year-olds and three-year-olds from the Grand Prize 
winner, Cesar, who weighed 2040 as a two-year-old. 

Take S. F. & N. P. R. R, for Hopland, thence stage 16 
miles to Lakeport. Address 


Lakeport, Lake County, Oal 

Send for Catalogue. 


Petaluma, Oal. 

Importers of French and Eng- 
llith Trlze Stallions. 

Hign-Class Slock For Sale, 



It prevents disease, regulates the bowels and urine, 
strengthens the kidneys, prevents scouring, colic and 
leg swelling, loosens the hide, promotes the appetite, 
cures cough, destroys worms, and produces a fine glossy 
coat. $7.60 per 100 pounds. Manhattan Egg Food, In 
bulk, 13 cenUper pound. Ask your dealer, or send to 
PAUL KBYSBR, Agent, 206 Clay St., S. F. 



One and a half miles northeast of San Leandro, 
Alameda County, has every facility for Break- 
ing Colts properly. Rates very reasonable. 
Horses boarded at all times. 


P. O. Box 149, San Leandro, Cal 


This is the neatest and most useful novelty on the 
market. Sold by all Harness and Hardware Dealers. 
SAMPLES 26 CENTS. Manufactured by 

118 Fourth Street, - Des Moines, Iowa. 


Really Flexible Steel Wire Mat. 

Our JM _tu W ivLtit ! 

Elastic as rubber I Interwoven Spiral Border. No 
Rivet* to loosen. No Pram', to twist out of shape Soft 
as ca'pet. Durable as steel can make it. t<f Hi" n» 
Imitations. "5» ASK FOR 

"HABTMAN" Fl iiole Steel or Brass Wire Ma 

Factories: Beaver Falls, Pa. 
BAKER & HAMILTON, San Francisco, Agen 



Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
London, England. 
Graduatkd April 22, 1870. 
Advice by Hall, $3. 


No. 11 Seventh St,, near Market, San Francisco, Cal. 

Open Day and Night. Telephone, No. 8860. 

Veterinary Surgeon. 

Graduate of Ontario Veterinary College, Toronto, Canada. 

3S1 Golden Gate Avenue, San Francisco. 
Telephone 3069. 
tTOpen Day and Night. 
No risk In throwing Horses. Veterinary operating 
table on the premises. 


Are the Best , 


Durability, Evenness of 
Point, and Workmanship. 

Samples for trial of 12 different styles by mail, on 
r. ..,:••! lO <•<•■■<» in stamps. Ask for card No. 8. 

753 Broadway, 
New York. 





lliaa a Pad different from all 
others, is cup shape, with Self. 
adjUKtini; Ballinrenter.adapts 
Itsolftoall positions of the body .while 
the hall in thecup preaaes back the 
Inteatlnea Ju»t a» u peraon doe; 
> Itli i I,, linger. With lighlprMwurv the Hern ia i s held 
seeurely day anil night, and a radical cure certain. Itia 
easy, durable -nd cheap. Sent by mall. Circulars free. 

eccleston TRUSS CO., Chicago, III. 


Oor. 17th St Castro Sta., Oakland, OaL 

Manufactory of the PACI- 
BROODER. Agency of 
the celebrated silver finish 
galvanized wire netting for 
Rabbit and Poultry-proof 
fences, the Wilson Bone 
and Shell Mill, the Pacific 
Egg Food, and Poultry ap- 
pliances in great variety. 
Also every variety of land 
„ and water Fowl, which 
have won first prizes wherever exhibited. Eggs for 
Hatching. The Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand-Book and 
Guide, price, 40c. Send 2c stamp for 60-page illustrated 
circular to the PACIFIC INCUBATOR CO., 1317 Castro 
St., Oakland, Cal. 


Raiskd bt tub 


'-- " ' ~ ' *-!-■-' j, A !' ,: 

>rd more profit than any other busi- 
ness for the capital invested. Ths 
most successful machines made; any 
one can manage them. A large illus- 
trated circular and pamphlet, "Practi- 
cal Artificial Raring of Chicks," will 
be mailed pan to any one sending us 
hit name and address. Contains infor- 
mation valuable to any one who keeps 
fowls. (Mention this paper.] 


Woodland Poultry Yards. 

Pure standard S. C. Barred Plymouth Rocks 
and S. C. White Leghorns; stock first-class- 
A. C. Hawkins' and Knapp Bros.' stiains. 
Eggs S. per setting. W. F. JEANS, 

Box 171, Woodland, Yolo Co.. Cal. 

The Halsted Incubator Co. 

1312 Myrtle St, Oakland, Cal. 
Thoroughbred Poultry and Eggs. 

Send Stamp for Circular. 


, Simple, Perfect aad Self-R.rillitlaJ. Hun. 

Tdreds in successful operation. Ouuranteed 
• >„ , rf i oh itch lare.r percentage of fertile eirgs 
IBCiwu l U at less co-t tlHin any oth. r hatcher. Send 
6ctorlllusC«ta. fcto. U.ST*tlL. 


JOHN T. McKL^RFSH has patented a very simple 
device which i- a ccmplete 

Protection to Bees 

Against the ravages of the Bee-Moth. It is a simple at- 
tachment to the platforms upon which the Gums rest. 

The Miller, as all bee-men well know, Is seldom or 
ever seen until after sunset, and from that until dark. 
They are small insects with small heads, and have an 
innate dread nf Bees; and If they can find an aperture 
or hole, near the entrance of the Bees, under which they 
can dart to lay their • ggs, rather than come in contact 
with the Bees, there is where they will go every time. 

Now, my device is so constructed that the Bees pass in 
and out of the Gum through a spout which pr< jects about 
four and one-half inches from the Oum; about two Inches 
below this «p'>ut is affixed the apparatus or h les for the 
Millers' entrance. As the spout is always full of Bees, 
the Millers will dart through them into a box of water, 
and are thereby destroyed. 

All who have examined it say that it is the most note- 
worthy improvement in this line which has ever been 

All communications addressed to 


Tracy, OaI. 

Will receive prompt attention. 


.rone-eat. It, at _ 

Lpeat HI K. II I tl; brail purpo*. 

'I' ■• ■v,tv1..*It. Sen* lour ad- 

tn the Lara-e.t Hee-lllre raw- 
In the World tor .ample copv of 
nlna-aln lice Culture <af I llloa- 

aernl-iuotuhlT). and a 44 p. illu.. 

al.-d eaialoniF of Itee-Keepera' 
uppllea. Ow A 11 Oaf lire Cal. 
* In a cyclopedia of 4IJO pp.. 6x10. an* 
Price lu cloth, I1.2.V (rj* lltntim 
A. I. ROOT, Medina, O. 

Italian Queens, 12.60 each; Black Queens, $1 each. 
Swarms from (fl .60 each; 8moker, fl. Comb Founda 
tion, tl.26 per pound; V-groove Sections, |4 per 1000 
Comb Honey wholesale and retail; Hives, etc. W. 
OTVAK a SON. The Hnm.rt.fui Anlarv. San Mateo Dal 

A Treatise on the Horse and his Disease. 

By B. J. Khndall, M. D. 

85 Fine Engravings showing 
the positions and actions of sick 
horses Gives the cause, symp- 
toms and best treatment of dis- 
eases. Has a table giving the 
doses, effects and antidotes of 
all the principal iredlcines used 
for the horse, and a few pages 
on the action and uses of me- 
dicines. Rules for telling the 
age of a horse, with a fine en 
graving showing the appearance 
of the teeth at each year. It is printed o'. fine paper 
and has nearly 100 pages, 7fx6 inches. Price, only 26 
cents, or five for 91, on receipt of which we will send 
by mall to any address. DEWEY St CO., 

9 SO Market St.. 8. P. 


miles east of Ukiah. Comfortable Hotel Quiet Cabins, 
Lovely Scenery. Low Charges. Its waters are a sure 
cure for Dropsy, Scrofulous and J»kin Diseases, Rheuma- 
tism, etc. Address, H. L>. OBNIO, Upper Lake. 

This paper la printed with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Oharlea Enea Johnson Si Co., 600 
South lOth St., Philadelphia. Branch Offi- 
ces— 47 Rose St., New Tors:, and 40 La Salle 
St., Chicago. Agent for the Pacific Ooaet— 
Joseph H. Doraty, 630 Commercial St., 8. V 

Jan. 11, 1890.] 








Is recognized aa the 

Always gives satisfaction. SIMPLE, 
STRONG and DURABLE in all parts. 
Solid Wrought iron Crank Shaft 
with docblb bearings for the Crank 
to work in, all turned and run in ad- 
justable babbitted boxes. 

Positively Self-Regulating, 

With no coil springs, or springs of any kind. No little 
rods, joints, levers, or anything of the kind to get out of 
order, as such things do. Mills in use 6 to 12 years In 
good order now, that have never cost one cent for repairs. 
All genuine Enterprise Mills for the Pacific Coast trade 
come only through this agency, and none, whether of 
the old or latest pattern, are genuine except those bear- 
ing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out for this, as 
Inferior mills are being offered with testimonials applied 
to them which were given for ours. Prices to suit the 
times. Full particulars free. Best Pumps, Feed Mills, 
etc., kept in stock. Address, 


GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES (as always before), 

San Francisco Agency, JAMBS LINFOBTH 
87 Market Front St.. San FranciBCO. 

The rl<** can run ani steer hlrnat 
WITHOUT A TAlL,,»udso 
can the 

Rational Wind Engine 

The best and cheapest engine 
made. Has stood the tcstof seven 
Mneflected by ice, sleetor snow. 
It is all iron except the sails. Will not 
raitle. Willontlastany twoenginc-flniade. 

The only engine that will not 
puff itself out of gear in a high 
wind. 7 ft. will pump 30to 40 
bis. water a day. Does not 
require an expert to # put it up. 
One National Engine in a 
township will insure the sale of 
the National to three-fourths 
of future purchasers. Don't 
buy any other till you have re- 
ceived our catalogue and 
prices. We carry a line of Der- 
ricks, Tanks, Pumps, Cylin- 
ders, etc. 

J Steel Pulley & Machine Wks. 

Sole Makers, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., Ag'ts, 421 Market St. S F 




Powerful and Durable 






The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For Stump and Bank Blasting. From 5 to 20 
pounds blows any Stump, Tree or Root clear 
out of ground at less cost than grubbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers use no other. 

As other makers IMITATE our Giant Powder, so do they Judson, by Manufacturing 
a second-grade, inferior to Judson. 
BANDMANN. NIELSEN & CO, General Aqents, San Francisco. 




Best and Strongest Explosives in the World. 




A chance to get the finest country home in California and a paying investment. Two hundred and sixty acres 
foothill land overlooking Bay of Monterey, southern exposure, 350 feet elevation, springs of soft water all over 
place. Climate eight degrees warmer than Santa Cruz in winter, same gentle sevbreeze in summer; little fog. 
The most even temperature on this Coast. One hundred and sixty acres good fruit land fit for hay, corn, grain and 
vegetables; balance pasture and timber. One thousand cords redwood and live-oak. Forty acres in fruit, selected 
after 8 years experimenting. Ten acres Olives; 24 acres Newtown Pippins (never failed in 8 years); 2i acres Salway 
Peaches (1 failure in 9 years, pay $300 00 per acre, net); 1 acre table Grapes; balance Family Orchard: Apple, Peach, 
Plum, Pear, Prune, Apricot, Nectarine, Fig, Orange, Persimmon, Chestnut, Walnut, Filbert, Almond, Olive and 
Grape. Spring water piped to house, can, at small outlay, be made sufficient for 600 people. Place long known 
among old settlers as the finest farm in the Santa Cruz mountains. One and a half miles from ranch line to Santa 
Ciuz city limits. Half hour drive from center of farm to S. C. P. Office, R. R. Depots, etc. Will divide well into 
Country Villas. Fine for Summer Resort. Offered in whole or part at very low cash figures. Easy terms if desired. 
Place, including $2000.00 worth of tools, stock and crops, at $22,000.00. Subdivisions at $60.00 to $600.00 per acre. 

Commission |tierchant$. 



— AND — 

Commission Merchants, 

309 and 311 Sansome St., San Francisco, 


Bull Dog brand Bass' Pale Ale and Guin- 
ness Extra Stout. 

Elephant brand Er.gllsh Portland Cement. 

Purlmachos Powder and Cement, inde- 
structible and infallible. 

Rone St Bro.'s New York Lard. 

Kornafull India Tea, Calcutta. 

New Lambton Coals, Newcastle, N. S. W- 

Mexlcan Phosphate & Sulphur Co., Super- 
phosphate Fertilizer. 











Box 361, Santa Cruz, California. 


O. H. EVANS & CO. 

(Successors to THOMSON & EVANS), 

110 and 112 Beale Street, S. 

Steam Pumps, Steam Engines 

and all kinds of MACHINERY. 



Horse Powers, 
Windmills, Tanks 

and all kinds of Pump- 
ing Machinery built to 
order. Windmills from 
866. Horse Powers from 
$50. Send tor Catalogue 
and Price List. 

F. W. KROGH & 
CO., 51 Beale St 
San Francisco. 

Lightning Well-Sinking Machinery. 

Makers of Hydraulic, Jetting, Revolv- 
ing, Artesian. Mininp, Diamond Tools, 
i wells & Prospecting. Engines. Boilers, 
Wind Mills, Pumps, etc., Sold on 
.1,000 Engravings. Earth Ftrat ificar 
\ tion, Determination of Miner- 
sand Quality of Water, 
ves Light, finds Gold. 
Mailed for 25 cts. 
|Gas Book 25 cts. 
The American 
jb-3 Well Worka, 


and on hand Also Traction Engines, heavy and light, 
•ultable for plowing. Well drilling a specialty. 
Address, with stamp, D. J. LYNCH, 

Kelseyvllle, Lake Co.. Cai. 

Affords the cheapest and most convenient power for Ranch, 
Vineyard or Dairy purposes, as well as for running dynamos 
for electric lights, pumps and every other variety of machinery. 

It possesses In the same degree the wonderful energy and 
>ower that has made the Pelton Wheel famous in all pa, ts of 
she world. 

These motors are made of varying sizes, with capacities 
ranging from the fraction of one up to 15 and 20 H. P., enclosed 
in iron cases, all ready for pipe connections, and are warranted 
to develop a given amount of power with one-half the water 
required by anv other wheel. 

The cost, considering capacity and efficiency, is fully 50 per 
cent less. 

Circular, giving full information, sent on application. 

Parties writing for information should give full particulars 
as to power wanted, source of water, supply, with head or 
pressure. Address 




General Commission Merchants, 

810 California St., S. F. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange 

^"Personal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad- 
vances made on Consignments at low rates of interest. 


Commission Merchants 



Green and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignments. 
308 & 310 Davis St., San Francisco 

[P. O. Box 1936.] 
^"Consignments Solicited. 


121 Main Street. San Francisco, Cal. 



Warehouse and Wharf at Port Costa. 


Money advanced on Grain In Store at lowest possible rates of interest. 
Full Cargoes of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited. 

B. VAN EVERY, Manager. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manager. 




501, 503, 505, 507 and 609 Front Street 
and SOO Washington St., S. F. 

General Commission Merchants. 


Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Produce and 

S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

"Free Ooaoh to and from the House. J, W. BECKER, Proprietor. 





89 Clay Street and 28 Commercial Street 
8an Francisco, Cal. 

Eugene J. Gregory. [Established 1852.] Frank Gregory. 


Commission Merchants, 



126 and 128 J St., - Sacramento, Cal. 

San Francisco Office, 313 Davis St. 


Commission Merchants, 

Green and Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Etc 
Consignments solicited. 413, 416 & 417 Washington St., 
San Francisco. 


And Dealers in Fruit, Produoe, Poultry, Game, Eggs, 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and 221, 228, 
225 and 227 Washington St., San Francisco. 


Commission Merchants. 

All Kinds of Green and Dried Fruits. 


Codling Moth Destroyed. 


New Codling Moth Trap 

Will entirely clean an Orchard in two years. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. Write to 

Winter*, Yolo Co., Cal. 



[Jan. 11, 1890 

Market Review. 


San Francisco, Jan. 8, 1890. 
Clearer skies, with a prospect of their continuance 
for at least a fortnight to come, cause a more cheer- 
ful feeling to pervade trade circles, which is natur- 
ally inducing more business. This favorable condi- 
tion is also influenced by a growing ease in the 
money market, and extreme cold weather picking 
the snow on the mountain ranges that naturally 
lessens the danger of a flood. In general farm prod- 
uce, trading has shown more activity, with cereals 
coming to the front. In Europe and at the East, 
wheat has fluctuated. The following is to-day's 

Liverpool, Jan. 8.— Wheat -Quiet but steady. 
California spot lots, 7s iKdt0 7S4^d; off coast, 
36s 3d@^65 6d; just shipped, 35s 6d; nearly due, 
36s 3d; cargoes off coast, quiet; on passage, steady; 
Mark Lane wheat, weak but not cheaper; English 
country markets, quiet but steady; weather in En- 
gland, mild. 

Foreign Grain Review. 

LONDON, Jan. 6. — The Mark Lane Express, in 
its review of the British grain trade for the past 
week, says: English wheats are depressed; there 
are large supplies and small demand. Flour is 
steady. Foreign wheats are firmer; quotations at 
Liverpool are id $ ell dearer. Oats, corn and bar- 
ley are firm. At to-day's market English wheats 
were a shade stronger; foreign wheals were firm. 
American flour is offered at a slight decline. 
Liverpool Wheat Market. 
The following are the closing prices paid for wheat 
options per CtL for the past week: 

*<\l\ 1 Jan. Feby. Mar. Apr. May. Juno. 
Thursday.. . 7f4Jd 7s3J 1 7»3d 7s2!d 7s2Jd 7el|d 
Friday ..... 7s4jd 7*31,1 7s3d 7s2jd 7,2Jd 7sl|d 
Saturday.... 7,4,1 7,sid 7 f 2Jd 7l*d 7s2Jd 7sl»d 

Monday 7s4,d 7.3Jd 7s3d 7»2Jd 7s24d 7sl|d 

Tuesday 7s44.d 7s3 t d 7s2}d 7s2}d 7»2i 7sljd 

The following are the prices for California cargoes 
for off coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for 
the past week: 

V 0. C. P. 8. N. D. Market. 

Thursday ■-. 

Friday 3'!<6.| 35-:! I i Fi-m. 

Saturday 36^61 35«3d 30-3 1 Firmer. 

Monday . 36 6d 35s3d 36*31 Weaker. 

Tuesday' 36s3d 35 5 ttd 36=3d Finn. 

Eastern Grain Markets. 
The following shows the closing prices of wheat 
in New York for the past week: 

n av J» n Feby. Mar. Mav. June. 

Thursday 8S| 86} 87* 8U 

Friday 854 8 ' i «? °?„ 

Saturday W>» 87 88$ 89} 

Monday* 8s] 8*3 88 89 ... 

Tuesday 85} 86j ... 88} 

The closing prices for wheat have been as follows 
at Chicago lor the past week: 

Day 7^ Jan. Feb. May. June. 

Thursday 77} ... 

Friday... 77| 79J 83 

Saturday 78 79 82} 

Monday 77 J 78| 824. 

Tuesday 77J 78| 82 

New York. Jan. 8.— Wheat— 87c for cash, 85MC 
for January, 86y s c for February, 87KC for March 
and 88 s^c for May. 

Chicago, Jan. 8.— Wheat— 76HC for January, 
77 Hc lor Februuy and 8i^@8i)4c for May. 
United States Cereal Crops. 
Washington, Jan. 3.— The December report of 
the Department of Agriculture contains a detailed 
statement of the estimates of the principal cereals by 
States, including the area of product and values. 
The area of corn. 78.319,651 acres, represents an 
increase of 2 % percent over the acreage of 1888. 
The wheat acreage, 38,123 859 acres, shows it was 
2 1-10 per cent greater than the aggregate (or i838. 
The acreage of oats is placed at 27,462 310 acres, 
an increase of less than 2 per cent. The yield per 
acre of corn is very nearly 27 bushels, or one-tenth 
bushel less than the product of 1879, and is the larg- 
est rate o( yield since 1880. The product as esti- 
mated is 2.112,802,000 bushels. The largest yields 
are West Mississippi and Iowa, taking first rank in 
the aggregate produced, and the yield per acre of 
whe-it is nearly 12.9 bushels, or one-tenth of a 
bushel greater than the November average of yield 
per acre. _ , 

The variation from current expectation of the last 
six months is not over one per cent. The total 
product of wheat as estimated, is 490.560.000 bush- 
els; product of oats is 751,515.000 bushels, at the 
rate of 27.4 bushels per acre. The aggregate of all 
cereals is about 3,450,000,000 bushels, or at least 53 
bushels per capita. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 
Philadelphia, Jan. 3.— Fleece wool is in im- 
proved demand: Montana, i8@25c # tb; Terri- 
torial, I5^@22C 

Boston, |an. 3. — The market for wool has been 
steady and the demand good, considering the time 
of year, sales for the week amounting to 2,560,100 
lbs foreign and domestic. In prices there is no 
change to notice. Stocks of domestic on hand 
here at the beginning of the year amounted to 24,- 
394,000 It)?, including 6,071,000 lbs fleeces, 2,609- 
000 lbs pulled, 1,485.000 lbs Calilornia Spring, 
548,000 Ibi California Fall, 2.875,000 lbs Oregon, 
1,343,000 lbs scoured, 7,181.000 lbs Territory, i,- 
405,000 lbs Texas, 752,000 lbs Kentucky and other 
Southern, and 125,000 lbs sundries. The stock of 
foreign wool was 15,000 lbs Cape, 2,303.000 lbs 
Australian, 8000 lbs Montevideo, 30,000 lbs Eng- 
lish and Irish, 35.000 lbs Russian and Bagdad, 
100.000 lbs East Indian, 115,000 lbs Camels Hair, 
3,810.000 lbs various kinds of foreign Carpet; total, 
5,416,000 lbs; total stock of fo'eign and domestic, 
29,810,000 as against 18,856,000 on Jan. 1st of 
last year, an increase of 10,954,000, of which 7,229,- 
000 is domestic and 3.725,000 is foreign. 

The Boston Commercial Bulletin's annual tele- 
graphic canvass of tb« wool supply of the United 

States shows a heavy increase over last year. De- 
tailed and clarified reports from markets and 
growers show the total supply in dealers' hands ol 
70,000,000 lbs domestic and 15 0:0 coo lbs foreign, 
against 50,000,000 domestic and 17.000,000 foreign 
in 1888. New York and Philadelphia stocks are 
less than last year, but Bjston shows an increase 
of 11,000,000 lbs of domestic wool, and most of the 
smaller markets follow the lead of the chief wool 
market of the country. Imports of clothing wools 
coming from abroad show a decline of nearly 75 
per cent. 


New York, Jan. 6. — Strong and higher, not with- 
out supporting influences. The English crop is esti- 
niattd at 300,000 bales, American weight, with re- 
quirements for 425,000 bales; obtained thus far for 
discrepincy, about 50,000 American and German. 
Our crop, computed 183,000 bales, with home need 
for 160,000 bales. English markets closed very 
strong. All choice and next grade qualities are 
quoted ic better for the Slates which lead demand, 
and proportionate improvement for California and 
Territory. Best State, I5@i6c; prime, 13® 14c; 
common, n@i2c; eighty-eights, 7@nc; best Wash- 
ington, i4@i9c;fair to good, 11(^120; eighty-eights, 
8@ioc; CalHornia, prime to choice, n@i2c; eighty- 
eights, 7@9c; all olds, 3@sc. Exports lor the week, 


New York, Jan. 6. — There are no features of in- 
terest in raisins or other dried fruits. Stocksiare un- 
der good control. 

Prunes continue to move well at 7@85ic for nine- 
lies to seventies; 8^@9^c larger size boxes. 

Lima beans $3.10(0)3. 15. 

Local Markets. 


Buyer Season. Seller 18GU Buyer 1890. 

H. L. H. L. H. L. 


Friday 93} 92} 

Saturday 93 92} 

Monday 92^1)2 



S. S. B. S. B. '90. a '90 B. '90. 

Thursday \ h 13fl * 126 — • 139 * 
inursaay.... -j , 1M j 126 

™*» (*•:::: ffl :::: :::: ffl 

>—» {?•:::: 39 :::: :::: 1 

£f :::: :::: 22S 

*—* {£•:::: :::: :::: :::: \U 

BAGS — The market is dull. The action of pro- 
tectionists in trying to influence Congress to advance 
the tariff on bags and jute causes some holders to 
entertain stronger views. With higher duties bags 
will advance. Quotations at present are as follows: 
Calcuttas spot, 6fi@6& cts; June-July delivery, j'A 
@7% cts. 

BARLEY — The sample market shows more 
strength at another advance. In futures trading 
has been slow, owing to the bears fearing to sell. The 
following are to-day's Call Board sales: No sales. 

BUTTER — The market is firm. The cold weath- 
er is in favor of holders, who are enabled to hold and 
only sell as the market w ill lake it. Choice to gilt- 
edge creamery is scarce, which is also in favor of the 
Cahfornian product. Dealers only buy to meet their 
current requirements. 

CHEESE — The market is barely steady. There 
is an unsettled feeling, as if dealers are uncertain 
about the future. 

EGGS — With a stoppage of Eastern receipts 
owing to a snow-blockade, the market prices 
were forced up to high figures, but at the close 
there is a weaker feeling due to the blockade 
being raised and delayed shipments expected to 
arrive this week. To arrive. Eastern eggs are offer- 
ed at from 2j^c to 5c a dozen less than quoted. 

FLOUR — The market is steady, with a firm tone 
reported for the better brands. 

WHEAT — The sample market at the close shows 
more strength, due to the prospect of an easier 
money market the world over, light supplies of 
wheat and freer consumption, and also easy char- 
•ers with us. In futures, trading has been only fair. 
The following are to-day's Call Board sales: 

Morning Session: Buyer season — 200 tons, 
$1.31 fc; 900, $1.35^ tfctl. 


Market Information. 

Produce Receipts. 

Receipts of produce at this port the week ending 
Jan. 8th, were as follows: 

Flour, qr. sks 61, 611, Middlings, sks... 2,334 

Wheal, ctls 177,981 Alfalfa 


Rye, " .. 
Oats, " . . 
Corn, " .. 
•Butter, " . . 

do bxs . . 

do bbls . . 

do k^gs . . 
+Cheese, ctls 

do bxs . . 
Eggs, doz 10,660 

do " Eastern. 19,140 

Beans, ctls 

Potatoes, sks. . . . 

Onions, " 

Bran, sks 

Buckwheat, sks. . 

*And overland 

22,i23iC'hicory, bbls.. 
51,819 Broomcorn, bdls. . 





Hops, bis 24 

Wool, " 9 

Hay, tons 740 

Straw, " 70 

Wine, gals 83,200 

Brandy, " 6.090 





Raisins, bxs 

Honey, cs 

Walnuts, sks . 
Klaxseed, sks . 
Mustard, sks . 
Almonds, sks. 
Peanuts, sks. . 
Popcorn sks. . 


ctls. +And overland 200 ctls. 

In wheat the local market shows a stronger tone 
toward the close, although some buyers report 
differently. The favorable influences at work 
are higher rates for sterling exchange, a growing 
ease the world over in money which naturally fol- 
lows the annual settlements, more strength to the 
silver market, and small stocks in distribution cen- 
ters and light supplies in granaries to draw from. 
Now that we have more settled weather, ships on 
berth will require speedy dispatch, which will ne- 
cessitate freer buying of wheat. 

By reference to "Miscellaneous" it will b* noticed 

that a cargo of rye has gone forward to Antwerp. 
This is the first full cargo sent from this port Our 
market is easy at unchanged quotations. 

A. J. Gove, grain inspector of the San Francisco 
Produce Exchange Call Board Association, reports 
the stock of grain in city warehouses on January 1st 
as follows: 

O't L Nov. 1. Dec. 1. Jan. 1. 

Wheat, tons 10,162 12 149 11,139 12,277 

Birley 26.8i0 26,843 26,893 25,161 

Oits 2,002 1.614 2,972 2,704 

Corn 277 422 1,352 1,730 

Bran 691 625 182 250 

The quantity of wheat in the warehouses at Port 
Costa on the 1st was 119,211 tons, making a total 
of 131,488 tons in all Call Board warehouses, a de- 
crease of 6414 tons during the month of December. 
A year ago there were 122,445 tons wheat in Call 
Board warehouses, but this year the engaged ton- 
nage in pon had on January 1st all of 35,000 tons 
more than there was on January 1, 1889. 

Reducing flour to wheat, the combined exports of 
flour and wheat for the first six months of the cereal 
year were as follows: 

Centa's. Value. 
1835 5 675 800 f 8,143,300 

1886 9,992.700 13,543,000 

1887 6,114,100 9,446,700 

1888 9,027,100 13,733,000 

1889 8,425.300 11,310,900 

The shipments for the first half of the current 

cereal year are equivalent to 421,263 tons. Usually 
Irom 60 to 65 per cent of the crop is marketed in the 
first half of the cereal year. But that has not been 
the case this year, as there is more wheat now on 
hand than has bren shipped. 

The combined shipments of wheat and flour from 
San Francisco for the past five calendar years com- 
pare as follows: 

Centals. Value. 

1885 15,73H,700 *21 ,782.900 

1886 19,1114,400 26 857,800 

1887 11,401, 600 18,104 500 

1888 14.241,900 20,796,600 

1889 16,509,900 21,413,600 

The shipments for the past year are equivalent to 
775,443 short tons, the largest quantity since 1886. 

Advices from all parts of the State are confirm- 
atory of no outdoor work — land too wet. It now 
looks as if the acreage that will be seeded to wheat 
this winter and spring will be very light. The cool 
weather the past three days is calculated to pack the 
snow on the mountain ranges, which will prevent 
it from going off suddenly and cause a worse flood 
than has been experienced since 1862. 

The barley market has held to strong prices. 
The demand appears to be increasing, while the 
receipts are steadily decreasing. Wilh better roads 
the demand for feed will be largely increased. 

O its have held fairly steady. The receipts are 
lighter, but then the demand is smaller. With an 
enlarged dem ind, an improvement is looked for. 

Corn continues in buyers' favor, even under 
lighter receipts. The supply on this coast, it is 
cl limed, will not meet our requirements up to next 
crop season. 


In ground feed there is nothing new to report. 
The market is still easy for bran and middlings, but 
fairly strong for ground barley. 

Although the receipt of hay is light, yet the mar- 
ket is weak, with concessions obtainable. The de- 
mand is light, owing to good natural feed and also 
fewer horses being worked. Dealers confine their 
purchases as much as possible, fearing that with 
good roads heavy receipts would follow, which 
naturally would send prices to a lower range. 


The market for apples has ruled fairly strong. 
The high prices restrict consumption. The snow 
block id- on the Sierra Nevada mountains has kept 
back Eastern shipments. 

High water and bad roads interfered with the 
shipments of oranges by railroad, but free shipments 
from the southern counties were sent to this city 
by water. The cold weather is against much of a 
demand, consequently prices favor buyers. 

In dried fruits there is very little doing. To force 
sales, low prices would have to be accepted, but to 
buy, full prices would have to be paid. The feeling 
continues of a hopeful character. 

Raisins are essentially unchanged. The market 
on fair to good grades is in buyers' favor, but for 
choice to fancy the market is strong under light 
stocks. It is generally rlaimed that the spring de- 
mand will clean up the market fairly well so that by 
the new crop season the stock will have gone into 

The extremely cold weather for California the past 
week causes fears to be expressed that damage has 
been done in several localities to orange and lemon 


The market for both bullocks and mutton sheep 
is firm, but the prevailing opinion appears to be 
that with good roads, prices will shade off. The 
quality is good to extra choice. Considerable stall- 
fed is said to be finding a fair market. Hogs are 
not offering freely, yet the character of the demand 
keeps prices from advancing. It is claimed that 
more hogs have been cut up on the farms than for 
several years past. In milch cows and horses there 
is nothing new to report. 

The market for dressed cattle is quoted as fol- 
lows [to obtain the price on foot, take off from the 
price for stall-fed one-third to one-half, according to 
the nature of (he feed and time fed; and for grass- 
fed take off the price from 40 to 60 per centl: 

HOGS — On foot, light grain fed. 4%(3is c Iff 7b. : 
dressed, 8@9C lb.; heavy, 4&@4Hc # lb.; 
dressed. 7@8c & tb. Stock hogs, 454@4&c tftb. 

BEEF— Stall fed, 8@8}*c tffb.iRrass fed, extra, 
7@7^ctftt>.; first quality. 6%@7C $ lb.: second 
quality 6@6Mc # lb.; third quality, 5@5^c Ifi 
ft.; bulls and thin cows, 2@3c # lb. 

VEAL— Small, 7@9C # lb. ; large, 6@8c 

MUTTON— Wethers, 7@8c lb. ; ewes. 7® 
7!4c#lb.;lamb, spring, io@i2#cand is@i8ctf lb 


Under light receipts and a fairly good demand, 
onions have held to strong prices. 

Heavy frosts the past week have done no little in 
putting back the gardens. All early varieties not 
under cover have been injured. 

Cabbages and root vegetables are moving off more 

Potatoes have fluctuated some the past week. The 
trade does not appear disposed to buy much beyond 

immediate wants, believing that with better roads 
receipts will increase and prices go down. 

Sweet potatoes have fluctuated to higher prices. 


From the Commercial News of Jan. 8th the fol- 
lowing summary ol tonnage movement is compiled: 
1890. 1889. 

On the way to this port 176 885 186,631 

On the way to neighboring ports 12,9^3 37.540 

In port, disengaged 21,196 23,893 

In port, engaged for wheat.... 75,044 53 208 

Totals 286,078 301,272 

To get the carrying capacity, add 60 per cent to 
the registered tons as given above. 

From July 1, '89, to Jan. 2, '90, the following are 
th» exports from this port: 1890. 1889. 

Wheat, ctls 6,557,500 7,659,484 

Flour, bbls 568 269 352,213 

Barley, ctls 821,196 1,062,540 

Poultry has held strong throughout the week 
under light receipts and a good demand. The 
snow-blockade kept back Eastern shipments. Some 
are now coming in, but they are not in the best of 
condition owing to the length of time on the way. 

Honey is steady, with a light trade call reported. 

In wools the usual demand from scourers is re- 
ported. They confine their purchases chiefly to odd 
parcels, which they can keep up below current quo- 

In sympathy with higher prices abroad, hops with 
us are doing better. The supply is light. 

In seeds there is nothing doing, but with contin- 
ued fair weather an improved call is looked for. 

Hides are slightly lower. 

Nuts are slow, which usually obtains after the 

Continued free reo ipts of beans, with a light 
trade call, creates a weaker market. 

Exports by sea the past week aggregate as follows: 
Wheat ctls, to Cork, 100,062; Central America, 
1040; Honolulu, 244; Liverpool, 79,048; Barrow-on- 
Furn<ss. 68,286. Flour bbls, Central America, 6835; 
South America, 750; Honolulu, 1522; China, 14,- 
i2i ; Japan, 70. Rye ctls, Antwerp, 55,273. Bar- 
ley ctls, Honolulu, 3433; Manilla. 157; Victoria, 130. 
Beans lbs. Central America, 13,085; South America, 
13,005; Honolulu, 19,626; China, 7003. Oats ctls, 
Honolulu, 697. Wine gals, New York, 27,477; 
Central America. 1079; Mexico, 786; Honolulu, 
2350. Brandy gals, Central America, 50. Canned 
iruits, sundry ports. 550 cases. Dried fruits lbs, 
Central America, 468; Honolulu. 550; Victoria. 124a 
H ly bales, Honolulu, 949. Raisins bxs, Honolulu, 
553. Hops lbs, Honolulu, 406. 

Frnits and Vegetables. 

Obolce selected. In good packages, fetch an advance on top 
.imitations, while very poor grade* sell lew than the lower 


Apples, bx, com. 50 @ 1 f0 

d>Oo,d 1 25 @ 1 5U 

do Choice 1 75 w 2 00 

do Extra 2 £5 @ 2 50 

do Eastern bill 4 50 @ 5 5 I 
Banana-, hunch 1 00 (a 3 10 

Cranberries u 01 (o:14 00 

Limes, Mi .... 5 00 @ 7 00 
do Cal lrge cases 2 00 & — 
Lemons, Ctl.bx. 1 50 (5 2 75 

do Sicily, hx.. 6 00 (S 6 00 

do Malaga.... 4 00 @ 4 50 

do doSetdllng 2 CO <a 3 00 
Pineapples, doz 3 00 @ 5 00 
I.ailyapples, box 1 25 Ig 1 75 

Va avil! 1 25 <» 1 75 .Garlic, tb 

L Angeles sdlgs 2 00 @ 2 50 Tomatoes, bx 

Eiv.r ide sdlgs 2 75 W 3 25 Rhubarb 

do Navels.. 3 00 (d 4 50 Ureeu Peas,.. 
L»3 Angeles do 2 50 3 5t String Beans . 

Wkdnekdat, Jan. 8, 1890. 
Duarte do . . . 3 00 @ 4 00 

Okra, dry. lb 1. •< 

Parsnips, ctl 1 00 

Peppers, dry, lb 
do green, lb.. 
Marrowfat, ton 6 00 

Turnips, ctl 60 I 

Beets, sk 60 

Cabbage, 100 lbs 60 i 

Carrots, sk 

Mushrooms. Cul- 
tivated, lb 20 I 

Wild, lb 

Cucumbers bx.. 

Dried Frnits, Etc. 

The quotations given below are for average prices paid 
Choice to extra choice fetch an advance on the highest quo- 
tations while poor sells slightly below the lowest quotations. 

Prices named, uuless otherwise s'ecifl d, are for fruit io 
sacks. Add for 50-Ib. boxes Jc per lb., aad for 25-tb boxes 
|c to lc per lb. 

Apples, sun-dried, quarters, common 3 @ 31 

" " " prime 1 " 4| 

" " " choice 41@ 6 

" " sliced, common Sivt 4 

" " prime 4, / 41 

" " " choice 6 @ 5( 

" Evap. bleached, ring. 60-tb boxes i\w 10 

Apricots, sun-dried, unbleached, common — & — 

" " " prime t m 8 

choice 9i@ 10| 

" " bleached, prime 1 1 <t 11 

" " " obolce 12 @ 13 

" fancy IStffl 15 

" Evap. choice, In boxes 14 •« 15 



Bun-dried, black 1 : <r 

white — @ 

" washed — vg 

" " " fancy 7 « 

" " " pressed S @ 

" " 11 unpressed H& 

" Smyrna 14 <3b 

Grapes, sun-dried, stemless 2 @ 

" unstemmed li(& 

Nectarines, Red, sun-dried 5 @ 

" evaporated, In boxes 8 w 

" white, sun-dried 7 ■ 

" evaporated 10 ■ 

Peaches, suo-dried. unpeeled, common 4 % 

" " " prime 6 @ 

" " " choice 11 "t 

" P fancy 13 & 

" evaporated " choice 16 @ 

" " " fanoy 20 ® 

" sun-dried, peeled, prime 13 @ 

" " " choice 16 w 

" " " fancy 18 (S 

" evaporated, " In boxes, choice 19 @ 

" " " fancy 21 ■ 

Pears, sun-dried, quarters - @ 

" " sliced . r > «T 

" evaporated. " In boxes 7 <g 

" " ring " - m 

Plums, pitted, sun-dried 4 (8 

" " evap. In boxes, choice — @ 

" " " fancy — «r 

" uopltted l;<t 

Prunes, Cal. French, ungraded sizes. 


90 to 100. 
80 to 90... 
70 to so... 
60 to 70... 
50 to 60... 

2 00 

Fancy sell for more money. 


Halves, quarters and eighths, 25, 50 and 76 cents higher 
respectively than whole box prioes. 

London Layers, choice $ bx Cl 75 I 

fancy, " 2 26 i 

Layers, . s i 1 60 i 

Loose Muscatels, common, V bx. 

choice, " . 
Unstemmed " In sacks, ^ lb.. 
Stemmed " " 11 .. 

Seedless " " " .. 

" # 20-th bx 1 15 

" Sultanas, unbleached. In bxs 1 16 

•' " bleached " 1 20 

Jan. 11, 1890.] 

f AClFie I^URAb f RESS. 



[Furnished (or publication in this paper by Nelson Gorom, Sergeant Signal Service Corps XT S. A.] 



Bed Bluff. 


a. Francisco. 



Lob Angeles. 

San Diego 

























Jan. l-.Tan. 7. 



















































■ '- 







































































































1 02 




































1 14 













































































































1 90 

Explanation.— 01. (or clear; Cy., clou ly; Fr., fair; Fy., foggy; Cm , calm;— indicates too small to measure. T-"mperatur«, wind and weatbor at 5:00 p. m. (Pacific Standard time ) 
with amount of rainfall In the preceding 24 hours. T indicates trace o( rainfall. San Francisco rainfall to gain Dec. 21, 12.77. Season to 9 A. M. p 24 96. 


Comb, dark, 2-tb. frames, 60-tt>. cases, $ lb 4 @ 6 

" amber, " 11 ca. new " 5i(9> 6i 

" white " " " " 8 @ 12 

Extracted, dark, 5-gal. cans, 2 cans to case, $ lb. 4 @ 5 

" amber, " " . 53@ 6} 

" white, " " '' . 6}@ 7 

Comb, 2-tlns, 2 doz. to case, $ doz 12 @ 14 

Extracted, " " — @ 

" 4-lb. tins, 1 doz. 11 — @ — 

Beeswax, per pound 18 @ 22 

Domestic Produce. 

Extra choice In good packages fetch an advance on top 
quotations, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 


Bayo, ctl 2 90 @ 3 10 

Butter 1 90 @ 2 00 

Pea 1 80 @ 2 05 

Red 2 75 @ 3 00 

Pink 1 90 @ 2 05 

Large White ... — @ — 
Small White .. 1 75 @ 2 05 
Lima... .. 4 25 @ 5 00 
Fid Peas.blkeye 2 U0 @ 2 25 

do green .... 2 50 @ 3 ) 

do 1 90 @ 2 00 

Split 5}@ 5i 

Choice toExtraS5 00 @ 72 50 
Fair to Good.. 57 50 @ 62 50 

Poor 42 50 @ 47 60 


California 6 @ 0} 

German 6i@ 7 



OaL Poortofair.tbl2J® 

do good to choice 20 @ 

do Giltedged... 23 @ 

do pickled 10 @ 

do in kegs Id @ 

Eastern Cre'm'ry 15 @ 

do do Gilt-edged 18 @ 

Oal. new,cboice. 

mild 11 @ 
do fr to g'd old 6 {en 
N. York Cream. 12 @ 

Western 9 @ 


Oal. ranch, doz. 4246 
do do sel'cted 47i"< 


do. store 37} ® 40 

Est'rn.cldst'rage 25 (8 27 

do fresh 30 @ 321 

do selected.. 35 @ 37$ 

Bran, ton 11 50 @13 00 

Feedmeal 20 00 @23 00 

Gr'd Barley 18 00 @\9 00 

Middlings 17 CO <ai8 50 

Oil Cake Meal. .30 00 @ — 
Manhattan Food 

Wednesday, Jan. 8. 1890 

NUTS Jobbing. 
Walnuts, Oal. &> 6 «r 

do Oh'ce 10 @ 

Almonds, hd sbl. 4 @ 
Softshell ..... 9 @ 
Paper shell... 13 @ 

Brazil 11 @ 

Pecans 9 @ 

Peanuts 4J@ 

Filberts 11 @ 

Hickory 5 (3 

CbestDUts 14 & 

Pine nuts 9 @ 

Early Rose, sks. 1 35 

Chile - (g 

Peerless 1 25 @ I 75 

River Reds 1 25 @ 1 51 

Burbanks 1 75 @ 2 15 

Swe t 1 0J @ 1 75 


Hens, doz 6 00 ® 8 50 

Roosters.old C 09 @ 7 00 

do young . . . 
Broilers, small 
do large. 
Ducks, tame. . . 

Geese, pair 2 00 @ 2 50 

Turkeys, Gobl'r. 15 @ 18* 
Turkeys, Hens. . 15 @ 1 J 
do dressed 17 # 21 

Pigeons, old 1 75 @ 2 00 

do young. 1 50 @ 2 00 

Rabbits, doz 1 00 <a> 1 50 

Hare 1 60 @ 1 75 

Doves 50 <a 75 

Quail, doz 1 25 @ 1 50 


English 1 50 @ 1 75 

Jack 75 O 1 10 

Widgeons .... 2 25 O 2 50 

Mallards 5 00 @ 5 50 

Sprigs 3 50 @ - 

Teals 2 50 @ 3 00 

Small 1 50 0> 1 75 

Canvasback 5 00 @ 6 59 

Ge se. Gray 3 50 & — 

do White.... 1 50 @ 1 75 


,! ! 





1 60 

7 00 (S10 00 

4 00 & 5 50 

5 50 @ 7 50 
7 00 C«10 00 

Per 100 lbs ... 7 50 @ - Honkers 6 tO @ 


Compressed 8 00 (812 00 

Wheat, per ton. 7 00 Sl4 00 
Wheat and Oats 8 00 JC12 00 

Wild Oata 7 00 Oil 50 

Tame do 6 50 @10 50 

Olover 5 00 @10 00 

do ch'ceredtop 11 60 @13 00 
Cultivated Oats 6 00 @ 8 60 

Wild Oats 5 00 @I0 50 

Barley 5 00 @ 9 50 

Barley and Oats 5 00 <a 8 00 

Alfalfa 5 00 (9 9 00 

Stock Hay 3 50 <a> 6 50 

AlfalfaC'mpr'sd 6 50 @ 9 00 

Straw bale 45 @ 60 

Extra. CityMiUs 4 12j@ 4 35 
do Co try Mills 4 Ofl @ 4 35 

Superfine 3 00 £ 3 60 

Barley, feed, ctl. 80 @ 83? 
do Choice 85 @ 874 

do Brewing... 92*<a 1 00 
do do Choice . 1 ( 2J<3 i 10 
do do giltedg'd 1 15 @ 1 124 
Chevalier cuct 1 35 (CD 1 40 
do com to good 1 05 «* 1 3 > 
Buckwheat. .. 1 75 <» 2 10 
Corn, White.... 1 05 @ 1 15 

Yellow 95 (8 1 I2j 

Oats, milling.... 1 » 1 35 

Surprise 1 35 @ 1 40 

Choice feed 1 32 J @ 

do good 1 30 @ - 

do fair 1 25 <§ 1 275 

do Gray 1 15 ffl 1 25 

Rye 92J® 1 00 

Wheat, milling. 
Giltedged.... 1 3"i@ 1 371 

do Choice 1 33J@ 1 35 

dofairtogood 1 31i(« 1 32* 
■Shipping, cho'ce 1 30 @ 1 31} 

dogooi 1 27J(g 1 28| 

do fair 1 25 @ 1 26 \ 


Dry 8J(g 9 

Salted 4J@ 8 


Oregon, 1888 .... 6 @ 9 
Oregon, 1889 .... 10 @ 14 
California. 1888.. 6 @ 9 
do 1889 Choice 13 m 14 
do Fair to G'd 9 @ 12 

Silver Skin che'e 1 10 @ 1 25 
do fair to good. 60 <8 1 CO 

Brant 1 P0 @ 1 75 

Manhattan, $ lb 12 @ — 

Cal. Bacon, 

Heavy, lb 



Extra Light.. 


Cal. Sm'k'd Beef 

H iins, Cal 12; i 

do Eastern... 14 



Clover, Red 


Cotton 20 @ 



Perennial . . . 
Millet, German . 

do Common.. 
Mustard, yellow 
do Brown .... 


Ky. Blue Grass. 

2d quality . . . 
Sweet V. Grass. 

Orchard 12 @ 

Hungarian. . 





Crude, lb 3 @ 

Refined 6 @ 


SPRING— 1889. 

Humboldt and 

Mendocino. ... 

20 6 

t 24 

Sac'to valley. . . . 

15 a 

I 22 

Free Mountain. 

20 (< 

r 24 

S Joaquin valley 


\ 17 

do mouutaln. 

17 (c 

t 22 

Cala'vi F'th'll. 

15 <c 

1 24 

Oregon Eastern. 

13 a 

h 22 

do valley 

20 $ 

t 25 

So'n Coast, def . . 

11 6 

b 14 

Son Coast, free. 

14 a 

) 19 

FALL — 1889. 

San Joaquin . . . 


8 <a 10 

n <i 

6 m 

Mountain, free. 


t 14 

13 « 

i 16 

Don't Fail to Write. 

8hould this paper be reoeived by any subscriber who 
does not want It, or beyond the time he intends to pay 
for it, let him not (all to write us direct to stop it. A 
postal card (costing one cent only) will suffice. We will 
not knowingly send the paper to any one who does not 
wish it, but U it is continued, through the failure of the 
subsoriber to notify as to discontinue tt, or some Irre- 
sponsible party requested to stop It, we shall positively 
demand payment (or the time It is sent. Look oahfull i 

4ff f UM LABIL AM ▼Arm p 1 pvr 

Any ambitious young man or woman among our 
readers is advised to read the ad. ■ ' Practical Short- 
hand," page 46. 







Inferior Article 


More Profitable 
to some one 





In order to meet the demand for Trees, kc . from Factions of the country where the climate 
will permit of their being planted durinir ri 1 WANPTR K R ADDV 
the winter months, we have placed in our fc _ Y .f? _ _ bhuh I , 
storage, bouses a complete ■■olleetimi of MOUNT HOPE NURSERIES, ROCHESTER, N . Y . 
nursery stock, and can ship at any time. "^^^"t'ATALOGUK FREE 

California Products at the East. 

Chicago. Jan. 8. — California green fruits are 
quiet with only a small supply. Quotable: P>a's — 
V\ inter Nelis, $3 \f? box; Pound pears, $3.50; liaster 
Beurre, $3 25. 

Oranges sell moderately. Receipts continue light 
and choice fruit is steady. 

Calilornia Nuts — Thf x- axe inquiries but no offer- 
ings. The following prices are obtainable: Wal- 
nuts, ii@nj^c t/f ft; Almonds, hard shell, accord- 
ing to quality. 7@ac. 

California Dried Fruits — As de from prunes, which 
are in good request and firm, the market is ruling 
quiet. The market for other lines is really dull. 
So far as can be learned, former prices are asked. 
On most lines stocks are only moderate, and hold- 
ers for this reason do not feel uneasy. Peaches — 
Unpeeled, Chinese bleach' d, sacks, I2@i4c; un- 
peeled do, 15(g) 16c; peeled do, choice to fai cy, 22 
@24c; do, fair to good. 2r@2 tc. Apricots — Cho ce 
to taticy. large, sacks. I2@i3c; eood to choice, 10 
@nc; small and ordinary, 7@9C Nectarines — 
White, choice to fancy, sacks, I2^c; do. red do, 
nj^@i2c; do. common grades, sacks, g\i@io%c. 
Prunes— French, dipped, sacks. 40 to 50 to the 
lb., gc; 50 to 6a do, 8J£@8Kc; 60 to 70 do, 754c; 
70 to 80, 6j4@62ic; 80 to go do. 6%c\ 90 to 100 do, 
5^c; ioo to 120 do, sM@^%c\ undipped bring 
nearly the same as dipped. Piums — Ege, accord- 
ing to quality, sacks. 6@yiic. Prunes— Hungarian, 
sacks. 3 % @4 %c. Pears— Choice Bartletts, 11 %(S>, 
12c ^ff lb ; other kinds, common to choice, 5@9c. 
Boxed lots of the above descriptions bring about 
\ic J? lb. premium over sacks. Raisins — New Lon- 
don Layers, $ box, $2. io@2 25: New London Lay- 
ers, lancy, $2.40(^2.50; loose Muscatels. $1.50® 
1.85; 3-crown, common, $1.35; 2-crown, loose, 

$t. I0@1.20. 

Hops are firm under fair demand and only mod- 
erate supply, especially of fine goods. California, 
9K@nc $lb. 

Beans — Parties endeavoring to sell beans are 
meeting with very little encouragement; the demand 
continues very backward. There are fair offerings 
as a whole, but part of the supply comprises goods 
that cannot be classed among the best grades. 
California Lima beans are selling at 5^c $ lb. for 
choice; common, 3c. 


Clydesdale Horses & Mares 



Sixth Annual Importation by 


Fcur Pure-bred Clydesdale Horses 

- AND - 

For Garden and Farm — We have received 
from J. Seulbergtr of 509 S ^veDth Sc., Oakland, 
bis descriptive catalogue of seede, plants and 
stock in nursery at IVralta Hights — a neat 
40-page pamphlet, which can doubtless be had 
by applying to Mr. S. as above, either person- 
ally or through the post-effice. 

Two Thoroughbred Clyde Mares. 

CAN be seen at the bay district track. 

For particulars apply to 

KIIjIjIF eft; OO., 

i 22 Montgomery Street, San Francisco, Cal 


Buttor la 10 minutes. Child can 
use it. No friction, ho oil or 
grease can get iu cream. No stick- 
ing of butter to eides. Can bo 
cleaned easier and quicker thaa 
any other chum. Cheapest firat- 
Oteftfl churn ever made. 
"Churn will accomplish all yoti 
'claim. Send me eight more."* S. 
B. Stillwell, Ohioville, N, Y. 

"Churn is first-class." Geo. 
Beany, Lenox, Mich. 

"Churn uniformly brings butter 
In ten minutes." G- B. Bradley, 
Saucratuck. Conn. 

"\\"e like the churn very much." 
Harry Cilmore, Versailles, Ky. 

* I and my neighhors like tha 
chum very much." Geo. E. Mead. 
Binebamton. N. Y. 
"My girl, fix years o*d, generally docs the churntn? with th» 
Cyclone in six to eight minutes." J. S. Scbovaovcr, Iudiana- 
polis, Ind. 

Abk Your Dealer For It, and If he does not 
keep it, write to 

G. W. ARMES & CO., 
117 and 119 California Street, S. F. 



Now that the interest in the culture of the orange is 
extending so as to embrace nearly all parts of the State, 
a book giving the re»u Its of experience in parts of the 
State wbere the growth of the fruit has been longest pur- 
sued will be found of wide usefulness. 

"Orange Culture in California" was written by Tims. 
A. Garey of Los Angeles, after many years of practical 
experience and observation in the growth of the fruit. 
It is a well-printed hand-book of 196 pages, and treats of 
nursery practice, planting of orange orchards, cultiva- 
tion and irrigation, pruning, estimates of cost of planta- 
tions, best varieties, etc. 

The book is sent post-paid at the reduced price of 75 
cents per copy, in cloth binding. Address Dbwey & Co., 
Publishers " Pacific Rural Press," 220 Market St., S. F. 


Take care of your HORSE. Civilized Man advances 
rapidly and the Horse will " Keep up with the Band " if 
well cared for. Horse Boots, Robes, Blankets, etc 
Saddles, $6 to $75 each. Harness, S3 to $250 per set. 
American and English Saddlery Goods. 

w . Davis c«3 Son, 

Between Sansome and Battery, SAN FRANCISCO. 

The California Stump Puller 

The most practical, powerful and rapid-working nu- 
chine In America, and the only machine made that can 
be operated successfully on hill land, is manufactured by 

Goo. Uarvoy , 
Write for Circular. 

Books for Pleasure and Prok 

Cushing's Manual.-Revised Edition, 
with Additions and Corrections. 

No one who wishes to take part in 
the proceedings of any organized 
body can afford to do without the 
help of this little volume ; knowledge 
of its contents alone is a valuable 
education, and the price is so mod- 
erate that no one need deprive 
himself of its teachings. Also con- 
taining the Constitution of the United 
States and Declaration of Independ- 
ence. Containing 200 pages. 

Clotn gilt. Price 50 cts. 

Pa inter's (Via nual. 

— A complete practical guide to 
house and sign painting, grain- 
ing, varnishing, polishing, kal- 
somining, papering, ettering, 
staining, gilding, glazing, silver- 
ing, analysis of colors, har- 
mony, contrast, philosophy, the- 
ory, and practice of color, 

frinciples of glass staining, etc. 
ncluding a new and valuable 
treatise on How to Mix Paints. 
Price 50 cts 

Wilford's Original Dialogues and 
Speeches for Young 

Folks.— Being by far the most 
complete of its kind ever issued. 
This work supplies that palpable 
need, which has so long been evi- 
dent in books of this class, that of 
Dialogues and Speeches adapted to 
the natures of children. This work 
contains 19 Original Dialogues and 
S3 Speeches, especially adapted for 
children between the ages of 5 and 
12 years. 160 pages. 
Paper cover, Price 25 cts. 

Brudder Card ner'sStump Speech- 
es and Comic Lec- 
tures.— Containing the 

best hits of the leading 
Negro delineators of the 
"te^Vi^H K "It present day, comprising the 
PTvC/Tftp^-i, \ m °st amusing and side- 
splitting contribution of 
oratorical effusions which 
have ever been produced 
to the public. The newest 
and best book of Negro 
comicalities published. 160 
1 pages. Bound in illuminat- 
ed paper covers. Price 2 s cts. 

rne's Business Lettei Writer 
and Manual of Com- 
mercial Forms.— Con- 
taining specimen Letters on all 
possible business topics, with 
' appropriate answers. Contain- 
ing general information with 
regard to business matters, the 
rules for punctuation, the abbre- 
viations most used in the 
mercantile world, a dictionary 
of mercantile terms, a table of 
synonyms, and other informa- 
tion which may be of value to 
New edition, revised and en- 


the business man. 

2i 6 pages, extra cloth, 4 75 «ts. 

Boards, 50 cts. 

Burdett's New Comic Recitations 
and Humorous Readings. 

— A new volume of comic and humor- 
ous selections, compiled by the cel- 
ebrated humorist, James S. .Burdett 
many of which have never before ■ 
been published in book form. In ad- 
dition to the new and original pieces 
here contained, this book has the ad- 
vantage of bringing together into one 
Tolunie all of the very best selections of 
a comic nature which have hitherto 
attained a wide popularity through the 
public representations of the most renowned 
humorists of the day. It is the newest, handsomest 
and choicest book of its kind. Price 25 cts 

The Candy Maker. 

— A Practical Guide"' to the 
Manufacture of the various kinds 
of Plain and Fancy Candy. The 
fullest directions are given for 
getting up the most exquisitely 
beautiful looking candies, as well 
as the most alluring to the palate ; 
while equal attention is given 
to all the plainer kinds, so uni- 
versally liked by the " little ones." 
Every Direction, every Recipe,, 
every Concoction of which Sugar, 
Spice and Essence are the ingre- 
dients, is given in such a plain way that a child can 
understand them. Large nmo. Price 50 cts. 

Wilson's Ball-Room Guide and 

Call-Book.— Hie most 
complete published, containing 
full and requisite information 
for the giving of Receptions, 
Parties, Balls, etc., with clear 
directions for calling out the 
figures of every dance, together 
. with thirty-eight pages of the 

\ \\~\ l?'"A>*-^ latesl and most fashionable 
f, k'AAjBwi^"— copyrighi music, and contain- 
VjJ^'fe-ivi - ing marly one hundred figures 
' for the "German." Bound in 

illuminated board cover, with 

cloth back, Price 75 c ts. 

Bound in illuminated paper cover.Price 50 cts. 

Dunbar's Complete Hand-Book 
of Etiquette.— This work 

presents, in a clear and intellig- 
ible manner, tu.e whole. art and 
philosophy of Etiquette. Among 
the contents are : Bodily Deport- 
ment, Speak Grammatically, 
Self-respect, Pedantry, Social 
Characters, Traveling,. Useful 
Hints on Conversation, Forms 
of Invitation, Letters of Intro- 
duction, Bridal Etiquette, Ball- 
room Etiquette, etc., etc. Bound 
in Boards, cloth back. 
Price 50 cts. 

( HaMn V. Kspnnol » 

Spanish at a Glance. 

A new system arranged for self-tuition, beine 
the easiest method of acquiring a thorough knowN 
edge of the Spanish language ever published. 

Bound in boards, cloth back 35 cts. 

Bound in paper cover, Price . 25 cts! 

A portion of the above works wi'l be sent from our 
officii direct, while some will be ordered from other pub- 
lishing houses, requiring some two weeks longer time, 
Address, DEWEY & CO , 

220 Market St , San Francisco, Cal. 



[Jan. 11, 1890 

Seeds, Mailt?, tic. 


200,000 Olives. 18 Varieties. 


sr. Xj. howl a-nd, 


Pomona, Los Angeles County, Cal. 



I offer f<»r t*>e season of 1S89-90 a general assortment of 
Hardv Fruit Trees, gr--wn without irr1^«tion 

Improved s .ft Shell Emrllxh Walnut, White Adriatic 
and Smyrna Figs in oidcrs of 10,000 a specialty. 

Depot fir Trees, Main Street, Vin'ura. Nurseries 
located four milts east of Ventura on Santa Pau'a Road. 

Prices furnished on application. Address 

O. P. COOK. Ventura, Cal. 

Riverside Nursery and Fruit Farm. 

Lodi, San Joaauin County, Cal., 



Shrubs , Vines , Etc. 

Yearling Fruit Trees, June Buds and Dormant Buds of 
all the leading varieties, budded from bearing trees and 
Guaranteed True to L%bel, including 11 French Prunes," 
11 Royal Apricots," Newcastle Early Apricots," "Adriatic 
*'\gt>," "Bartlett Pears," "Muir Peache*," Orange, Lemon 
and Olive Tree*; J ipan Fruit and Nut Trees; I. X. L. and 
Nonpareil Almonds, etc., etc. 

Catalogues mailed free to applicants. Address com- 
munications, JA8. A. ANDERSON, 

IiOdl, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 


A large 1 >t of genuine Blenheim Apricot, and Hatch 
Varieties of Almonds: I. X L., Nonpareil and Ne Plus 
lltra; all other sorts Fruit Trees at reasonable rates. A 
fine lot of Hooted Muscat Vines. 8cnd for Price-List. 


Box 51. Davisville, Cal. 


A choice lot of two-year-old I'i-holine Olive Trees, in 
open ground. Low prices. C. W. CRANE, 

Sunol Glen, Alameda Co., Cal. 


Dealers in all the Leading Varieties of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Plants and Yines. 

Texas Umbrella Trees an J Adriatic Figs. Choice Orange and Olive Trees a Specialty. NEWCASTLE EARLY 
APRICOT— The earliest in cultivation. LbVV CLING PEACH— The largest and best late yellow. 

A. F. B0ARDMAN & CO., Auburn, Placer County, California. 


Trees and Nursery Stock For Sale at Low Prices 



Of Most Approved Varieties. 

gg" SEND FOR CATALOGUE. Satisfaction Guaranteed. 

NURSERIES: Near Acampo Stai ion , San loaqnin. PRINCIPAL DEPOT; 813 Second St., 
Near 1-assenger Depot, Sacramento. 

HIE IE 33 db VAN O Ij T D iJ 1 1 . 

Nurserymen < 

SAoramonto, OaI. 


The Riverside Washington Navel & Med. Sweet, 

Paper Rind St. Michael's, Malta Blood, Myrtle Leaved, Etc., 


CAL. FAN PALMS, All Prices, From 5c to $2.00. 



reatxx-yxx. Placer Co., Cn 1 , 

MRS. N. M. ERASER, Proprietor. ... FRED C. MILES, Manager. 

1853. SEEDS! SEEDS! SEEDS! isas. 
#T- 1 3 . Sweeney eft? Oo., 

Importers, Orowers and Dealers in Foreign and Domestic Seeds, Alfalfa, Red and White Clover, Alsike, Timothy, 
Hed-ttp, Millets, So.gum, Espcrcette, Or. hard and Kentucky Blue Grass and all kinds of Field, Tree and Veritable 
Seeds. At Lowest Mai Let Kales. Catalogue Free. Correspondence solicited. 

J. P. SWEENEY & CO., Seed and Produce Commission Merchants, 





Sole Owners, Patentees and Manufacturers of 











3XO California St.. San Francisco. 

Incorporated, 1884. 

460 Acres. 



Niles, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Largest Stock, on tlio Pacific Ooast. 
Fruit Trees, Nut Trees, Wine, Raisin and Table Grapes, Berry Plants. 

OLIVES — A large collection of French, Italian and Spanish Varieties. 

ORANGES AND LEMONS — Home-grown Trees of all leading sorts; California and Florida 

A LARGE STOCK OF WHITE ADRIATIC FIG, of various sizes and prices. 

Ornamentals, Shade Trees, Evergreens, Shrubs, 
Roses, Climbing Plants, &c. 

For Complete 1.1st, send for our New Catalogue. 

JOHN ROCK, Manager, KTIXjES, Alameda Oo., OaXa 

640 ACRE*. 



F. ROEDING, Proprietor. 

Largest Stock of 


On. tno Pacific Coast. 


Olives, Grapes, ShadeTrees, Palms, Roses & Oleanders. 

Send for Fall Catalogue. Address all letters to 

Gr. O. ROEDINO, Manager, 

ir"i*0!sno, Oal. 




Agency of CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO , Niles, Alameda Co., Cal. 

We now offer for the Season of 1SS9 and '90 the Largest and Best Selected Stock on the Pacific Coast, 

Fruit Trees, Grapes, Olives, Orange and Lemon Trees, 

White Adriatic Fig, Small Fruits, etc., etc. Ornamental Trees and Plants, Roses, 
Magnolias, Palms, Bulbs, etc. 

We have also constantly on hand a Large and Fresh Stock of GRASS, CLOVER, TEG ETA BLI 
FLOWER AND TREE SEEDS. farCatalogue mailed on application., 

THOS. MEHERIN, 516 Battery St., San Francisco. Oal. 

Jan. 11, 1890.J 

f ACIFI6 f^URAb f RESS. 


Seeds, Wapts, tie. 


(Established 1878.) 


Of none but the Best Varieties of 


Etc , Etc. 

New Descriptive Catalogue Now Ready. 




Established 1871. 

Stock Unexcelled, of None But the Best, 


Mission, Picholine (Readings), Nevardillo, 
Lava)cn>y and ethers. 

Strong Vines, $15 per Thousand. 

Ready to fruit this season, $15 per hundred, and 2-year- 
old Plants, $10 per hundred. 
Also, Hi© Largest and Best- Selected Stock of 

Azaleas, Camellias, EhoduHendron, Fnchsta, 

and the best stock of Evergreen, Ornameutal Trees and 
Shrubs on the Pacific Coast. Address: 

Baker and Lombard Sts„ San Francisco, Cal. 


Seed Merchant. 

: 'on Sets, Grass, Clover, Vegetable 
and Flower Seeds. 

Largest Stock & Most Complete Assortment. 

Illustrated descriptive and priced seed Catalogue for 
1890, the m"st elaborate and valuable of Its kind of any 
Pacific Coast publioation, mailed free to all applicants. 

Address, E J. BOWEN, 

815 & 817 Sansome St, San Francisco, 
or 65 Front St., Portland, Or. 


I have a large selection of OLIVES (In varieties), 


Ouavas, Bananas (in six different varieties), Walnuts and 
Ornamental Shade Trees. Also make a specialty of 

Tropical and Semi-Tropical Fruit Trees. 



S2 to $4 per hundred. 



Santa Barbara, 




Propagator of and Dealer in 


And Shade Trees. 


(Nursery three miles west of Yuba City.) 

Alwavs on hand and for sale, a large stock of Oenulne 
Bartlett Pear, Apple, Plum, Cherry, Peach, Apricot, 
Quince, Nectarine, and Small Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees. Also Orange, Lemon, Lime, Japanese Persimmon, 
Olive, Nut Trees, Grape Vines, eta 



For Grafting and Buddlne. 

FOll SALiE. 

A Fine Lot of Rooted Muscats. 


216 Montgomery Street, San Francisco 

Best Sorts, New and Old. Fine 
Blocks of Bome-Grovm St'd and 
Dw'f Pear; Plum, Peach and Apri- 
cot, on Peach on Plum, and on 
Mariana roots; Cherry, Quince, 
Apple and Crab grafted on piece 
roots, on Whole Roots and 
Budded ; Mulberries, Orapes, Small Fruits, Roses 
Evergreens, Ornamentals, Root Grafts— Everything! 
No larger stock in U. S. No Better. No Cheaper. 



Largest Stock of Trees in 
the S'ate. 

The only Fig that should be 
planted for Drying. 








Cherries, Nectarines, 




Shade Trees and Ornamen- 
tal Shrubs, 

Greenhouse Plants, Roses. Etc. 

A complete assortment of Rooted 
Grapes and Cuttings. All trees war- 
ranted free from Scale or Aphis. 

£3T Catalogue Free. 

W. M. Williams & Co, 

Box 175. 








Having added by purchase, to that of our own growing, the entire nursery stock grown at James Shinn's 
Nurseries, Niles, Cal., we are better prepared than ever before to meet the increasing dtmtnd for trees, and offer 
for the season of 1889-1890 the largest and most complete assortment of Nursery Stock on the 
Pacific Coast, embracing all the leading varieties of Fruit. Shade and Ornamental Trees, 
Roses, Plants, etc., etc. BKKKV BUSHES of all kinds in quantities to suit. 200,000 GRAPK 
VINE 4 (strong roots); also 60,000 OLIVE TREES (Mission and Picholine), Oranges, Lemons, 
Nut Trees, e'e, etc. 

NDRSEkIES— San Rafael, Alameda and Niles, Cal. Packing O rounds and Salesyard at 
Niles R. R Station. Catalogues sent upon application. Address all communications to 

TRUMBULL & BEEBE, 419421 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal. 


X*\7". BELL. 

(Successor to L. BURBANK.) 

A Large Stock of All the Leading 
Varieties of 


Our Trees are all Grown on New Land and Guaranteed Free From all Insect Pests. 

Almonds a Specially: California paper shell (very fine), sold 

wholesale this year for 22 cents per lb. Nonpareil, Goldm State, 1. X. L., 
Ne Plus Ultra, Drake's, King's Soft Shell, Etc. 

We are now,ready to contract to raise flrat-c!ass trees for delivery during the planting season of 1S90-91 at $7 per 100. 

The Celebrated Tragedy Prune, French Prune, Silver Prune, Etc. 

Correspondence solicited. Our Catalogue of 1889-90 sent free. Our prices are the very lowest; no exception. Address 

V/V/ . TREAT, TJavlsvllle, Cal, 


Established 18S3. 


1,000,000 Rooted Grapevines— Table, Raisin and Wine. Largest Stock 
of Peach and Apricot on the Coast. 


Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Vines and Greenhouse Plants. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue and Price-list for 1889-90. All Trees, Vines, etc., guaranteed free from Scale and 
other injurious pests. A certificate of inspection furnished to all. 

E. C. CLOWES, Proprietor, (Successor to W. B. West ) Stockton, Cal. 

Warranted Free From Scale and Raised 
Without Irrigation. 


and other Choice Olives, cheap. 
REDDING PICHOLINES (1 yr.). $8 to $10 
per Hundred. 

Figs, Japan Mammon & IMian Chestnuts, Mulberries 
and Best Walnuts. 

A Liberal Discount on Large Orders. 

Fine Small Frnits_a Specialty. 





Lakeland, Polk Co., Fla. 

Owing to the death of a member of our firm, the business must be closed out, and in order 
to sell out our immense Nursery Stock in bulk, we will make it grestlv to the interest of any 
one who has capital to invest. Oar annual PRICE LIST with REDUCED PRICES furnished 
on application. We carry a large collection of miscellaneous stock, but make 


Orders for small or large lots filled with dispatch. 
Rural Press. Address, 

Communication solioited. Mention Pacific 

33. H. TISON, Business Manager, 

XietlS-oletxid, Foils. Co,, Fla . 

Firm and Luscious, stands travel fiutly, bears im- 
mensely, and has two crops a year; 60 cents per dozen; 

per 100. Also Strawberries, Blackberries, Gooseber- 
ries, Currants, etc., of the finest imported varieties. 
Prices on application. L. D. McCANM, 

San, a Cruz, Cal. 


Established In 1858. 

I offer for the season of 1889-90 a general assortment of 
hardy Fruit Trees, grown without irrigation. Apricots 
and Prunes on Myrobolan s-ocks a specialty. All the 
leading varieties of Apples, Pears, Plums, Peaches, Nec- 
tarines, Almonds, Cherries, Quinces, etc. I use nrnt-class 
seedii g stocks in propagoting, grow in my own nurseries 
all the trees offered for sale, and guarantee all kinds to 
be true to name. My trees are olean and healthy and 
offered at low rates for quality of stock. Prices furnished 
on application. Address 

W. H. PEPPER, Petaluma, Cal. 




Address, T. S. INGHAM, 

San Bernardino, California, 



[Jan. 11, 1890 


140 000 -TREES -140 000 




All our Orange Trees are Straight, Healthy and Well Rooted. 

Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees 

Of Every Description. 



Sent! lor new Catalogue a< d Price list. 


Can be made to throw from the 
: ' t S-'i 1 ' flniBt aprsy to a solid stream in 
^t^uV an instant, therefore it cannot be 
•$:*>*S Ll °i;K ed - Price, 91, postage paid. 

Throws Strong, Continuous Sjirny. 

Our Patent VULCANIZED RUBBER VALVES are not injured by any wash used. The capacity 1b 

one-tblrd greater than former j earn and still much less labor is required to operate. Send for Circular. ' 

BEAN SPRAY PUMP CO., Los Gatos, California. 





Our Harvesters have had a wonderful sale during the past 8»ason, giving complete satisfac- 
tion. We. carry » LARGE STOCK OF PLOWS AND EXTRAS at lowest prices. 

JOBBING IN WOOD AND IRON Done with Neatness and Dispatch. 

Orders will receive prompt attention. Apply for Price Lists and Circulars. 





Owing to the Rapid Sale of these Plows, we have been compelled to 
order a new supply, which has just arrived from the East. 

Orders for all Sizes of the 


The BestChilled Plow Made, 

Oan Now t>© F*rorriptly iFMlleca. 



•an Francisco c*r» Sacramento, Oal. 


Orchard &Viney ard 

Two-Horse Gang 

AND * 

O ne- II o x- « o r 1 o -w « . 

Now is the time for Orcharding and Vlnevardis's to he looking for the right kind'of implements for the plowing 
of their Orchard- an* V netarde. The BILZ PLOWS >tanri at ihe head of all Orchard and Vineyard Plow* in th« 
market, and are without rivals. One man with two horses and this Gang can do nearly as much and better work 
per day than two men and four horses with >ingle Plows and can plow close to the tree or vine without the slngle- 
tr»e touching them. In Vineyards the One-horse Plow is generaliv used with the Gang, for plowing «ut the center 
between the vines. Remember that these are the Best Plows, and every Orchard and Vineyard Man wants one. 

J. A. BILZ, Pleasanton, Alameda Co., Cal. 

AGENTS: TRDMAN, HOOKER & CO, and FRANK BRO«„ San Francisco; M. 
KIRSCH. Walnut Creek, Contra Ooata Co.; A. FATJO, Santa Clara, Cal. 

I. S. V-^KiT "\7\ri3SrK-I-aEl <*5 oo., 

Importers and Dealers in 


Horse and Mule Shoes, Putnam, Globe and Northwestern Horseshoe Nails, HARDWOOD LUMBER AMD WAGON 
MATERIALS, Blacksmith and Carriage Makers' Supplies. 

Specially manufactured for use in Artesian Wells, and for conveying water charged with Salts and Minerals, Aclda, 
Gases or other substances of a corrosive nature. In building it Ukea the place of either black or galvanized piping 
or gas, water-waste, etc. Catalogues and testimonials, from large users in the United States, sent on application. 


Vol. XXXIX.— No. 3. 


( DEWEY & CO , Publishers. 

( Office, 220 Market St. 

The Holstein Friesians. 

This famous breed of dairy cattle is continu- 
ally gaining ground in this State. Holsteins 
were brought here many years ago by a pioneer 
breeder of San Mateo county, but bis methods 
did not partake of the push which is character- 
istic of modern breeders. Some time after bis 
introduction, announcements began to be made 
in our columns by energetic Eastern breeders, 
and one firm expended several hundred dollars 
in advertising before they made a sale in this 
State. The leaven was working, however. 
Hundreds of dairy farmers longed to try the 
famous breed, but tbey could not command the 
prices at which even single animals could be 
had. Soon the attention of capitalists was at- 
tracted, herds were brought here overland and 
by direot importation by sea. The cattle mul- 
tiplied and soon became very reasonable in prioe, 
and the black and white beauties can now be 
found in every county whioh has any pretension 
to live-stock interests. Our importing breeders 
have found them profitable, and those who have 
purchased for actual dairy use and crossing are 
well pleased with the result. 

Perhaps no introduction of II olsteins into a 
California neighborhood has proved more satis- 
factory than a band of animals purchased at 
the Underhill sale a few years ago and moved 
to Humboldt county. We have before us an 
interesting letter from A. Forbes, a subscriber 
of the Rural, whose location is Bellview 
Farm, near Eureka. He, with Capt. H. H. 
Buhne and other neighbors, attended the Under- 
hill sale and purchased quite largely. Reading 
in the Rural what was reoently written by 
P. Peterson of Sites, the well-known Shorthorn 
breeder, Mr. Forbes desires to express his own 



preference for the Holsteins. He states that 
he had for 30 years upheld the standard of the 
Shorthorns, and his neighbor, Capt. Buhne, 
had wide experience both with Shorthorns and 
Jerseys, and both are now pronounced advo- 
oates of the Holstein-Friesian. He gives his 
reasons as follows: "The Holsteins give a 
greater flow of milk and maintain it longer 
than the Shorthorn or Jersey; they are better 
foragers and will make a living on a rough 
range where a Shorthorn would starve; the 
Holstein calves learn to drink much easier than 
the other breeds and have more sense about 
bunting over their milk dishes; they are not 
so liable to scour when changing from sweet 
milk to sour or from warm to cold messes." 

Mr. Forbes maintains the excellence of the 
cross between the Holstein bull and the Short- 
horn cow. He finds the grades have the colors 
of the Holstein and the symmetry and form of 
the Shorthorn. We give these remits of Mr. 
Forbes' experience not with an idea of taking 
up the gauntlet in advooacy of any single 
breed on our own part, but to present his 
views for the consideration of other dairy farm- 
ers from whom we shall always be glad to hear 
on the subject. Pertinent to the statement is 
the handsome portrait on this page of Sir 
Henry of Maplewood, a fine bull, now ooming 
six-year-old, and owned by F. C. Stevens of 
Attioa, New York. Sir Henry presents the 
Holstein-Friesian points most admirably. 

Cleveland Bays. — The fine horse upon this 
page is a reoent importation by Oalbraith 
Bros, of Janesville, Wis. The breed, which has 
been already described in the Rural, is con- 
stantly advancing in favor in this country. 



[Jan. 18, 1890 


The Prune in California. 


[Written for the Kukau Prkss bv r"BLi.\ Gillkt, Nevada 
City, Cal J 

Gum and Grafted Trees. 
The next question In regard to the prune is 
what stock should be preferred here in Califor- 
nia — a tree budded on the root or a tree " true 
from the root." This question, however, can* 
not be settled satisfactorily, as far as the State 
in general is concerned, before it has been 
ascertained what results both kinds of stock, 
planted side by side, have given. But as the 
stock true from the root is such a splendid 
gum-re*Ulant stock, it should, by all means, be 
preferred wherever the gum is known to pre- 

I find that in the snow belt of the mountains 
the gum attacks fearfully all stone fruit trees; 
it kills or deforms most of the cherry trees, 
leaves the p a;h a most unsightly thing to look 
at, with life left only at the extremity of its 
long and bare limbs, with the trunk half dead. 
Plums and prunes are just as badly treated, 
and it is hardly possible for trees budded on 
the root to withstand the terrific ordeal of the 

The Damson plum, a kind propagated from 
regular suckers, first attracted my attention as 
a stock resisting successfully the attacks of the 
gam. I had never lost a Damson tree from 
that cause, while nine-tenths of my grafted 
plums and prunes fell, one after another, a 
victim to the fatal disease. I inquired then if 
I couldn't get the Prune d'Eote true from the 
root, and was told that two-thirds of the prune 
trees in the d'Ente district were so propagated, 
and all the St. Catherine trees propagated that 
way. Since then I planted many trees of both 
kinds, and found them to be regular gum-re- 
sistant stock. It is really striking to look at 
a row of d'Ente trees true from the root and 
then at the next row of budded trees; that set- 
tled the question for me, so far as the snow 
belt .was concerned, that no other stock but 
that true from the root should be planted in 
that belt. 

But where the gum is hardly known, as it is 
the oase below the snow bait, this question of 
what stock to plant a budded tree or a tree 
true from the root, loses much of its impor- 
tance. Some people are of the opinion that 
bv grafting, finer if not better fruit is obtained. 
My experience in the growing of both 
kinds of stock is that it is far from being 
always the case; or else why is it that the Cali- 
fornia d'Ente or French prune, propagated by 
grafting as it is all over this State, bears fruit 
in no way inferior to that of the stock propa- 
gated true from the root ? 

Grafting, however, has the decided advan- 
tage by permitting the propagating of exactly 
the same class of fruit; if, for instance, a large 
and fine prune is obtained either from the seed 
or any other sources, the best and quickest 
way of propagating it is surely by budding or 
grafting. Another point much in favor of 
grafted trees is this, in soils where a certain 
stock is known to do better than any others, 
as peach or myrobolan stock, the prune has, 
therefore, to be absolutely propagated by 
grafting. All fruit-growers should have little 
nurseries of their own, to grow trees for the 
enlarging of their orchards and for experimental 
purposes; nobody but themselves is more apt 
to say which stock will do the best in their 
soil. A person does not need to plant acres of 
this or that stock for experimental purposes; 
25 to 50 trees will do. This is the most ration- 
al way to settle that question of stock, at 
least as far as each one's place' is concerned. 


My idea about the way the prune is planted 
in California is that, in moBt cases, it is all 
wrong. It is, indeed, a wonder that in a State 
like California, where the prune and grape are 
grown side by side, and one as much as the 
other, nobody that I know of has tried yet to 
combine grape-growing with that of the prune. 
Because one started to plant orchard-like, or 
the trees 17 to 20 feet apart each way, every 
one since then has followed in the same rut 
without thinking whether it would not be more 
beneficial and profitable for him to do differ- 
ently and follow the system practiced in other 
prune-growing countries. 

In France, the growing of either grapes, 
cereals or potatoes — in fact, of anything that 
oan be grown profitably for market — is com- 
bined with the growing of the prune. For this 
purpose, the rows of prunes are set far enough 
apart to permit the growing of such crops. If 
grapes, two or three rows, or even more (if it is 
flesired to grow more grapes than prunes), are 
planted in the space between two rows of 
prunes, eight feet apart and six to eight feet in 
the row. The prune trees are planted from 17 
to 20 feet apart in the row, with one or two 
grapevines between two trees. Whenever 
prunes and grapes are so planted, both at the 
same time, they grow together, the bearing 
qualities of both not being impaired in the 
least by their proximity. If in an old-estab- 
lished vineyard it was thought desirable to 
combine prune-growing with that of the grape, 
it would be absolutely necessary to take up 
several rows of grapevines to get space in 

whioh to plant the prune trees, which would 
require more space than if they had been 
planted at the same time as the grapes, on ac- 
count of the grapes having, in this case, such a 
big start on the trees. No such danger exists 
of having the growth of one hindered by that 
of the other, if both are planted at the same 
time. Here is a good illustration of that fact. 
When I first started my place, I planted a row 
of Flaming Tokays below where I set out a 
walnut. Bath grew together; the walnut — a 
Pi a- jarturiens — was lcaied every year with 
nuts, and the vines bore large bunches of 
luscious grapes. Ten years afterward, and 
after the walnut had grown to quite a large size, 
I thought I would plant another row of grapes 
-between the walnnt and the Tokays. I noticed 
in having the holes dug that the walnnt roots 
occupied all the ground around, being found at 
quite a distance from the tree and beyond the 
Tokays. I planted the grapevines in goo l- 
sized holes, putting in manure to accelerate 
their growth. I must say that they did badly, 
never growing to any size, the walnut roots 
having invaded at once the space allotted to 
the grapevines; and still that row of Tokays 
close by, and as much among the walnut roots 
as that new row of grapes, never failed to yield 
a full crop of large and beautiful grapes, and 
why ? Because, having been set out at the same 
time as the walnut, their roots had had a chance 
to spread around and penetrate deep into the 
soil before the walnut roots were ready to dis- 
pute the ground with them. 

Some people have for the last three or four 
years in California acted upon my suggestions 
and combined walnut and chestnut culture with 
'hat of the prune, in the following manner : 
Tae nnt trees being three years from the seed, 
and the prune trees about the same age from 
the root, the nut trees were set out 40 feet 
apart each way, and one prune tree planted 
between two nut trees and both ways. Now it 
is obvious that the trees growing together before 
the nnt trees will have grown to a large size 
requiring the whole space, the prune trees will 
have yielded many crops of prunes before they 
would have to be taken op to make room for 
the spreading out of the nut trees, and thus the 
land would have paid a fair income before the 
nut trees had been able to give any returns 

A better plan yet might be to have the rows 
of walnuts 50 feet apart, and a whole row of 
prunes, with the trees 18 feet apart in the row, be- 
tween two rows of walnuts; the walnuts 40 
feet apart in the row, with a prune tree be- 
tween. The prune trees could in that way re- 
main a longer time with the walnuts 

That method of planting the prune in France, 
with grapeB or something else between the rows 
of trees, explains why an orchard of 2000 trees 
covers there as much ground as an orchard of 
13000 to 8000 trees here in California. The 
French do not rely on a regular crop of prunes; 
frost, gum, one thing or another, is liable to 
injure the crop of prunes to such an extent as 
to make prune-growing rather unprofitable if 
one had nothing but prune trees on his place. 

Another big advantage for the prune in com- 
bining its culture with that of the grape is 
that the roots of the prune trees which run in 
all directions close to the surface would be 
much benefited by the shade of the grapevines; 
and if any of the latter should try to climb to 
any of the prune trees, all that has to be done 
is to pull the vines down and they will never 
climb again to the trees that season. 

\\ ith the small grower, this method of plant- 
ing prunes might not answer on account of the 
small size of his place; but there are hundreds 
of places in California, not to say thousands, 
where grape-growing could very easily be com- 
bined with that of the prune in the manner just 

When filling vacancies in a prune orchard, as 
large trees as can possibly be procured should be 
planted and the ground made quite rich around 
the roots to make the trees catch up the larger 
trees on either side of them. 

In planting young trees, the earth could very 
well be heeled as high as a foot all around the 
base; it enableB them to grow straight and to 
withstand the wind better. In newly planted 
orchards, it keeps also the borers awav from 
the lower part of the trees; and should the up- 
per part of the trunk be injured by them so as 
to require the cutting back of the tree, it could 
be done in taking out the earth piled up around 
the tree and cutting the latter back above 
where it was budded, the earth being put back 
after the new tree has grown to a certain 


Pruning fruit trees may well be regarded as 
an art, and pruning the Prune d'Ente as a 
science. Bat as this is not a treatise on the 
prune, I will not here treat that important part 
of prune culture au fully as it should be; for to 
render that subject pretty clear to the eyes of 
every one, the use of cuts would be indispensa- 
ble; then I do not claim to be an expert in such 
a matter, which I am yet studying and investi- 

The habits of the Prune d'Ente are so differ- 
ent from those of other prunes and plums, that 
it has to be taken much into consideration in 
regard to the pruning of that tree. For in- 
stance, the St. Catherine prune and the Green 
Gage plum are known to grow their fruit all 
along and all around the main limbs, thick as 
can be, and pretty nearly of the eame size; 
while on the d'Eate's bushy top the fruit is 
found here and there, thick or light, on fruit 
spurs, twigs and branohes, everywhere, with 
the largest fruit right at the extremity of 

spnrs and twigs, and more particularly so when 
the latter have been judiciously cut back. It 
is therefore obvious that the mode of pruning 
the d'Eute should be quite different from that of 
prnuing the St. Catherine or Green Gage. 

The question of pruning may be divided into 
two, to wit: General and special pruning. It 
is that question of special pruning through 
which thu French claim to obtain their largest 
fruit on trees of the same type as ours, that I 
am not ready to discuss. 

G*neral pruning consists in giving the tree a 
symmetrical shape, the vase form being the 
most suitable for the d'Ente. Pruning should 
be reported to from the first or second year 
after planting, and more or less until the trees 
come into bearing. The main limbs should as 
much as possible be made to rnn parallel to the 
main roots, or at an angle of about 50°; and should 
a limb bend down too much, deranging the 
symmetry of the tree, it should be tied up, for 
a season at least, to another of the main limbs 
to keep it up in the desired position; and should 
a limb grow too close to another and too 
straight up, it should be kept out at a proper 
angle by inserting a stick, with a V out at each 
end, between the two limbs, to keep them 
wider apart, which is much preferable to cut- 
tin? off one of the limbs. 

Under the burning sun of the valleys a prune 
tree is liable to sunburn, so it is recommended 
bv growers there to prune all the trees back to 
18 inches, after having them planted, or, in 
other words, train the trees with a very low 
head so as to have the trunk properly shaded. 
This recommendation may be very good for 
those parts of the State where the trunks of 
trees are so aff-cted by the sun; but it is 
wrong to make it general. In the mountains, 
for inetince, it is perfectly useless, and trees 
should not be headed lower than three to four 
feet. I have never known a genuine case of 
sunburn in my experience of 20 years, in this 
part of California, and it is mighty hot up here, 
too, in summer. Trees that are trained as 
standard from the ttart, stand the hot sun 
pretty well. Sometimes the trees proenred 
from the nursery are already branched; in that 
case it is well to prune back without precisely 
any fixed method; bnt the ensuing year the 
pruning has to be attended to with more 

Though the inside of the trees should be kept 
well clear, still it should not be thinned out to 
excess, for the weight of the fruit on the main 
limbs has a tendency to make the top open very 
often more than it is desirable. In short, in 
pruning the Prune d'Eute it should be well re- 
membered what the habits of that tree are. As 
soon as the trees oome into bearing, pruning 
has to cease, or, at least, be bnt little resorted 
to for the six or eight years following; for right 
at that age is the d'Eate in its maximum con- 
dition of bearing. It would be well to bear in 
mind, too, in pruning the Prune d'Eate, that 
the fruit buds are more generally found on two- 
vear-old wood, and that on that wood grow the 
finest prunes. 

How much wood to prune on young trees is 
rather difficult to tell, as it ail depends on the 
growth made by the trees. In ordinary ground, 
not deep, and medinm rich, the d'Eate cannot 
be expected to grow so vigorously as in deep, 
rich and moist soil. In snch soil it does re- 
quire but little pruning. The more luxuriant 
is the growth, the more cutting back is re- 
quired. I fiod on the hillsides of our mount- 
ains very little pruning to be done outside of 
giving a handsome shape to the trees; but if the 
trees are much irrigated, their growth is so 
stimulated that they find themselves in the fall 
covered all up with new growth from four to 
seven feet, which, of course, has to be out back 
to one foot, more or less, according to the size 
and shape of the top. 

But there is a kind of pruning fruit trees that 
is a disgrace to the horticultural name of our 
State and very injurious to the trees them- 
selves, and I woulu be in favor of a law being 
passed making it a misdemeanor for anybody 
to mutilate a tree in such a barbarous manner. 
I have referenoe to the extreme cutting back, 
without rules or sense whatever, of large limbs 
of large trees, which I notice is done all around 
and under the pretense that the load of fruit on 
the trees breaks them down, or that the fruit 
grows too high up. Trees so barbarously treat- 
ed are easily sunburned, attacked by scores of 
borers, and extremely unsightly, with lots of 
long and slender suckers growing all ever them. 
They are, besides, short-lived. In cutting back 
drooping limbs, which are drooping because of 
a defect in the limb, or too great weight of 
the top, it should always be done in the best 
manner possible, and so as to give back to the 
tree, the ensuing year, ita former handsome 
shape. If a large limb has to be removed on 
account of being gummy, weak or broken, it 
should be out back right above a young shoot, 
which would be allowed to take its place to fill 
up the gap. 

Summer pruning consists in taking off shoots 
which start out of place in the center or sides 
of the top, and keep on growing almost with- 
out stopping, as suckers do. The top of the 
l'rune d'Eute, in fact, has to be well balanced 
in all its parts to permit it to bear a large orop 
without deranging the symmetry of the tree. 

Some of our prune-growers, whose soil is ex- 
ceptionally rioh and deep, boast of their trees 
bearing as much as 800 pounds of prunes per 
tree. Now let me Bay that it is not desirable 
to have prune trees breaking down under such 
a weight of fruit, or producing fruit of inferior 
quality and small in size, or, at least, exhaust- 
ing the trees prematurely. 

In the foothills of Santa Clara county, in 
tolerably good ground, 6 to 10 years old trees 
give from 60 to 200 pounds of fresh fruit each; 
in the valley proper they average 300 pounds. 
Trees are said to do well in the S.nta Clara val- 
ley that do average 100 pounds each year after 
being five years old. In France, the Prune 
d'Eate reaches ita maximum of production in 
from 10 to 15 years, giving then from 25 to 60 
pounds of dried prunes per tree. The trees 
keep stationary till they are 25 to 30 years old, 
when they get on the decline, though they oan 
be restored back to much of their former vigor 
through a judioious way of pruning. 

The best time of the year to prune is in De- 
cember and January, and it can very well be 
done as soon as the leaves have shed. A good 
many people, I know, prefer to have pruning 
done with all other work in Marob, at a time 
when a man oan do a fnll day's work; still it is 
wrong, for thp very best time to prune is from 
November to January. 

( To be Concluded ) 

To Prevent Gullying. — An orcbardist who 
is looated on the hillside asks us how to prevent 
his land from washing or gullying during heavy 
rains. There is no better wny that we know of 
than the "furrowing out" of the orchard. 
That is, the plowing of cross farrows all through 
the rows, thus forming six or seven ditches be- 
tween every row in which water may run eff, 
rather than allowing the water to run wher- 
ever it pleases. It is the massing of the water 
in one or two places that makes the gulleye. 
When it is divided into numerous small streams 
the effaot iB muoh less, of course. — CUrograpk. 

Hhe D-A'RY. 

A Progressive Dairy Establishment 
in Los Angeles County. 

We alluded some time ago to the excellent 
dairy establishment of Sessions & Bigelow at 
Lynwood Station, Los Angeles county, and we 
are pleased to find in the Compton Independent 
of last week quite a detailed account of its 
plant and operations. As the most improved 
dairy arrangements and apparatus are em- 
ployed, the description may be suggestive to 
others who are contemplating dairy improve- 
ments, and there is just now quite a disposition 
in that direction. We quote as follows: 

About four years ago Messrs. Sessions <fc 
Bigelow bought from J. S. Slanson 327 acres of 
land formerly known as the Shields plaae, just 
east of the Lynwood station, and about three 
miles northeast of this city. They began the 
erection of suitable buildings for carrying on 
the dairy business, and equipped them with the 
most approved appliances and machinery, and 
now have one of the best appointed dairies on 
the coast. 

The buildings, 14 in number, are all neatly 
painted and whitewashed, and as Been from the 
railroad, look like a village. Mr. C. H. Ses- 
sions lives in Los Angeles and has charge of 
the city business. Mr. Uarvey Bigelow, with 
his family, lives on the place in a very comfort- 
able seven-room boose, and has the manage- 
ment of the place. There are two female cooks 
who occupy a two-room house adjoining the 
family residence. The other buildings are the 
creamery, three oow stables, three bull and 
horse barns, an implement and wagon house, a 
lodging-house for the men. two large hay barns 
and a blacksmith and carpenter shop. 

The creamery — 42x80 feet — is divided into 
three principal rooms. In the south one is the 
new 15-horse power engine and boiler, with 
storage for a car of coal. The north one is used 
as a cooler, having double concrete walls with 
an eight-inch air space between, with donhle 
roof, double windows and a atticed screen 
around the whole, making the temperature in- 
side abont 20 degrees cooler than the outside on 
a warm day. In this room is a tank through 
which artesian water at a temperature of 63 
degrees is constantly running, and here is 
stored the cream waiting to be churned. In 
this cooler the batter is also kept until sent to 

In the central room are the Da Laval sep- 
arator, the 90 gallon barrel churn and the 
power batter- worker. The three cow stables 
are one-story — 32x136 — having stanchions for 
nearly 200 cows, arranged in two rows, with 
their heads toward the alley-way, whioh runs 
through the center of each stable. In the end 
of one stable are 20 calf pens, where the oalves 
are kept until ready for the batcher. 

The ball barn has stalls and pens for five 
balls, with large loft for hay, and each stall 
has a feed-box and water trough before it, so 
that the attendant has no occasion to go into 
the stalls with the animals. 

The horse barns have four box and 20 sin- 
gle stalls, besides lofts for bay and grain. 

The lodging-house has seven rooms with two 
beds in each, and a large room with a stove for 
a general sitting-room. Near the building is a 
foar-ton wagon-scales, where is weighed all the 
coal, grain, pumpkins, etc., which are 

The two hay barns will hold 700 to 800 tons 
loose hay, and are fitted up with all the neces- 
sary ropes, tracks, forks, etc, for unloading 
hay in the least time. At the south end of the 
first cow stable is a two-story addition 32x50 

Jan. 18, 1890.] 



feet, the upper floor of which will hold several 
tons of bay, and in one corner is a large R>se 
fodder-cutter, which is run by the engine 
across the road. The hay is cat into half-'nch 
lengths, and drops through a hole in the floor 
to the lower floor, which has storage for 25 
tons of bran, leaving a large space where the 
hay and bran are moistened with water, and 
after being thoroughly mixed, is put into cars 
and run on a railroad track to the different 
stables and the feed-boxes filled. No brewery 
grains are ever brought to this dairy, and only 
the best quality of hay and grain is used. Beets 
and pumpkins, of which hundreds of tons are 
used during the season, are fed, so that only the 
purest and richest milk is produced. 

The oows come from the different corrals 
into the stables, each finding her plaoe in the 
stanchions, and at 3 A M. and 1 p. m., are 
milked. Eich milker, after tilling his two 
buckets, takes them to the creamery where he 
empties them into the top of a large tank, 
straining the milk through a perforated strainer 
and four thicknesses of cloth, insuring clean 
milk. From this tank the three-gallon cans 
are filled and set into a tank, through which 
runs cold artesian water, thus cooling the milk 
before shipping to Los Angeles, where the firm 
has a large trade. 

Such part of the milk as is not sent to the city 
is raised by an elevator and run into a tank in 
the separating-room, and from this into the 

De Laval separator, where the warm milk and 
cream are instantly separated — the skim-milk 
running into tanks to be fed to the pigs and 
calves, while the cream running from another 
outlet is caught in cans, and that part not sold 
in Los Angeles is set into the water in the cool 
er to be churned later when it reaohes the 
proper condition. 

In the central room of the creamery is the 
sink with all the facilities for washing cans 
and tinware. Clear artesian water and live 
steam from the boiler are brought here, and 
water can be boiled in a few minutes, and after 
the utensils are washed they are scalded in the 
most thorough manner by forcing hot steam 
into them. On the sunny side of the oreamery 
Is a large platform where the tinware is set to 
drv and air in the sun. 

In addition to the milk produoed by them- 
selves, the firm is buying large quantities from 
the farmers to make into bntter. The " Lyn- 
wood " brand of butter has taken the first pre- 
mium when exhibited, and the demand is 
greater than the supply. 

On this ranch are three artesian wells — the 
one at the house furnishing all the water used 
in and around the buildings and corrals, so 
that the stock have at all times only the purest 
water to drink, which is essential in producing 
good milk. 

This ranch is divided into different fields, 
part of whioh is us^daa a pasture for the young 
and dry stock. There are nearly 200 acres 
seeded to alfalfa and the past season they had 
about 25 acres in beets. 

One thing that we were pleased to notice 
was the cleanliness of the stables, and that 
when cleaned the manure was placed on the 
poorer lands and not in the roads where the 
Oalifornia farmer usually puts it. List spring 
when the corrals were cleaned, over 1300 loads 
were used in the orchard and as a top dressing 
for the alfalfa, and evory load made on the 
plaoe will be put where most needed, 

Talks About Poultry. 


Barred Plymouth Rocks. 
Editors Press : — A great many people who 
take little or no interest in the improvement of 
domestic fowls, which has been going on for 
now nearly half a century, have no sort of an 
idea of poultry breeding. Of course they 
know that there are different varieties, some 
called Leghorns, some Cochins, others Ply- 
mouth Rocks, etc., but the evolution of these 
numerous varieties, so strikingly distinct, each 
faithfully reproducing its like, yet all members 
of one great feathered family, is a mystery to 
many who keep poultry but know nothing of 
the whys and wherefores of breeds. But, like 
so many other apparently uninteresting sub- 
jects, the more we investigate it the more at- 
tractive does it appear. Not only that, but to 
the money-loving human race of to day it is a 
subject of growing importance the world over. 
More and more, as each year adds to the 
millions jostling and struggling for existenoe 
in every avenue of civilized life, keen eyes 

watoh for new ways of turning dimes to dollars. 
No matter whether times are good or bad, the 
number of people who live next door to the 
poor-house seems to rapidly multiply. All 
trades, professions — every occupation from 
garbage-gathering up to the highest levels — are 
said to be hopelessly crowded with unsuccess- 
ful wanderers clutching at every penny in 
sight, const queutly when a - promising fi Id of 
industry lying half developed and requiring but 
little capital and less brains (in tue popular 
estimation) is discovered, it excites consider- 
able attention. 

For many years poultry-rearing has been 
not the least of the many ways by which 
France has beoome one of the world's richest 
nations. In Eogland, as one branch after 
another of Agricultural employment has been 
withered by foreign competition, Donltry and 
"figs have come to the front. Bat in the 
United States, as we should naturally expect 
it to do, the poultry interest has beoome so great 
that Secretary Raek, in his last annual report, 
calls attention to it as one of our great sources 
of wealth whioh has too long been slighted 
by the Department of Agriculture. The Cen- 
sus Commissioner, also, intends to pay some 
attention to collecting statistics of that which 
has been strangely negleoted in previous at 
tempts to gather facts and figures concerning 
all of our national products, though its cash 
value entitles it to a place very far from the 
bottom of the list. 

Nearly all of this remarkable progress in 
poultry culture, from small beginnings up to a 
total value of hundreds of millions of dollars, 
has been made sinoe the War of the Rebellion. 
Previous to 1S40, such a thing as a "breed" of 
fowls was unknown. In the next decade, after 
the Chinese war ended in 1843, some strange- 
looking poultry was imported from China. 
After them came the deluge. What was called 
the "hen-fever " spread over the oountry. Ag- 
ricultural papers of that time contain numer- 

ous satirical references to the oraz3 for gigantic 
hens and roosters, " Brabma-putrae," "Cochin- 
Chinas," " Shanghaes," and the like. Extnva- 
gant prices were paid eagerlv for specimens of 
these monstrous birds, and in 1850 an enormous 
poultry show was held in a tent on Boston 
Common. Poultry books began to appear to 
supply the demand for information concerning 
fowls which sold for more than blooded horses, 
$.300 per pair being a not uncommon figure. 
By mixing these huge strangers from China 
with the mongrels of the barnyard, shrewd 
Yankees soon produced an astonishing number 
of new varieties, hardly any of which now ex- 
ist. One of these mushroom breeds was known 
«s early as 1850 by the name of "Plymouth 
Rock," but it was not the sort of fowl which 
now holds that title. 

The war coming on in 1861 was a setback to 
the poultry fancy, which lay dormant for sev- 
eral years, but when "Johnny came marching 
home" for good the interest quickly revived. 
For a time the big Asiatics, Brabmas, Cochins, 
and some of the Spani°h, had the field to them- 
selves, but in New England a favorite barn- 
yard fowl had been for many years a cuckoo 
colored, grayish mongrel that stood the cold 
winters well and that hawks could not easily 
see in summer. The American Domin'que of 
the present is but an improvement of that old 
gray fowl of our grandfathers' day; that crossed 
with the Chinese Giants produced a variety 

first exhibited at Worcester, Mass., in 1869, 
and since then so wonderfully improved. 

Such was the origin of the vari"ty shown in 
the accompanying engraving — Birred Ply 
mouth Rocks. Ia the midst of innumerable 
controversies, and in spite of bitter opposition 
from fanciers who denounced it as nothing but 
a patcbed-up mongrel, the Plymouth Rock 
steadily advanced in popularity unt'l it be- 
came a prime favorite everywhere. The pict- 
ure is an accurate representation of a standard 
exhibition pen of modern Barred Plymouth 
Ricks. From it one can get a good idea of the 
size and moat approved shape. It will be no 
ticed that the body of the fowl should be 
broad, deep and compact, for the Plymouth 
Rock is a bird for the market, and there such 
points oount. In weight it should be well up, 
bat not huge, the standard being 9J ponnds for 
cooks, 8 pounds for cockerels, 7i pounds for 
hens, and 6£ pounds for pullets. The plumage 
has a business-like color of grayish-white, eauh 
feather barred with black It ia a pretty suit, 
at its best, but a very hard one to get just 
right. The difficulty of getting the plumage 
perfect is, to the fanoier, the chief obstacle en- 
countered in breeding choice Plymouth Rocks. 
California's bright sunlight often turns the soft, 
delicate gray to braes, but in the East as 
well as here, standard color is the first thing 
to be considered and the hardest to secure; that 
it paya to devote time, money and earnest study 
to such a purely fancy point, is easily proven. 
Thousands of dollars each year go from this 
coast to Eastern breeders who have gained a 
reputation as breeders of " gilt edged" fowls. 
As it is the other way with horses and fruit, 
so it might be with poultry, and California 
produce not only the fastest trotters but also 
the finest fowls in the world. There is no ques- 
tion, nowadays, of the value of really choice 
thoroughbred poultry. Ad^ one who may 
have doubts as to this can have them 
settled by trying to buy some of that sort 

of feathered live-stock anywhere between the 
t o ooeans. I have inspected the hoc ks of a 
breeder of Plymouth Ricks in the E s\ snd 
footed ud his salts for one year. The fifiirfa 
were $20 000 I h«e seen on» pullet sold 'or $50; 
a cockerel for $100; and $400 paid for 20 birds. 
Not because the buyer was a case of a fool and 
his money, but because fowls that will score 
close to 100 points are not plentier than horses 
that can trot below 2:15. 

In the absence of great poultry exhibitions, 
which so stimulate breeders in the East to pro- 
duce the best, such prices may not for a long 
time to come prevail in California. It is not 
yet the fashion here for wealthy people to in- 
terest themselves in displays of chickens out- 
side of the market. Wh'le acting as secretary 
of some of the big New York Doultry shows, I 
have seen the millionaires of Fifth aveDue fill- 
ing the aisles between long rows of coops in 
Madison Square Garden. I have handed to ex- 
hibitors Vanderbilt checks paying $75 each for 
pens of five fowls. At the coming show in 
New York next month, Mr. W. K Vander- 
bilt off-rs a prize of $100 for the finest Ply- 
mouth Rocks. 

Bat it is not necessary to go back East for 
example, when I know of so many fanciers on 
this coast who have bought, and v ill buy, fine- 
bred poultry at moderately high figures. As I 
write, there is in this one small town of Santa 
Clara a collection of 50 fowls about to be ship- 
ped to Japan, and they cost the Japanese buyer 
$5 per head, so there need be no fear that if 
one succeeds in breeding fi st-class fowls he 
cannot sell them. Bat the experienced poultry- 
raiser always has two strings to his bow. Oae 
may fail, bat the other seldom or never does. 
It costs no more to raise good fowls than it does 
to raise poor ones, and considered as market 
fowls solely there is a big difference in the 
value of undersized, scrawny mongrels and 
plump, heavy, uniform-colored Plymouth 
Rocks. The mongrels are sometimes hard to 
sell at any price, but any dealer in San Fran- 
cisco will tell you that there is never a glut of 
fine large California poultry. As to the egg 
question, with eggs now selling at from 40 to 
50 cents per dozen, no better market in the 
world can be found than that which lies at our 
very door; but as the old novelists Dsed to say, 
of this " more anon." Chas. R. Harker. 

Santa Clara 

PQhe Irrigator. 

Water in Arizona. 

Editors Press: — The rainy "spell" of the 
times has visited Arizona, too. As most of our 
hay is piled up in the fields, the repeated rains 
are settling the tall stacks, doing more or less 
damage to the hay; but verdure is springing up 
on all sides, and cattle are now pushing oat to 
grass regions heretofore abandoned on account 
of scarcity of water. Oar range oattlemen 
need all the aid of early feed, for at present prices 
of beef (two cents on fool), many of them are 
close run to get around to their bills and taxes. 
Oar valley is going steadily forward, but the 
boom inaugurated two years ayo did not rage 
long. The matter of the value of a few acres of 
desert land, with the arid climate and a brook 
babbling past your door at all seasons of the 
year, is value — intrinsic value — that our Ameri- 
can people are just beginning to develop and 
appreciate. Since the days that knew Babylon 
in her power, with her mighty irrigating struct- 
ures, the garden spots on this little earth of 
ours are to be found in the oases under irriga- 

Lieut. Frank Gushing is longing to return to 
•our valley, as the most interesting fi Id of labor 
he has yet found. It is not at all improbable 
that this valley alone onoe fed and clothed 
more people than now live west of the Rocky 

Acoording to the natural order of things, it 
will be 40 years before this go-ahead American 
people will master our irrigating facilities. The 
day is coming when irrigation will be the par- 
amount question in American politics, and our 
Yankee cousins must not fail to see the im- 
portance of the question, else it will alienate 
the irrigating from the non irrigating portion of 
the Uoited States. Oar Arid Lands Committee 
show their honesty by admitting the magnitude 
of the irrigating problem. 

As yet a few have been fortunate enough to 
get in ahead of others and hinder rather than 
develop irrigation. However, irrigation and 
tilling the soil is progressing very well in Ari- 
zona, but it will be a long- time before we get 
the canal system over this valley as that pre- 
historic man had it, and he lived in the age 
when metals were unknown. 

Now, friends, don't kick because we are be- 
hind the f>re-historio man. Faots are stubborn 
things. Here are these facts before our eyes, 
so how are we to deny it ? 

Geo Kay Miller. 
Tempe, Arizona Jan. 6, 1890 

Berkshire Sales. — Pail M Springer, Spring- 
field, Id., sends us information of transfers of 
thoroughbred stock reported to the American 
Berkshire Record: Oregon Duke, 20422, by 
R. W Carey, Macleay, Oregen, to G-o. Down- 
ing, Silem, 0-egon; B'ackburn, 22474 by R. 
W. Car^y to R. A. Wnztd, Turner, Oregon; 
B ack B?He, 22626, by C A. Coffman, Rivera, 
Cal . to F. A. C rJman, Rivera, Cal.; Gilroy, 
22653, by H. B Crawford, Rivera, Cal,, to 
O. fl. Lookhart, Burbark, Cal. 


v.. : "•-"> '*•• 2* 



Further Grange Reading. 

In onr Rural Press Official Grange Edition, issued 
ever; week, will be found much additional matter 
under this department, oi interest and importance 
to Patrons or Husbandry. Any subscriber who 
wishes can change free to that edition. 

The Best Government. 

The old saw that "the best government is 
that which governs the least " has generally 
been ascribed to Thomas Jefferson. It was 
used as the motto of the " Madiaonian," a news- 
paper that was started to support the adminis- 
tration of John Tyler. It is still mounted on 
guard to keep sentinelship over the camp, over 
that very cautious and timid class who are 
afraid of reform and turn pale before a 
new idea. 

It is about time this old literary tramp wai 
unmasked and exposed. Like a great many 
proverbs and axiomatic sayings that have 
sought to silence all debate by something like 
an anthoritative precedent, it will be fonnd 
false, misleading, if not absolutely vicious. 

If it were true, then the best form of gov- 
ernment would be found in the woods among 
the savages. Wild and barbarous men have 
no codea of law, no courts of justice, no halls 
of legislation. Government with them is a very 
simple affair — the will of a chief, the pow- 
wow of a lot of painted and feathered warriors. 

It is most likely the phrase originated in the 
days of petty tyrants and despots who songht 
to lull the vigilance of the people. It is cer- 
tainly a bad maxim in a government of the 
people; for a people who govern themselves it 
wonld be preposterous and absurd to say that 
the least they had to do with their own affairs 
the better. 

It will generally be found that this old saw 
is need by the class who are in favor of contin- 
uing the present state of things and deplore 
agitation. Let well enough alone, they say; 
the moment yon endow Government with the 
ownership and control of railroads, the tele- 
graph, water, gas and the like, Government 
becomes very complicated and runs into great 

Bat this is bad philosophy. Evolution is a 
movement from the simple to the complex, and 
just in proportion aa oivilization advances the 
mechanism of Government grows more refined 
and complicated. It is a long way from a coun- 
cil of savages to the House of Commons or Con- 
gress of the United States. 

Then it is bad economy. John Smith puts 
ud a block of buildiDgs on Market street. 
Way down in the basement somewhere he has 
an engine he uses to run an elevator. One day 
it occurs to him that he might attach a dynamo 
to that engine and light his buildings with elec- 
tricity. He figures on the matter and comes to 
the conclusion that it would be cheaper than 
gas and a more brilliant light. Everybody 
aays that Mr. Smith is shrewd and knows how 
to look after his own interest. Now in the 
name of common sense, why should not our 
city officials be equally wise and light the New 
City Hall and other public buildings in a sim- 
ilar way ? Why should the public be compelled 
to pay tax to the gas oompany? Who consti- 
tutes the city of San Francisco ? Why, the 
people of San Francisco, of course. Then why 
should not the people consult the cheapest and 
best way to manage their own affairs ? Why 
should they pay a profit to transportation and 
telegraph companies, water, gas and other 
monopolies when they might just as well save 
that amount ? In short, why should the whole 
hive work to pamper and fatten a few capital- 
istic drones ? 

Then experience teaches us that it is better 
for the Government to manage certain interests 
for the benefit of the people than to leave 
them to be fleeced by capitalists and 
syndicates. There was a time when the 
mail was delivered on contract and post- 
riders and letter collectors received for 
their services what they could squeeze out of 
the people. Who would be willing to go back to 
that anoient monopoly ? Then there came a 
time when certain syndicates nndertook to im- 
prove the roadways of the country. They took 
out charters and built plank-roads and turn- 
pikes and made them profitable by placing toll- 
gates upon them and grew rich by taxing travel. 
But the whole system finally broke down of its 
own weight and has been nearly abolished. 

The American people are a thrifty people and 
inclined to adopt improvements that pay, and 
if we read aright the signs of the times, they 
are getting tired of paying big water bills, gas 
bills, transportation bills, to a few men who 
grow enormously rich by plundering the people. 

Temescal Grange. — The offioers of this 
Grange will be installed in I. 0. O. F. hall, 
Oakland, on Siturday, Jan. ISth, by Past Mas- 
ter I. C. Steele. A Harvest Feast will be 
spread and the meeting will commence at 10 
a.m. All Patrons are cordially invited to be 
present. It is expected that a number of 
State Grange officers will be present. 

Brother Cressey, Treasurer of the State 
Grange, has promised to visit and speak to Gil- 
roy Grange some time in the latter part of the 
month. We hope arrangements will be made 
for a large turnout. Farther mention later. 

Yuba City Installation. 

Editors Press: — Yuba City Grange was 
oalled to order at 10 o'clock on Wednesday, 
Jan. Sth, by Worthy Master B. F. Frisbie. Af- 
ter going through with the regular routine of 
business until we reached the Good of the Or- 
der, we thought the best thine for the Order 
was to have the newly elected officers installed. 
Worthy Master Davis being with us for that 
purpose, we prooeeded with the installation, 
and as each officer took his place, he made very 
good promises that he would be faithful, and 
attend to the duties of bis office to the fullest 
extent of his ability. Now if they do, we will 
have a live Grange for the present year. 

After the installation was over, we had a 
short literarv program. First was music by 
Sister F. la Walton; next was an address by 
Worthy Master E. W. Davis, which was very 
fine, and was listened to with much interest; 
then came an instrumental solo by Sister Annie 
Cooper, after which Worthy Master Ohleyer 
gave us some good suggestions. Music by Sis- 
ter Eia Walton and Bro. Lew Woodworth was 
the next in order; then we had a few words of 
encouragement from the Worthy Master of 
Gridley Grange; remarks by Bro. B. F. Wal- 
ton and Bro. L. D. Hedger, .Worthy Master of 
North Butte Grange. Sister Janes gave as 
some very good advioe in referenoe to the Good 
of the Order, followed by a song by the Grange. 
Sister Russell from the new S;ate of Washing- 
ton was with us, and we had a very pleasant 
time and a very profitable one for the Grange. 

At 4 o'clock the Grange closed in due form, 
and we all went home the better for what we 
had learned of the Grange. We hope we may 
retain all the good and all the new life we had 
enthused into our Order, and go to work with 
new energies, and strive to build up our organ- 
ization to one of the strongest Orders in the 
State. Fraternally yours, 

B F. Frisbie, District Deputy. 

Yuba City, Jan. bth. 

Grange Elections.* 


American River — James Cornell Jr., M. ; 
W. E. Bryan, O.; D. W. Taylor, L.; C. Halver- 
son, S ; A A. Harris, A. S.; Mrs. A. Bryan, 
C; Cioily Cornell, T.; E;ta Cornell, Sec; J. 
W. Kilgore, G. K ; Mrs. E. Criswell, Ceres; 
Mrs. J. M. Taylor, P.; Louisa Stadarus, F.; 
Mrs. N. n. Lauridaon, T, A. S. ; J. Cornell Sr., 
Trustee. Installation, Feb. Sth. 

Enterprise. — A. M. Plummer, M. ; M. 
Toomey, O.; J Simons, L.; W. G. Wilson, S.; 
Wm. Coy, A. S ; Gao. Wilson, C ; Mrs. E. B. 
Plummer, T ; Miss Etta Plummer, Sec; Frank 
• ranter, G. K.; Miss- Belle Hass, Ceres; Miss 
Guesie Birch, P. ; Miss Minnie Toomey, F. ; Misi 
Polly Biroh, L. A. S. Installation, Jan. 24 :h. 

Eureka —J. C. Burns, M.; J. W. Hurlbert, 
0.; Mrs. H. F. Pillsbury, L ; W. H. Willeford, 
S.; A. Pillsbnry. A. S.; Mrs. M. Srite, C; M. 
Srite, T. ; Miss Dora Burns, Sec ; E B. Beecher, 
G. K.; Mrs. Etta Hurlbert, L. A. S ; Mr B . 
Libbie Bseoher, C. ; Mrs. Lizzie Hurlbert, F.; 
Miss Nettie Futhey, P. Installation, Jan. 25 :h. 

Magnolia. — W. H. Cunningham. M.; D. 
Bilderback, O.; V. W. Still, L.; 0. D. Bilder- 
back, S.: J. Cunningham, A. S.; Mrs. Lnu 
Ragsdale, C; J. W. Gantier, T.; Sister V. W 
Still, Sec; C. C. Rag-dale, G. K.; Sister D. 
Bilderback, P.; Bes-ie Still, P.; Eva Dicken- 
son, Ceres; Birdie Bilderback, L. A. S. ; Alice 
Perkins, Organist; J. R. Nickison, Trustee. 

Santa Crcz— G. 0. Wardwell, M.; E. B 
Cahoon, 0.; John Morgan, L.; C. T. Kirk- 
Patrick, S.; C. T. Kirkpatrick. A. S ; Very 
Humphrey, C; J. Frances, T.; B. Pilkington, 
Sec; Thos. Crook, G. K>, Mrs. E. B. Cahoon, 
Ceree; Mrs. Very Humphrey, F.| Mrs. A. 
Stikeman, P.; Mrs, Noble, L. A. S. 

•Notb.— The Secretaries of Granges are re<| nested to 
forward reports of all election and other matters of in- 
terest relating to their GrangeB and the Order. 

Rosevillk Grange. — In a letter addressed 
to this office, S. A. Davis mentions the instal- 
lation of officers of Roseville Grange, and be- 
stows the following compliment on the Secre- 
tary: "Sister Mattie Leavell was installed as 
Secretary for the fourth term, which certainly 
speaks very well for her ability and shows the 
appreciation which she receives from her co- 
workers. Sister Leavell is a lively spirit in 
Koseville, and can always be found in the fore- 
most ranks in well-doing." 

Santa Rosa Grange met Jan. 11th at 10 
a. m,, with a large attendance, every chair in 
the hall being occupied. After dinner the 
offioers were installed by Bro. Wm. Crane, W. 
M. of Bennett Valley Grange, assisted by Bro. 
8. T. Coulter, Past Master State Grange. 
Three candidates are expeoted to take the first 
and second degrees at the next meeting. 

Eureka Grange.— From the Placer Herald 
we learn that Eureka Grange will hold a pub- 
lic installation of offioers January 25th, at 
which all who are interested are invited to be 
present. The Grange meets at Edgewood 
echoolhouse, two miles from Auburn, Placer 

Tulare Grange installation of officers took 
place Jan. 4;h. This Grange has over SO mem- 
bers and is in good working condition. 

A Visit to Hollister Grange. 

Dear Rural:— Fortunate in belonging to a 
live and prosperous Grange and unable to resist 
one of those seductive invitations which Broth- 
er and Sister Nash and Bro. Danlapof Hollister 
Grange know so well how to give, I soon found 
myself traveling in their direction. Arriving 
at Gilroy, I was doomed to the inevitable three- 
hours' wait — but survived — and soon fell into 
conversation with a most interesting and in- 
structive farmer from Saoramento who was 
taking a winter vacation — owing to the reason, 
as he stated it, that his land was too moist for 
farming operations, being about three feet under 
water, and promising to increase to double that 
amount. He told me confidentially that farm- 
ing did not pay, a statement in which I fully 
agreed, for with wheat at $1.10, a fellow can't 
afford to buy postage stamps to even send his 
last poem to his best girl, t.iuickly responding 
to the conductor's " all aboard," after a ride of 
an hour I reached Hollister and was soon seated 
by Brother and Sister Nash's warm fire and 
enjoying the good cheer and happiness of this 
truly oo-operative Grange home. Nine o'clock 
Saturday morning found us at the hall, and one 
hour later the Master's gavel called to order 
a goodly number of Patrons. Installation being 
the first business on hand, your correspondent 
aoted as installing officer, ably seconded by 
Bro. Bates Debart as assistant. After the cere- 
mony of course a lunch must be served, which 
was done in grand style. They oalled it a 
lunch, but I said to myself, " They are off the 
line of travel, for this spread bears a closer 
resemblance to a fine dinner than anything else." 

Hollister Grange has much to be proud of, 
and has made more real progress than any other 
new Grange in the State. It has not only rap- 
idly increased its membership, but has recently 
given a practical illustration of the beneficial 
results of co-operation which older Granges 
might well follow, and has stirred up a veritable 
hornet's nest among manufacturers by proving 
its ability to act independent and intelligibly in 
behalf of its own best interests, and with such 
veteran Patrons as Bro. and Sister Nash, Bro. 
and Sister Brown, and other live officers and 
members ( which means all), it will yet obtain 
all its rights if it is cautious and true, and even 
holds fast to its obligations of truth, fidelity and 
justice. And now, Mr. Eiitor, let me whisper 
something you must never, never tell — they 
have something else besides big ranches and a 
good < ! range. They have a lot of the smartest, 
best-looking young sisters I have yet seen, and 
if polygamy were only in order I would go 
right back; but, oh pshaw I Yes, I wonld 
though, and just take my chanoes. Of course 
my chances would be mighty slim, but then 
anticipation, you know, is what incites all to 
effjrt. Now, Bro. Flint, have you seen any- 
thing like I have described in your travels ? 
Hollister's motto is Excelsior. A Crank. 

Bounties on Exporied Flour. 

The following proposed bill has been sub- 
mitted to the Legislative Committee of the 
National Grange, with the request that it be 
circulated as widely as possible and the opin- 
ions of the farmers obtained thereon: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the United States of Amer- 
ica, in Congress assembled: — That the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury be and is hereby author- 
ized to pay a bounty of 50 cents for each bar- 
rel of flour exported from any port in the 
United States, in any vessel built in the United 
States, and owned by citizens of the United 
States, to any port in Europe, until twenty 
millions of barrels of flour shall have been ex- 
ported. And the sum of ten millions of dollars 
is hereby appropriated for that purpose out of 
any money in the Treasury not otherwise ap- 
propriated. Provided that no bounty shall be 
paid by the Secretary of the Treasury to any 
owner, tfficer, or their agents, or to any other 
person, until satisfactory evidence has been 
produced to said Secretary that the flour has 
been shipped from a port in the United States 
and landed in a port in Europe, and that the 
vessel in whioh it was exported was built in 
the United States and owned by citizens of the 
United States. 

This Act shall take effect in 30 days from its 

Bro. John Trimble, Secretary National 
Grange, is kept very busy at this time, and an 
Eastern exchange suggests that the Exeoutive 
Committee give him one or more assistants to 
attend to the rapidly accumulating duties of his 
office. During December last 50 Granges re- 
ceived outfits from his office, which, in connec- 
tion with the usual correspondence and the 
work attaohed to the publication of the annual 
proceedings of the National Grange, must have 
kept him pretty busy. Bro. Trimble is also a 
member of the Legislative Committee of the 
National Grange, his colleagues being Worthy 
Master Brigham of Ohio and Bro. Leonard 
Rhone of Pennsylvania. 

Elk Grove Grange will install its offioers 
on Saturday, Jan. ISth, the meeting opening at 
10 a. M. A Harvest Feast will be given and 
(the weather being fair) Bro. Davis, Master of 
the State Grange, is expected to be present. 
All Patrons are invited to attend. YYe learn 
the above from Bro. Thomas McConnell, who 
also promises to be present. 

[Jan 18, 1890 

Annual Meeting of the Grangers' 

At the annual meeting of the stockholders of 
the Grangers' Bank of this city on January 14th, 
there was nine-tenths of the stock represented) 
and much gratification expressed at the condi- 
tion and growth of the bank aa indioated by the 
reports submitted. The actual condition of the 
institution on December 31, 1S89, is shown in 
condensed form, as follows: 


Tims loans and discounts $709,208 ill 

Demand loans on wheat and other tangible 

secuiities » 1,834 705 74 

Real Estate 88,057 81 

Office furniture and safes 7,500 00 

Cash on hand 172,971 00 

Total $2,702,441 48 


Capital paid up $752,500 00 

Surplus fund $4.">,557 23 

I'ndivided proSts . . . .- 60,981 88 

108.519 11 

Due depositors 79i,s42 22 

Banks and Bankers (on time) 1,111,580 13 

Total $2,782,441 46 

Turning back to the acoount a year ago, we 
find that the total assets of Dec. 31, 1888, were 
$1,799,969 57, and comparing this with the 
statement above shows that during the year 
the business of the bank has inoreased nearly 
one million dollars — which must be regarded 
as a notable growth. 

The statements at the last annual meeting 
also showed that the cash dividends to stock- 
holders from the organization of the bank to 
Dso. 31, 1889, aggregated $627,500, and the 
amount of dividends for the past year $52,500, 
or at the rate of 7 per cent; the balance of 
earnings being carried to the surplus fund. 

The confidence of the stockholders in the 
management is shown by the fact that the old 
board of directors and officers was re-elected 
unanimously as follows: 

Officers— A. D. Logan, president; I. C. Steele, vice- 
president; Albert Montpellier, cashier and manager; 
frank HcHull n, secretary. 

Directors— I. C. Steele, San Mateo county; T. E. Tynan, 
Stanislaus county; Daniel Ifuyer, San Francisco; H. M. 
LaKue, Yolo county; C. J. Cressey, Merced county; Sen- 
eca Ewer, Napa county; Thog. McConnell, Sacramento 
county; John H. Gardiner, Solano county; Uriah Wood, 
Santa Clara county; A. D. Logan, Colusa county; 11. J. 
Lcwelling, Napa county. 

Not Ratified Yet. 

Action on the amendment to the constitution 
of the National Grange reduoing the fees to $1 
for men and 50 cents for women has been re- 
ported from 17 States, 13 voting in the affirma- 
tive, viz, : Delaware, Georgia, Indiana, Iowa, 
Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Missouri, 
Nebraska, Ohio, Texas, Vermont and Virginia, 
and four in the negative, Illinois, Maine, New 
Hampshire and New Jersey. 

Patrons must remember this amendment 
will not beoome law until ratified by two- 
thirds of all the State Granges. After that 
eaoh State Grange will have to change its con- 
stitution if it wants to put it in operation. 

No farmer can afford to do without a 
paper devoted to the interest of agriculture. 
The Pacific Rubai. has this national rep- 
utation, and every farmer of the Pacific 
Slope should receive its weekly visits. Kind 
reader, are you doing aught to help us ? 
Now is the time to send in subscriptions, 
for the Grange will play an important part 
in the history of our country the coming 
year, and, friends, you cannot afford to do 
without the Rural Pbess. 

Pennsylvania's Honors —At the late ses- 
sion of the National Grange held in Sacramen- 
to, Cal., Hon. Leonard Rhone was elected pre- 
siding officer of the " Court of Demeter " for 
the term of two years. This is the highest 
position of honor in the gift of the Order in the 
United States, having charge of the unwritten 
work and the ceremonies of the " Degree of 
Ceres," the highest honor conferred by the Na- 
tional Grange. This also makes Mr. Rhone 
Chairman of the " Court of Appeal," the Su- 
preme Court of the Order. Mr. Rhone was 
also made Chairman of the Exeoutive Commit- 
tee of the National Grange, upon wbich he 
served during the past year. — Farmers' Friend. 

More Granges are wanted in Tulare county, 
where there is a fiae agricultural prospect for 
the year. We hope soon to bear of active or- 
ganizing work being done in Vba'.ia and other 

The annual proceedings of the 231 session of 
the National Grange have been printed, and 
Bro. Trimble, Secretary, has kindly remem- 
bered us with an advance copy of the same. 

If ANY of onr readers are acquainted with 
James Brayton, whose address was supposed to 
be Wilmington, Los Angeles county, will they 
kindly inform us of his right address ? 

At Odd Fellows' Hall — Eden Grange, 
Haywards, has changed its place of meeting to 
I. O. 0. F. hall. 

Jan. 18, 1890.J 



Single Tax, Etc. 

Editors Press:— Will you kindly give me 
space in the farmers' paper to ask a few ques- 
tions of Judge Maguire ? I read bis article in 
favor of the single tax in the Press of Nov- 
30 kh. 

First— What will be the result of taking all 
tax and license off the 4000 whisky-dives that 
are now supported in San Francisco ? And 
what the result of taking it off the other many 
thousands in the State? 

Second — Where would be the justice in tak- 
ing all the taxes off those large, fine buildings, 
and contents, where whisky poison and tobacco 
poison are kept to be sold by wholesale ? 

Third — Where would be the justice in taking 
all the taxes off the buildings, machinery and 
material necessary to make beer and cigarettes 
and oigars — occupations worse than useless ? 

Fourth — Would it be right to take the taxes 
off those large breweries we occasionally see, 
where syndicates are forming to buy, with En- 
glish capital, and it is but fair to think English- 
men are in it — cost we see often estimated at 

From some statistics at hand, I see: Liquor 
costs $850,000,000; tobacco, $600,000,000; bread, 

Fifth — What effect would the single tax have 
on those figures ? Does it not seem to go more 
against bread ? 

Sixth — Is it not safe to presume that 99 out 
of every 100 began like yon and me, Judge Ma- 
guire, we will call it bare-footed; by working 
industriously early and late, being frugal, and 
always taking hold of the right end, some have 
accumulated millions — why should they not 
help pay expenses of the Government? 

Seventh — It would seem that to bring about 
such a radical change as the single-tax advo- 
cates want, would need some legislation. By 
virtue (?) of the large number of brewers, 
cigarette or cigar makers, boycottera and 
strikers in San Francisco, that city is entitled 
to one-fourth of the members in the California 
Legislature. At the last session of that body, 
it was claimed (and I have never seen it contra- 
dicted) that the San Francisco delegation went 
solid lor every measure there was boodle in. 
One instance I think I know a little about — the 
division of Colusa county. It has been vari- 
ously estimated that from $40,000 to $65,000 
was raised, perhaps nearer the latter sum, to 
get Colusa county divided. The San Francisco 
delegation, numbering 10 out of 40 members in 
the Senate and 20 out of 80 in the Assembly, 
voted, all to a man, for dividing the county; 
and the members from Colusa county, both in 
Senate and Assembly, worked with all their 
might to prevent a division. Here I would 
especially ask Judge Maguire to give his opinion 
on such statesmanship — will it do to tie to ? 
Does it not look as if some very substantial 
arguments had been used to bring about such 
an outrage ? 

I, too, believe in reforms, and beg to suggest 
a few, and ask Judge Maguire to give us his 
opinion of them. 

First — I would have 95 per cent of the 
whisky-dives in California closed; and I think 
the best way to get at it is by high license; and 
lest some one may ask why I do not want the 
other few closed, also, I will say: There are a 
great many so accustomed to drink a great deal 
that to cut it off too short might cause an epi- 
demic, which perhaps would take away good 
men, and no country ever had good men 

Second — It should be a State Prison offense, 
beyond the reaob of a pardon, to make or in 
any shape deal in cigarettes. 

Third — Tobacco in all shapes should be, like 
all other poisons, sold only on a physician's 
recommendation . 

Fourth — I should like to see the election-law 
made so, if possible, that every legal voter can 
vote once, at each election, and have that vote 
properly counted. To get at that best, maybe 
some ohange in the naturalization law, or per- 
haps better, to make it a penitentiary offense 
for life, beyond the reach of the pardoning 
power, for any one that is caught, directly or 
indireotly, trifling with his own or any one 
else's privilege of voting. State prisoners 
should work ten hours every working day, and 
make that institution, if possible, self-sustain- 
ing, and no notioe taken of this claptrap 
competition with "convict labor." Anyone 
that oannot get along by carefully using the 
intellect Cod gave him, and making a liberal 
use of elbow grease, also, should go to some 
country where those two very useful articles 
will pull him through. 

Fifth — I think it would be well to change the 
immigration laws. Let them be general, and 
apply equally to all nationalities. If a first- 
class European Power were to make a special 
treaty with some lame nation, and insist on 
carrying it out, we would hear a fearful news- 
paper howl. It has never been clear to me that 
the Chinese have done so much harm to the 
United States as many European immigrants, 
who can vote so easily, without knowing what 
they vote for, and who come as communists, 
socialists, boycotters, strikers; in fact, the 
United States has been for many years — I don't 
know but always — the dumping-ground for the 
moat useless people of all European nations. 

Sixth — It might be well, where secret organ- 
izations such as the one oonnected with the 
murder of Dr. Cronin of Chioago are found, to 

deprive the members of citizenship — it has been 
said that no one can serve two masters. 

Hoping to learn Judge Maguire's opinion on 
this. I am, P. Peterson. 

Sites, Colusa Co., Jan. 5th. 

Assessment of Growing Crops. 

The following circular letter has been sent 
out from the office of the State Board of Equali- 
zation :• 

Sacramento, Jan. 2, 1890. 
To the Assessor — Sir: Prior to March 16, 
1889, Section 3617 of the Political Code defined 
" improvements " as including "all fruit, nut- 
bearing, or ornamental trees and vines not of 
natural growth." The Constitution provides 
that " growing crops shall be exempt from tax- 
ation." At. the time of the discussion of the 
Constitution, in the convention, it was well 
understood that the term "growing crops " in- 
cluded only such crops as needed an annual 
sowing, as wheat, barley, corn, etc. For several 
years there has been a contention that "grow- 
ing crops " meant the trees and vines which 
bore the crops. In 1884 one Royal Cottle sued 
out a writ against L. A. Spitzer, the Assessor 
of Santa Clara county, to compel the defendant 
to refrain from assessing fruit trees for the pur- 
pose of taxation. The Superior Court of that 
county held "that by the term 'growing crops' 
nothing more would be understood than prod- 
ucts from annual plants or cereals, and the lat- 
ter appears to be the sense in which the term 
is employed in teohnical legal parlance. It 
may be conceded, and correctly, that at the 
present day, in this State at least, the word 
'orop,' taken in its most comprehensive sense, 
includes fruit grown on trees, but we think it 
can be affirmed, without serious contradiction, 
that trees, themselves, never have been included 
in the term." The case was appealed by the 
plaintiff to the Supreme Court, and that oourt 
affirmed the judgment of the oourt below. The 
case may be found in 65 Sup. Court RspDrta, 
page 456. 

The L°gislature passed an Act, approved 
March 16, 1889, after the assessment had been 
begun, amending Section 3617, Political Code, 
so far as to define growing crops, as follows: 

"The term 'growing crops' includes all 
growing crops, cereals, vines, nut-bearing, 
fruit and ornamental trees." 

We issued a circular in April, 1889, advising 
you to disregard the law, as it was clearly un- 
constitutional. It seems that there is to be a 
renewed effort to induce the Assessors to ex- 
empt trees and vines from assessment. We 
again advise you that the Act is unconstitu- 
tional. The Supreme Court has often decided 
that the Assessor must obey the Constitution, 
rather than the law, and that Constitution 
must be obeyed as it is construed by the 
courts. The last Legislature exceeded its 
prerogative when it undertook to exercise 
judicial powers, which it clearly did when 
it attempted to construe the Constitution. If 
the Constitution, by "growing crops," included 
only crops requiring annual seeding, the Legis- 
lature had no power to extend the term to in- 
clude other property. 

The whole claim that " growing crops " in- 
cludes trees may be popularly answered thus: 
The statute authorizes the mortgaging of grow- 
ing crops. Every man reading the statutes 
knows it means the grain, or fruit, or berries 
which are to be harvested and sold. Under 
the late claim the mortgagee would have the 
right to dig up the trees and vines as being the 
" growing crop." 

We have nothing to do with the policy ex- 
empting trees and vines from assessment. If 
the question was presented to the people as an 
amendment to the Constitution, it would de- 
serve serious attention. We and you must 
obey the Constitution as interpreted by the 
Supreme Court. 

We submitted the question to the Hon. Geo. 
A. Johnson, the Attorney-General, for his opin- 
ion, and received an answer, a copy of which 
is hereto appended. Respectfully yours, 

C. E. Wilcoxon, Chairman. 

E. W. Maslin, Secretary. 

Attorney-General's Office, ) 
Sacramento, Dec. io, 1889. j 
To the Honorable the State Board of Equalization: 
In reply to your letter of the ninth instant, inquiring 
as to the constitutionality of Section 3617 of the 
Political Code, as amended March 16th, 1889, de- 
fining growing crops, I have to say I think the 
same is unconstitutional so far as it includes within 
that term grapevines, nut-bearing, fruit and orna- 
mental trees. It is not within the power of the 
Legislature to extend the meaning of the phrase be- 
yond what it was understood to be at the time of the 
adoption of the Constitution. When the Supreme 
Court pissed on the meaning of the term, as used 
in the Constitution, in the case of Cottle vs. Spitzer, 
65 Cal. 456, it settled the question. All property 
must be taxed, except as otherwise provided in the 
Constitution, and manifestly the exceptions therein 
provided cannot be enlarged by the Legislature. It 
is my duty as a law officer to follow the decisions of 
.the Supreme Court. Very truly yours, 

G. A. Johnson, Attorney-General. 

The Tariff Problem. — A dispatch from 
Washington, D. C, Jan. 11th, says : Before 
the Ways and Means Committee to-day Alex- 
ander Wedderburn of Alexandria, Va., ap- 
peared as representative of the Legislative Com- 
mittee of the National Grange and the Virginia 
State Grange to demand equal proteotion of the 
farmer with steel, iron and wool manufacture. 
He wanted equal legislation and the protection 
of farmers by means of bounties. 

The Northern Citrns Fair. 

The Northern Citrus Fair's high promise and 
auspicious opening were briefly chronicled in 
last week's issue of the Rural; and the volu- 
minous reports that have kept pouring forth 
from Oroville all go to prove it a superb success. 

The fair, as is generally known, was held 
under a great canvas pavilion, built on the 
north lawn of the Butte county court-house 
grounds. This mammoth tent, 220 feet long 
by 64 feet wide, oovers an area of 14,000 square 
feet — a third of an acre — and during the day is 
as light as if made of glass, while at night its 
white walls are brilliant under the effects of gas 
and electricity. The top is arched, the center 
being 40 feet above the fljor, thus giving ample 
room to display the varied products of orchards 
and gardens. The arches were decked with 
red, white and blue streamers, with sprays of 
forest evergreens, with ivy and branches of 
trees of various folia ga, the whole making a 
very artistic effect wnen seen in connection 
with the masses of golden color below. 

Writes one eye-witness : " To the visitor 
who enters the pavilion for the first time, the 
sight is simply dazzling. It appears to be one 
glittering jumble of swaying foliage, streamers, 
banners, festoons and flowers. Presently, how- 
ever, the scene begins to shape itself. He sees 
before him three long avenues extending the 
entire length of the place, with innumerable by- 
paths and cross-streets. He sees great, strong 
orange trees, growing right up through the 
flooring, loaded down with clusters of yellow 
fruit. He sees countless tables and benches 
groaning under their burdens of citrus and de- 
ciduous fruits, arranged in every conceivable 
design and manner. But he must stand there 
no longer. The crowd behind is pushing for- 
ward, and he is aroused and moves along." 

Among the countless exhibits and multifa- 
rious designs in the fair, that of Supt. D. N. 
Friesleben was by far the most elaborate. It 
consisted of four miniature models, 15 to 30 
feet in hight and completely oovered with 
Butts county oranges, of the Oroville Public 
School, the County Courthouse, the State Cap- 
itol, and the Oroville Methodist church — 
standing respectively for Education, Justice, 
Government and Religion. The perfection in 
detail and the beauty of their surroundings 
were greatly admired. In these four struct- 
ures there were used by actual count over 
45,000 oranges. 

Thermalito's display represented a lawn with 
a tastefully arranged background of ferns and 
palms. Upon the lawn were stacked thonmudo 
of orangeB and various other products. 

Palermo's exhibit included a design all in 
oranges of the old suspension bridge at Bid- 
well's Bar, with a miniature of the famous Bid- 
well's Bar tree, the parent of Northern Cali- 
fornia seedling oranges, standing near. 

Yuba county's big output, in charge of C. N. 
Tharsing, was disposed in the form of a fortress 
estimated to contain 40,000 oranges and 5000 
lemons in pretty mosaic. 

Sutter county's display, of which R. C. 
Kells had custody, was distinguished by an im- 
itation fruit-train — locomotive and three cars 
— nearly 40 feet long, labeled "Sutter County 
on Wheels." The carB were walled and roofed 
with oranges adroitly attached by fine wires. 
The locomotive's boiler was made of layers of 
figs ; the steam-chest and cab of oranges, while 
the pilot and smoke-stack were hidden beneath 
layers of lemons, raisins, etc. Just behind the 
train was a model, in oranges, of Sutter coun- 
ty's great packing-house, inclosing samples of 
fruit in glass. 

Placer county made an elegant showing of 
choice budded oranges — about 20 varieties — 
lemons, apples, figs, raisins, nuts and nursery 
stock, under the supervision of H, E. Parker 
and Rob't Jones. 

Sacramento county was represented only by 
Rilph G. Currier's seedling oranges from 
Folsom. Solano showed navels from F. M. 
Buck's and G. VV. Malone's places at Vacaville, 
and Alameda made the seventh county, the 
California Nursery Cj. displaying olive stock. 

Besides all the fruits, fresh, dried and can- 
ned, from different quarters, there was a great 
variety of vegetables; and M. V. Roe & Sons 
showed 229 articles in fruits, woods, grains, etc., 
all produced on their home place at Nimshew, 
2300 feet above sea level. 

While the fair was going on, the town was 
thronged with visitors, among whom were Gov, 
Waterman, Secretary of State Hendricks, Pres- 
ident Green, Secretary Smith and Directors 
La Rae and Hancock of the State B3ard of 
Agriculture, and Seoretary Lelong and Geo. 
Rice of the State Board of Horticulture. Open- 
eyed and admiring Easterners were there, not 
only among the exhibits in the pavilion, but 
also in the daily driving excursions to the young 
citrus groves of Palermo, Thermalito and the 
Wyandotte Valley — "not neglected by looal 
real-estate dealers, and citizens having at heart 
the best interests of the country." 

The Committee on Awards was wisely 
chosen and consisted of three practioal judges 
of fruit, viz.: A. T. Hatch of Suisun, J. M. 
Gray of the firm of Allison & Gray, S. F., and 
D. H. Porter of Porter Bros. Their awards, so 
far as published, were as follows: 
The Awards. 
Best County Exhibit of citrus and semi-tropic 
fruits — ist, $250, Butte; 2d, $100, Yuba; 3d, $75, 
Sutter. (Placer did not compete in this class.) The 
4th and 5th prizes were not awarded. 

Oranges. — Best individu-.'. exhibit — ist, $100, D. 
N. Friesleben of Oroville, who arranged four large 

buildings, containing about 45,000 oranges; 21 
$90, C. N. Silva of Placer; 3d, $80, Oroville Citrus 
Association. Best exhibit of budded oranges by 
grower— ist, $50, Oroville Citrus Association; 2d, 
$30, C. N. Silva & Son, Newcastle. Best 12 budded 
oranges grown by one person— ist, $10, C. A. Par- 
lin, Oroville. Best 12 seedlings grown by one per- 
son— ist, $10, James O'Brien; 2d, $7.50, Ralph 
Saccoma, Oroville. 

Shaddocks and Pumalos— ist, $5, Mrs. E. 
Tucker, Oroville. 

Lemons. — ist, $25, Mrs. Bussey; 2d, $20, James 
Gates, Marysville. » 

Most Tastefully Arranged exhibit of citrus 
fruit by one individual— ist. $50, Mrs. D. W. Gray, 
Oroville; 2d, $30, D. N. Friesleben; 3d, $20, J. 
O'Brien, Smartsville. 

General Exhibit.— Largest and most varied— 
ist, $50, Sutter County Fruit Co., Marysville; 2d, 
$30, D. N. Friesleben, Oroville; 3d, $20, M. V. Roe 
& Sons, Nimshew. 

Bananas.— ist, $5, J. R. Breston, Oroville. 

Olives.— ist, $10, California Nursery Co., Ala- 
meda county; 2d, $7.50, Miss A. L. Ragan, Oro- 
ville; 3d, $5, James O'Brien, Smartsville, 

Raisins. — ist, $20, Placer county; 2d, $15, J. P. 
Onstott, Sutter; 3d, $to, C. H. Leggett, Oroville; 
4'h, $5, J. R. Whitney, Rocklin; 5th, $2.50, L. H. 

Dried Figs.— ist, $15, J. W. Delamater, New- 
castle (Whue Adriatic); 2d, $10, W. E. Parker, 
Penryn, Placer county; 3d, $5, M. V. Roe, Nim- 

Dates. — ist, $10, Newcastle. 

Dried Fruit.— ist, $25, Sutter County Fruit Co. ; 
2d,. $20, G. W. Hutchins, Yuba. 

In submitting their report to the managers of 
the fair, the Committee on Awards remark: 
" That the general collection of citrus fruits 
were exceptionally fine, bright and clean. The 
budded and seedling oranges were worthy of 
larger and more premiums than on the list, 
many of them being of so nearly equal excel- 
lence that it was difficult to determine between 
them, and many very deserving were left out 
for want of a longer list of premiums. And for 
excellent taste in arrangement of the many 
large exhibits, those in charge should be great- 
ly complimented. The members of your com- 
mittee who have dealt in oranges from abroad 
and from diffarent parts of California for up- 
ward of 20 years, without any reservation say 
that among your exhibits they found as fine as 
any they have ever handled. This display 
ought to convince the most conservative of the 
excellence of the foothills of Northern Califor- 
nia for the growing of citrus fruits in perfec- 
tion for profit." 

Great praise is due and is accorded to Pres. 
E. W. Fogg of the local oommittee, Supt. 
Friesleben, Sec'y Robert Green, and their many 
helpers, innlnrtmg *ko Orv»itio ladies, who 
aided in bringing about results at onoe so grat- 
ifying and so significant of our progess in hor- 
ticultural development. 

A Pavilion for San Jose. — At the annual 
meeting of the Santa Clara Valley Agricultural 
Society, last week, President Topham spoke of 
the need of a pavilion for the agricultural dis- 
play. He said that the society is now handi- 
capped by the lack of such a place and cannot 
do justice to this part of the county industries, 
and urged that steps should be taken at once to 
have a building erected which would serve not 
only for agricultural products but for machin- 
ery and fine arts also. Mr. Chase earnestly 
supported the proposal, and moved that the 
chair appoint a committee of seven to consider 
ways and means for erecting a pavilion, to re- 
port at a special meeting to be called for that 
purpose. The motion was carried and Presi- 
dent-elect Buckley was allowed a week in 
which to consider the matter and make the ap- 

Cognac and "Confidence" Men. — The 
Likeport Avalanche thus briefly disposes of a 
matter which has exercised Napa county folks 
a good deal, first and last: " Two rich (?) 
French gentlemen came to St. Helena a few 
weeks ago and contemplated starting a factory 
to make Cognac brandy. They leased one of 
the fine vineyards and did considerable tall 
talking as to the magnificent plant they were 
going to put in, and St. Helena beoame very 
much inflated, or exhilarated, over the nice 
Cognac that was to be; but alas ! the aforesaid 
French gentlemen took French leave, and not 
only left the St, Helenaites to mourn over the 
transitoriness of all things earthly, but also left 
them in the lurch to the tune of about $450 
solid coin." The lesson, as to the wisdom of 
giving credit to pretentious strangers, may be 
worth all it has cost the Napa valley people. 

The legislation against hydraulic mining has 
militated greatly against the prosperity of the 
State.— S. F. News Letter. 

If our esteemed contemporary had said that 
hydraulic mining has militated greatly against 
the prosperity of the State, it would have giv- 
en utterance to an important truth. Atsuoh a 
time as.this, when our engineers and Congress- 
men are cudgeling their wits for means to undo 
the great wrong that has been done to the val- 
ley in filling our navigable streams and threat- 
ening great damage to agricultural interests, a 
journal must be possessed of ineffable gall that 
can raise a wail because such mining shall not 
be permitted to continue its work of destruc- 
tion. — Marysville Democrat. 

The question of removing the Santa Rosa 
woolen-mill to Red Bluff is up for discussion, 
and a committee from the latter place has been 
down to inspect the machinery. 

Bands of wild horses are said to range near 
Alamo in Lower California, 



Man. 18, 1890 

Agricultural Courtship. 

A potato went out on a mash, 
And sought an onion bed; 
" That's pie for me !'' observed the squash, 

And all the beets turned red; 
" Gi 'way I" the onion, weeping, cried, 
" Your love I cannot be; 
The pumpkin be your lawful bride, 
You cantelope with me." 

But onward still the tuber came, 

And laid down at her feet; 
" You cauliflower by any name, 

And it will smell as wheat; 
And I. too, am an early rose. 

And you I've come to see, 
So don't turn up your pretty nose, 

But spinachat with me I" 

" I do not carrot all to wed, 

So go, sir, it you please I" 
The modest onion meekly said, 

" And lettuce, pray, have pea?e ! 
Go, think that you hive heaven seen 

Myself, or smelled my sigh; 
Too long a maiden I have been 

For favors in your rye 1" 

" Ah, spare a cuss I" the tuber prayed; 
•' My cherrythed bride you'll be ! 
You are the only weeping maid 

That's currant now with me I" 
And as the wily tuber spoke, 

He caught her by surprise, 
And giving her an artichoke, 

Devoured her with his eyes. - — Stl. 


For death?— to feel the fog in my throat. 

The mist in my face, 
When the snows begin, and the blasts denote 

I am nearing the place. 
The power of the night, the press of the storm, 

The post of the foe; 
Where he stands, the arch fiend, in a visible form, 

Yet the strong man nni-t go; 
E\»r ihf journey is done and the Summit attained, 

And the tiarrn i * (oil, 
Though a butle's to fight ere the guerdon be gained. 

The reward of it all. 
I was ever a fighter, so— one fight more, 

The best and the last ! 
I would hate that death bandaged my eyes and for- 

And bade me creep pist. 
No ! let me taste the whole of it, fare like my peers, 

THe heroes of old. 
Bear the brunt, in a minute pay glad life's arrears 

Of pain, darkness and cold, 
Kor sudden the worst turns the best to the brave, 

The black minute's at end, 
And the elements rage, the fiend voices that rave, 

Shall dwindle, shall blend, 
Shall change, shall become first a peace, then a joy, 

Then a light, then thy breast, 
Oh, thou soul of my soul ! I shall clasp thee again, 

And with God be the rest ! 

— Robert flrowning. 

Being Engaged. 

Miss Mehltab.e's Romance. 

When Mebitable's mother leaned on the chair- 
back and looked at her daughter after the de- 
parture of Parrot Smith, that daughter felt that 
she would almost be willing to forego the pleas- 
ure of hearing a man ask if he might come to 
see her Sunday night, if that pleasure were to 
result in such a g»BB as this. She could not 
account for her Buffering from such a guilty 
feeling when she was not guilty of anything, 
unless it were of being so attractive that a gen- 
tleman desired her society. At this thought 
she blushed, and then common sense whispered 
to her that she was not attractive. 

It was of no use to try to look her mother in 
the face, and she gave up the attempt. After 
a terrible silence Mrs. Green cried out : 

" I never 1 I declare I never did ! " 

Mehitable trembled. 

" He was a-weighin' the roosters," she said 

" He wa'n't a-weighin' no roosters when you 
V he was Btan'm' by the fence, without bein' 
nigh no roosters," was the stern reply. 

Mehitable felt there was nothing for her to 
say, so she said nothing. She only tried to hold 
herself so that her mother should be as little 
aggravated as possible. 

" Has that man buried his second wife ? " 

" Ha has." 

"On, gracious land 1" 

Here Mrs. Green deliberately withdrew her 
hands from the back of the chair, sat down in 
that chair, and then, with ostentatious careful- 
ness, began to untie the handkerchief from her 
head and to fold it on her knees. When she 
had done this she looked up at her girl and 
made this inquiry: 

" When d' ne bury her 7 " 

"About mx months ago." 

" He's been a mourner ever pence, I s'pose J " 

" I s'pose so," dtjectedly came from Mehita- 
ble'a lips. 

The poor thing was endeavoring to brace 

herself in some way. She knew that she had a 
right to receive Mr. Smith's addresses, but this 
knowledge was of singularly little avail to her. 

She was immensely astonished and indefina- 
bly alarmed when her mother said, rising to her 
feet as she spoke : 

" We mnsn't be a foolin' here if we want to 
get them bunnits sewed 'fore the man comes." 

Mehitable eagerly sat down to the straw 
work. For two honrs she expected, every time 
her mother opened her lip*, to hear some- 
thing more on the dread subject. Bat no, 
Mrs. Green was remarkably amiable, and "the 
gentlemen " were not mentioned in any way. 

So the days passed, and nothing was said. It 
will be guessed that Mrs. Green had not only 
inherited the Farnsworth look, but the Farm- 
worth shrewdness as well. What she said to 
herself was: " If I go aginst that Parrot 
Smith, she'll take up all the more for him, so 
I'll hold my tongue." 

She was one of those exceptional women who, 
having resolved to hold ber tongue, can do so. 

Thus it came to be Saturday night. When 
Mehitable went upstairs to her cold and dismal 
room, she stood with her small kerosene lamp 
in her hand before her foot-square looking- 
glass. Sne was meditating the act of doing 
her hair up in "crimps." She had not hith- 
erto had any occasion for crimps, but it seemed 
to her now that the time had come for this 
adornment. When she had gone to the library 
that afternoon, she had stopped into the store 
and bought a pair of orimping-pins. Tnese in- 
struments were shaped like very stout hair- 
pins, eaoh furnished with a slide which confined 
the hair. When she had come into the house 
she had felt as if her mother could see these 
articles, although they were wrapped up at the 
bottom of her pocket, and her circular was 
over her pocket. She never felt exactly cer- 
tain how far her mother's knowledge extended. 

It was cold in her chamber. The wind made 
a loud whistling when it was that side of the 
house. At this moment, however, the occu- 
pant of the room was not cold. She looked at 
herself full-front, quartering, and tried to see 
her face in profile, with but poor success. 
Finally she set down the lamp, with a dreary 

" I'm jest a fright; that's what I be," she 
said aloud. 

She held the orimping-pins for a long time in 
her hand. She wondered how they would 
make her look. She wished her mother were 
going to stay over Sunday somewhere, and then 
she, Mehitable, might experiment with those 
pins. But her mother never went away. Hhe 
•v«o »l»»y. thorn to oversee everything. M - 
hitable shuddered at the thought of what 
might be said when her hair was seen done up 
in those pins. 

Then a kind of convulsion of courage came to 
her, and she did what she believed to be the 
bravest act of her life. She twisted her hair 
np in those instruments, and without waiting 
to consider what she had done, or what she 
should do on the morrow, she hurriedly crept 
to her bed. 

When she went downstairs the next morniDg, 
Mrs. Green did not seem to see that her girl 
had her head bonnd up in a handkerchief which 
carefully concealed her brows. The excessive 
amiability continued even up to the time when 
Mehitable came from her room after their late 
dinner, in her best black woolen dress, and 
with a wavy fluff of iron-gray hair over her 
frr head. That Mrs. Green experienced a 
shock at that moment cannot be doubted, but 
she did not make it manifest. 

The two women sat in the kitohen. The 
elder one had a book of the Psalms in very 
large print open on her lap. She appeared to be 
reading diligently. The younger was holding a 
Bible, but sbe did not even make the pretense 
of perusing it. She was thinking that the fire 
was ready to "touch off" in the sett'n-room 
stove, and wondering how long it would be be- 
fore the room would be warm, if Mr. Smith 
should come, and if he came, what would he 
say. She had done the barn chores a full half- 
hour earlier than she had ever done them be- 
fore, and her mother had made no remark. 

If he came, what would he say? This ques- 
tion recurred again and again. She oould not, 
by any possibility, tut it from her mind. It 
hummed over and over in her thoughts. 

It is pitiable to have to relate that Mehitable 
had never had " Sunday-night company " in all 
her life. She had a hazy belief that this was a 
very sad fact, and she hoped that it might 
never be said with truth of her again. 

Surely somebody had driven into the yard; 
somebody said " Whoa ! " very loudly and em- 

"I guess we're goin' to have callers. M'hit- 
able," said Mrs. Green, sweetly. "You run 
right V light the sett'n-room stove 'n' I'll go to 
the door." 

While Mehitable was "lighting the stove," 
her mother ushered into the kitchen Mr. Al- 
phonso Smith. He said he guessed he " might's 
well take out his hoss 'n' stan' it in the barn, 
as it was kinder bitin' out." 

He immediately disappeared, and was evi- 
dently "stan'in' his hoss in the barn." When 
he returned, Mehitable was in the kitchen and 
he shook hands with great cordiality with both 
women, and said with gusto that he had an 
idea that two women alone bo might be lone- 
some like, 'n' he j ;st dropped in to be sociable. 

He nnwonnd a gray "oomforter " from his 
neck, and as he did so one might have ob- 
served that his overcoat was not aa long by 
about a foot as the garment beneath it. This 
kind of disparity in length does not give an 

agreeable appearanoe to a gentleman, and when 
a lover appears with this relatively wrong po- 
sition of coat skirts it is very hard indeed to 
bear. Not that Miss Green was fastidious in 
such matters, still she could not oontrol a 
fleeting wish that Mr. Smith's coats had agreed 
with eaoh other better. 

When, however, his outer garment was re- 
moved, and she had bung it on a nail in the 
back entry, where she used to hang her 
'ather's hat, she saw, as her visitor stood rub- 
bing his hands by the cook-stove, that she 
ought not to blame him for not having any- 
thing long enongh to conceal the immense ex- 
tent of his frock coat. The skirts of that arti- 
cle of apparel were so wide and long, they 
waved and flapped so when their wearer 
moved, that they were almost awe-inspiring. 
Mehitable, in spite of the great significance of 
this visit, suddenly found her mind almost 
completely occupied by the wonder as to 
where Mr. Smith found that coat. Did they 
have those coats ready-made anywhere ? 
Could any man go and get one ? 

As for the rest of this person's dress, his 
black pantaloons were very short and small, as 
if all the cloth had been used in the coat, and 
his shirt-front bulged a great deal, and seemed 
threatening to crack. 

It had an effect as if it were veneered. 

Mrs. Green made some inquiries about the 
hen business, and found that Mr. Smith bad 
permanently taken the place of that young 
man who had "gone up." He was only driver 
now, but he " figgered on gittin' in with the 

After awhile Mrs. Green suggested that the 
front room was probably warm enough now, 
and Mehitable conducted her suitor into that 
apartment, where they both sat down somewhat 
awkwardly. But Mr. Smith was too much 
accustomed to this " kind of thing," as he 
would have said, to be much at a loss. He did 
not attempt the sentimental. He talked a good 
deal about what an advantage it wonld be for 
them two women to have jest the kind of a 
man he was onme there and set the old farm ter 
goin' agin'. He said he should bring his cow 
over, 'n' bis pigs, and M'hitable oould take care 
of 'em while he was pickin' up hens. His 
children were all ahirkin' for themselves now, 
though his youngest was only twelve. 

As she listened to him Mehitable was con- 
scious of the most curions mixture of disap- 
pointment and exultation. She exulted ov^r 
the mere fact that she now had a "gentleman 
friend " of her own, and there he was visibly be- 
fore ber. Still there was an underlying sense 
that this mere fact was not so very interesting, 
after all. Was it so lacking in interest to every 
woman ? She oouldn't understand it in the 
least. Sbe tried to listen when he related how 
much meal he gave his cow, and when he ex- 
pressed a firm conviction that " shorts did a 
critter more harm than good." 

His upper lip was certainly very dreadful, 
and it was particularly dreadful when he 
smiled. Sbe supposed she should marry him, 
of course. It was almost as good as an en- 
gagement that she had allowed him to come on 
Sunday night, and she knew he thought so. 
Her mind went forward to the time when she 
should have to ask the librarian to change the 
name on her membership card from Miss 
Mehitable Green to Mrs. Alphonso Smith. 
What wonld be her sensations at a moment 
like - th it ? 

Would her mother rule Parrot as she had 
ruled every one with whom she had ever lived? 
Why did Parrot — looking at his mouth she 
found herself obliged, mentally, to call him 
thus — propose to come to his bride's home in- 
stead of taking his bride to his home ? She 
could not know that a foreclosure' of a mort- 
gage was about to take place at the Smith 

After her guest bad conversed an hour about 
" critters " and hens, and ootton-seed meal, 
and cracked corn and kindred subjects, and she 
had done her best to listen and reply occasion- 
ally, it became evident that the visitor was get- 
ting very sleepy. His sentences grew more 
isolated, so to speak, and he would close his 
eyes for some minutes, then open them with a 
snap, and bold his head up straight. After 
what seemed an interminable time, the olock 
struck nine. Mr. Smith tried to sit awhile 
longer, then he decided mentally that it was 
a pesky foolish thing to spend much time in 
courting M'hitable Green. He arose from his 
chair, saying , sometbing to the effjet that his 
" hoes was mighty uneasy if it was out much, 
V he s'posed he'd better be goin'; 'n' he s'posed 
it was all settled between 'em, an' he'd come 
over next Sunday night ag'in, 'n' sbe might 
have a talk with her mother, V be sure'n' tell 
the old lady 't he meant the fair thing by 'em 
both, 'n' they needed a man. When he come 
ag'in they'd set the day, as 't wa'n't no use 
put'n' things off when they knew their own 
minds; V he'd like to git settled all comfort- 
able 'fore New Year's." 

He stood looking at Mehitable, where she 
still sat in her chair with her work-worn hands 
folded tightly on her lap. 

" I guess it's all settled, ain't it ? " he said. 

She looked up at him, ber honest, patient 
eyes having an unusual appearanoe under her 
fluffed hair. 

" I guess 'tis," she said feebly. 

" All right, then," he responded with brisk- 
ness, " I'll be a-goin'," and he walked out of 
the room. 

She did not follow him. She remained quiet. 
She heard him bustling on with his coat and 
talking to her mother; then the outside kitohen 

door shut, and soon after came the sound of a 
horse and wagon leaving the yard. 

Sbe was engaged. Sne kept telling herself 
that she was engaged while she was doing the 
little things she did every night before going 
to bed. 

In half an hour she was upstairs. Her 
mother had continued amiable. She would try 
to inform her in the morning. It would be 
time enough in the morning. 

She stood a moment and looked in the glass. 
She had become engaged sinoe she had seen her 
own reflection last. Finally she blew out the 
light and crept in between the home-made flan- 
nel sheets. 

It was between 12 o'olock and 1 o'clock in 
the night that Mrs. Green became aware that 
her danghter was standing beside her couch, 
with a bed-comforter wrapped about her, and 
holding the lighted lamp in her hand. 

" Mother," exclaimed Mehitable with explo- 
sive force, " you tell him I can't do it, I oan't 
do it, 'n' I won't, I won't !" 

Mrs. Green smiled aa soon as she could re- 
oover herself sufficiently to do so. 

" So you've ben an' ingaged yourself, 
have ve? " 

" Yes, but I ain't goin' to stay engaged; I 
oan't bear him. I — oh — mother, you tell 

him ! " 

Mehitable showed symptoms of hysterical 

Her mother reached out and patted her 
daughter's arm. 

"Don't you worry," she said, "the Farns- 
worths ain't afraid of nothin', V I ain't lived 
to this day to be afraid of that Parrot Smith, 
I guess. I'll tell him I wa'n't goin' to let 
him git ye, anyway. He's arter this farm. 
I'll tell him it was left to me, V I o'n will 
it where I pleise, V I shan't will it to Par- 
rot Smith's wife. Sakes ! did ye think I didn't 
know what I was up to? Go to bed, child. 
We'll git 'long here by ourselves a spell longer, 
I reokon." 

Must it be confessed that, as Miss Green 
again climbed the narrow yellow stair, in the 
midst of her sensations of relief there was a 
dull pang that her mother should have thought, 
and have said, tbat this gentleman friend was 
" arter the farm"?— New Fork Tribune. 

The Road to Success. 

Men and women have ceased to succeed in a 
hurry. Occasionally there will be an excep- 
tion, but the instances are rare. Success, a 
writer has said, is the child of confidence and 
perse v ranee, and never was the meaning of a 
word more clearly defined. The secret of many 
successful careers is the thorough performance 
of whatever has been undertaken. An ex- 
cellent maxim is that which connsels us never 
to put our bands to anything into which we 
cannot throw our whole energies harnessed 
with the very best of our endeavors. Perse- 
verance is essential to success, since it is often 
aohieved only through a succession of failures. 
In spite of onr best efforts, failures are in store 
for the ma j ority of the race. It remains, then, 
for us all to do the best we can under all cir- 
cumstances, bearing in mind that races are not 
always won by the swiftest feet, nor triumphs 
in battle secured by the strongest arms. It is 
not so much the possession of swiftness or 
strength as it is the right application of them 
by which success is insured. 

In starting out npon the journey of life, it 
is well: 

First, to obtain every kernel of knowledge 
within your reaob. 

Stndy people for the knowledge they can im- 
part to you. 

Read books for what they can teach you. 

Next, see what your temperament best suits 
you for. 

Mark your tendencies and apply them. 
Be sure you have not mistaken your oalling. 
Ouce certain, apply yourself to your chosen 

Then work hard, earnest and incessant. 
Don't consider anything beneath you. 
Be patient, honest and pleasant in manner. 
Treat all persons alike, high or low. # 
Have a smile for all — a pleasant word for 

Success may not come at first, but it will not 
be far off, and when it does come, it will be 
the sweeter for its delay. — Ladies' Home 

LionTiNo the Cow. — He recently came from 
the city and located in Susan vide, the sage- 
brush metropolis of the Golden West. From 
one of onr farmers he bought a cow. Last even- 
ing the Mail man happening to see a light in 
the gentleman's barn, opened the door and saw 
two new lamps burning brightly. When turn- 
ing to leave the cow that was enjoying all this 
luxury in Bolitude, we encountered the owner 
and asked him the occasion of having the lights 
in the stable. "Well," be replied, " I provided 
lights so that the cow can see to eat." — Lauen 

"Repelling Boarders." — A foraging tramp 
lately called at K i Book's house, near Goshen, 
when Mrs. B. was the only member of the 
family at home, and asked for a dinner, which 
she gave him. It was not hot, so he threw it 
away and demanded a warm meal. Tb» woman 
picked up the shotgun and told Mr. Tramp it 
contained something hot that he would get if he 
did not move at once. He moved. 

Jan. 18, 1890.J 




An Iowa girl has been complimented with a 
verdict of justifiable homicide for shooting a 
fool at a charivari. Is it possible that the long- 
looked-for and hoped-for Fool-killer has incar- 
nated at last, selecting the American young 
woman as his avatar. — Alia. 

Oatcake (at back window) : I say, kin you 

tell me Mr. Cashmore — Go to the next 

window if you want any information. Oat- 
cake : Thunderation ! I'd like to know what 
you've got that sign " Teller " over yer head 
for, any way. — Puck. 

Miss Elderly : I have just been gathering 
autumn leaves, Mr. Oldboy. Mr. Oldboy (cyn- 
ically) : So I perceive, Miss Elderly. You 
have gathered them so many years I suppnse 
you do it autumnatically, as it were. — Texas 

The New Spitz. — He : That's a handsome 
dog you have there. What breed is it ? Boston 
High School Graduate (embarrassed): That? 
That's a saliva dog. — Life. 

In a small town in Baden a minister closed 
his sermon the other day with these words : 
"We would be pleased, moreover, to have the 
young man who is now standing outside the 
door come in and make certain whether she is 
here or not. That would be a great deal better 
than opening the door half an inoh and expos- 
ing the people in the l»«t row of seats to a 
draught." — Frankfurter Zeilung. 
Now for a strong and steady hand 

In old Brazil ! 
None but a chief born to command 

Will fill the bill. 
There needs must be some tough and stanch 

Old Hickory 
To save us from an avalanche 

Of chicory. — Chicago Tribune. 

How Do You Keep Your Matches? 

The Hoosick Falls Standard tells how a 
farmer in New York State lately went to town 
and bought enough matches, as he supposed, to 
last a year. They were said to be the best 
made by Swift & Courtney, a dozen boxes with 
300 matches in each box. The matches were 
pat on the pantry shelf and no attention paid 
to them until six hours later, when they were 
discovered to be on fire, in time to prevent the 
house and everything in it from going up in 
smoke. The large thick paper box that held 
the smaller ones had not been opened, so no 
mouse nor other animal could have meddled 
with them, and it seemed a plain case of spon- 
taneous combustion. 

This incident suggests the necessity of every 
householder putting matches, no matter whether 
there are many or few on hand, in a stone jar 
or tin box that will prevent their doing harm 
should they ignite. And of all the things to 
hold matches, a stone jar, with a heavy, tight- 
fitting cover, is the best. 

Stick a pin here, reader, and this little squib 
may save your home. 

Speed of Fishes. — The speed of fishes is al- 
most an unknown quantity, it being, as Prof. 
G. Browngoode says, very difficult to measure. 
If, says the professor, you could get a fish and 
put it in a trough of water 1000 feet long and 
start it at one end and make it Bwim to the 
other without stopping, the information could 
be easily obtained; but fish are unintelligent 
and will not do this. Estimates of the speed 
of fish are consequently only approximated, 
and more or less founded upon guessing. One 
can tell, however, at a glance whether a fiah is 
built for speed or not. A fast fish looks trim 
and pointed like a yacht. Its head is conical in 
shape; its fins fit down close to its body, like 
a knife-blade into its handle. Fish with large 
heads, bigger than their bodies, and with short, 
stubby fins, are built for slow motion. The 
predatory fishes, those that live on prey, are 
the fastest swimmers. The food fishes are, as 
a general thing, the slowest, and consfquently 
are easily captured. Their loss is recompensed, 
however, by the natural law which makes 
them very prolific in reproduction. Djlphins 
have been known to swim around an ocean 
steamer, and it is quite safe to say that their 
speed is 20 miles an hour; but it may be twice 
as much. The bonito is a fast-swimming fish, 
but just what its speed is, is not known. The 
head of the goose fish is very large, 20 times as 
big as its body. It moves about very little, 
and swims at the bottom of the ocean. The 
Spanish mackerel is one of the fastest food 
fishes. Its body is cone-shaped, and is as 
smooth as burnished metal. Its speed is as 
matchless as that of the dolphin, and in mo- 
tion, it cuts the water like a yacht. 

Egyptian Mummies. — It has been estimated 
that more than 400,000,000 human mammies 
were made in E;ypt from the beginning of the 
art of embalming until its discontinuance in 
the seventh oentury. Herodotus and Dlodorus 
agree in the statement that there were_ three 
grades of embalming. The first cost in our 
money, about $1225, the second about $375, and 
the third was very cheap. 

Truly Weather Wise. — "Uncle Johnny" 
Wolfskill of Winters came to California in 
1846. Awhile ago (the story goee) some one 
asked the old gentleman what sort of winter 
we were going to have. " I don't know," said 
he; "I've been here too long. Go and ask 
some tenderfoot who has juBt come in." 



Enigmatic Snarls, Both Hard and Easy, for 
Young People of all Ages to Untangle. 



Edith Estes. 

127. — charade. 
First is what some persons get 

When dunned for what they owe; 
And second what young misses set 

To captivate a beau. 
Whole is a person who will let 

His angry passions flow — 
One who will rave and scold and fret 

Without much cause to show. 



Civil. service examiner to intelligent candidate: 
How many numbers are necessary to perlorm a 
multiplication ? 

Candidate (promptly): Two. 
C. S. E. : Well, here arc three numbers. Com- 
plete the multiplication. (Hands him a paper on 
which is the following: 



Candidate (scratching his head): But these are 
only partial products; tne problem has neither head 
nor tail. 

C. S. E. : Well, find the head and tail. 

After thinking a moment, the candidate goes to 
work and discovers the multiplier and the multipli- 
cand. What are they? J. H. Ff.zamhe. 

129. — NUMERICAL. 
The I23 will prove « Iritrnd 

If you to it are kind ; 
The 345a sticky mess 

We in the South will find; 
The 456 name for a man, 

Though not a common one; 
The 6 7 8 we all must do 

If our work we'd have done; 
The whole with tumble, rush and roar 

Comes headlong down the hill, 
In haste to reach the water-wheel 

That turns the busy mill. Ethyl. 


Take five hundred as the basis of the problem, 
add to this one-fourth of four, five hundred, and 
one-third of ten, and you have a fraction of man, 
although in his opinion the numerator of the frac- 
tion is larger than the denominator. Anon. 

tling voice, " be not afraid, for I am here to 
help thee. In the folds of my dress you will 
find a pocket lined with softest silk and filled 
with grains of gold. Take pocket, silk, gold 
and ail." 

But the child shook and trembled; and the 
fairy stood and sighed, while she continued: 
"I cannot help thee unless thou wilt first help 
thyself," and the fairy smiled so sweetly and 
talked so gently that the ohild took a step for- 
ward and found the silken-lined pocket laden 
heavily with gold. 

" What shall I do with the pretty pink silk, 
and with the grains of gold ? " whispered the 

"Take the Bilk and spin for thyself a dress, 
and string each grain of gold on a silken cord, 
and wear it around thy neck for a chain. 
When you have accomplished all this, you will 
be visited by a fairy prince. Da what you 
think best, and so will you find happiness." 

The child bowed her thanks, and then with 
the pocket of gold entered the house, where she 
unfolded to her mother all that the tall, stately 
fairy had said; and that lady was so glad to 
find her child interested that she helped spin 
the dress and string the grains of gold. 

Crietabel looked fairer and more fragile than 
ever in her rose-colored silk and necklace of 
gold; and at the next full moon she sought the 
garden again and found not the tall, stately 
fairy in green, but a tiny, dandy little fellow 
clad in diamonds and pearls. 

He took off his hat to Cristabel, and told her 
that he had come to take her to fairyland, 
where she would be queen of the fairies and 
live forever as his beautiful wife; but Oristabel 
wept and said she oould not leave her mother. 

"Foolish child !" cried the fairy in an angry 
tone. " Then give up thy dress of silk and 
necklace of golu." 

" Gladly 1" cried Cristabel, and the fairy 
struck her, when lo ! Cristabel stood alone in 
the garden in her blue cotton gown; but the 
silk-lined pocket, filled with gold, lay at her 
feet, and she gazed down sadly upon it, when 
she heard once again the sweet voice of the 
tall, stately fairy in green. 

" My child, thou hast done well, for it is al- 
ways well to love and respect our parents. 
Take up the pocket of gold and take it in to 
thy mother. Gat her to grind each grain of 
gold into meal and out of the meal to make 
thee a cake, which thou must eat. Then shalt 
thou have health and be restored to thy mother 
for years to come." 

" Oh, thank you ! " cried Cristabel with 
tears in her eyes, and she ran into the house to 
grind the gold and bake the cake. 

The cake was very sweet and pleasant to the 
taste, and as Cristabel ate, she became plump 
and full, and two round roses bloomed on her 

And many to-day are eating the same sweet 
cake, made from the same golden grain, taken 
from the tall, stately fairy's pockets, and it is 
wholesome and good. 

The fairy is found in many a garden and 
upon manv a field, and is named "Indian 
Com." —Portland Transcript. 

131. — ANAGRAM. 
See ! he writes a "page shorter' n " mine, 
But there's more contained in one 'ine 

Than in many which I may write; 
And I think that such expert men 
Use some kind of a " short gear pen," 
It flies o'er the paper so light. 

Chas. I. Houston. 


120. — " A cake eaten in peace is worth two in 

121. — Pant-a-loon. 

122. — 1. OCLD, cold. 2. File, life. 

123. — i, Wrd-lock. 2. Hem-lock. '3. Pad- 
lock. 4. Shy-lock. 5. Bui- lock. 

124. — Particular, articular, 
j 25. — U nprosperousness. 


The Wonderful Pocket of Gold. 

A Fairy Story 
All summer the fair and fragile Cristabel 
had been resting beside the sea, where the 
white spray came up every day and washed 
her feet, and where the waves rolled over and 
over in ene grand solemn dance to music of 
their own hearts. But still the pale flower 
faded, and it was with a heavy heart that 
her mother gathered her up in her arms 
and started back for their home in the city, 
when the haivest moon was far up in the sky, 
beaming down as kindly npon the bire, dirty 
walls of the city as upon the clean, fresh fields 
of ripened grain in the wide country. 

The gentle Cristabel was glad to be at home 
again, and she wandered ont into the small 
back yard to gaze np into the faces of the pure, 
sweet stars, and wonder how long before she 
would be with them. But there was some- 
thing besides the bright stars to rivet the child's 
attention to-night. 

A beautiful fairy, tall and stately, stood mid- 
way in the garden, her queenly head crowned 
with a tuft of floating plumes, and the folds of 
her green silken gown rustling with every pass- 
ing breeze. 

Cristabel clasped her hands and gazed in 
speechless delight. 

" Dear ohild," said the fairy, in a soft, rus- 

" La Grippe. ' 

The Russian influenza, "la grippe," or by 
whatever name it may be known, is nothing 
new. Indeed, it is very ancient, for it dates 
back as far as 1510. Dr. John R. Hamilton of 
New York, a well-known and accepted author- 
ity on all matters pertaining to the laws of 

health, and on the subject of " la grippe," says 
the disease has made periodical visitations dur- 
ing the last few hundred years. It spares no 
part of the world in its pilgrimages. 

The earliest recorded epidemic of influenza is 
that of 1510. There were 20 visitations of the 
disease, which is also known as epidemic ca- 
tarrh, between 1510 and 1837. The disease does 
not confine itself to men, but frequently affects 
the lower animals. 

A complete history of the disease was pub- 
lished under medical authority in England in 
1852. Among the articles in that work was 
one by Dr. John Warren of Boston, written in 
1790, from which it appears that influerjzi, 
then well known in Europe, invaded the whole 
of the United States in the course of the 
autumn of 1789. 

What It Is. 

Dr. Albert Robin of the Paris Academie de 
Medicine says: "This disease is known as 
'influenza,' or more commonly in French, as 
' la grippe.' Unquestionably the epidemic 
will continue to spread — how far it is impossi- 
ble to say — but there is no occasion for serious 
alarm. An ordinary case of influenza has noth- 
ing more to be dreaded than a severe cold of a 
week's duration. 

Its Symptoms Are Unmistakable. 

" Headaohe, pains in the eyes, soreness all over 
the body, as if one had been beaten, loss of ap- 
petite, a feverish condition, and a general sense 
of lassitude and discomfort. These general 
symptoms are apt to be followed by various lo- 
cal troubles, such as a bronchial attack, a cold 
in the headi sore throat, diarrhea, and some- 
times by pleurisy or pneumonia. 

"The only real danger is presented in the 
last two cases, which oan usually be guarded 
against by proper care. From three to eight 
days is the average duration of the disease 

proper, but its effects upon the system are com- 
paratively severe so that several weeks more are 
often needed for a full convalescence." Persons 
who may be seriously ill only a week will often 
require from three weeks to a month to at- 
tain once more their normal condition. 

Remedies Proposed. 
The New York Sun proposes the following 
remedies, presumably after competent medical 

On the first appearance of the characteristic 
symptoms a full dose of quinine should be 
taken. In an adult, without any consti- 
tutional peculiarity unfavorable to the ac- 
tion of quinine, the first dose should be 20 
grains. After this, ten grains may be taken 
three times a day, unless there should be in- 
tense ringing in the ears, with some impairment 
of hearing. An attempt should also be made to 
destroy the microbe by local applications. 

A gargle of one drachm of borax, one drachm 
of salicylic acid, one fluid ounce of glycerine 
and seven ounces of rose-water should be used 
three or four times in the day. At night, ten 
grains of Dover's powder, with hot drinks and 
abundant bedclothing to promote perspiration, 
would be useful. 

Those who prefer simpler means of treatment 
will find the adoption of a diet of fruit, 
farinaceous foods and cereals of great value. 
Lemons should be used freely, and the nasal 
passages cleansed often with common salt and 
water. Inhalations of carbolic acid and iodine 
will aid in destroying the germs. In most 
cases the latter treatment will probably be 
sufficient, and a resolute exercise of the will- 
power will not come amiss in preventing the 
disease from acquiring the mastery. 

Nothing to Do With the Cholera. 

Dr. Robin, above quoted, says: "The the- 
ory has been advanced that influenza is the 
forerunner of cholera, but I regard that as pure 
nonsense. It is true that several times in the 
present oentury an influenza epidemic has been 
closely followed by a visitation of cholera. It 
is also true that several times in the same 
century there has been an epidemic of influ- 
enza with no cholera following, just as there 
have been epidemics of cholera with no influ- 
enza preceding. The faot is that the two dis- 
eases are so utterly dissimilar as to make any 
such sequence all but impossible, and aoy occa- 
sional instances of their simultaneous appear- 
ance must be regarded as a mere coincidence 
with no deeper significance." It is supposed to 
originate from a microbe. The microbe of con- 
sumption, cholera and even of whnnplug »»»s K 
boo been discovered, and the Paris savants are 
already working to discover the influenza 

One Can Catch It In the Air. 

By mere breathing, the microbes can be taken 
into the system, so that when it starts it soon 
has the whole population of a city sniffling and 
sneezing. Nearly all the civilized world, just 
at this time, is sneezing as they never, collect- 
ively, sneezed before. 

Imagination Has Much to Do With the 

The imagination, in this as in many other 
epidemics, is apt to aggravate the disease. 
Don't be afraid of it; but when you are at- 
tacked, just give way to it and put yourself un- 
der the care of a good physician and you will 
soon be all right. The sensational reports 
given in the daily papers do much injury in 
this direction. A prominent physician of Wash- 
ington says: " I think that in 99 cases out of 
100 there is nothing else the matter with the 
people who think they have the epidemic than 
a very natural and ordinary cold in the head. 
There is nothing unusual about such colds at 
this time of the year. In fact, I do not know 
that I ever saw a year go by when two-thirds 
of my friends did not, at this season, suffer 
from such a cold. But the moment the news- 
papers call attention to the fact that there is a 
new disease prevalent in some corner of the world 
every man who has the snuffles begins to be- 
lieve that he has the symptoms of the epidemic. 
Of course, there is undoubtedly some truth in 
the existence of this peculiar disease. The re- 
ports from the other half of the world prove 
that; but what I contend is that in a vast ma- 
jority of cases there is nothing extraordinary 
the matter, but that the sufferers imagine that 
their cases correspond exactly with the genuine 
cases of la grippe. It all comes from the atten- 
tion which is called to the epidemic in the 
newspapers. I would venture to say that 
where there is one genuine case of influenza, 
there are 99 imitations." 

How to Wash White Silk Handkerchiefs. 
Never allow silk handkerchiefs to become too 
dirty. Wash them in a warm lather made 
with pure white curd soap. This water should 
be blued, also the rinsing-water. Roll up 
tightly in a oloth, and iron the handkerchiefs 
between linen. The iron must not touch the 
silk, otherwise it will turn yellow. This 
method has been found the best for keeping silk 
handkerchiefs white. 

To Wash Plush Cloaks,— First hang your 
cloak on the line and get all the dust out of it 
with a switch. Then spread it on the back of 
a chair and sponge every inoh of it with warm 
rain-water and a little ammonia. Take a dry 
sponge and rub the oloak until it is almost dry. 
Rub both ways, back and forth, until the nap 
is thoroughly raised. Lastly, hang the cloak 
in the sun until it is perfectly dry and brush 
it with a soft brush. 



[Jan. 18, 1890 


Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Office, 220 Market St. ,N.E. cor. Front St., S. F. 
tr Take the Elevator. Ho. It Front S(.T» 

Our Subscription Rates. 
Our Afntjil Sobscriftio* Rate is thrbb dollars a 

Gear. While this notice appears, all subscribers pay- 
ig $3 In advance will receive IS months' (one year and 
18 weeks) credit For (2.00 In advance, 10 months. For 
$1.00 in advance, Ave months. Trial subscriptions for 
three months, paid in advance, each 60 cents. All 
agents and clerks are required to adhere to these terms. 
No new names entered on the list without payment in 
advance. Our premium offerings are subject to these 

Advertising Rates. 

I Week. I Month. S Months. 1 Tear. 

Per Line (agate) * .26 I .60 I 1.20 f ».00 

Half inch (1 square). .. 1.00 2.60 8.60 22.00 

One Inch 1.60 6.00 1 3.00 4 3 00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
In extraordinary type, or in particular parte of the paper, 
at special rates. Four insertions are rated to a month 

Our latent forms go to press Wednesday evening. 
Registered at S. F. Post Office as second-class mail matter. 

DEWEY & CO., Patubt Solicitors. 

A. I. D1WKT. W. B. KWBR, 8. H. STRONG. 


Saturday, January 18, 1890. 


EDITORIALS.— The HolBtiin Fricsiins, 57. The 
Week; Drugs and Doctors; The TriiBts and C mbin s; 
Gov. Waterman and G ain Bigs, 64. The University 
Laboratory Buildinir. 65. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. — A Representative Holstein- 
Friesian; Lord D>rby— s. Typical Cleveland Bay SUl- 
linn, 57- Exhibition Pen of Birred Plymouth Rocks, 
69. The New Bui'ding for the chemical Department 
of the Univ. rsity of California, 65. 

HORTICULTURE.— The Prune in California, No. 2, 

THE DAIRY.— A Progressive Dairy Establishment 

i» ~ x„„«!«. County, 58. 
POULTRi' YARTJ— TaiK8 auuui r TO »T, »<. i. 


ernment; Yuba City Installation; Grange Elections; 
A Visit to Hulli»tcr Grange; Bounties on Exported 
Flour; Annual Meeting of t*e Grangeis' Bank; Not 
Ratified Yet; Miscellaneous, 00 

THE HOME CIRCLE. — Agricultural Courtship; 
Prospicr; Being Ki gaued; The Koad to Success; Light- 
ing the Cow; " Repelling BoardeiB,"62 Chaff; How 
Do You KteD Your Matches; Speed of Fishes; Egyptian 
Mummies', Truly w either Wise, 63 

YOUNG POLKS' COLUMN.— Tangles; The Won- 
derful Pocket of Gold, 63 

GOOD S.EALTH — " i a Grippe," 63. . 

FLORIST AN > GARDENER. - The Mistletoe 
Here and Elsewhere; The state Floral Society; Chrys- 
anthemums: California Prize Onions, 65 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES. — From the various 
counties of California, 66. 

FRUIT MARKETING. — The California Fruit 
Union, 63. 

DOMES I'lO ECONOMY.— Tamales; Various Re- 
cipes, 70. 

Business Announcements. 

(NSW TTI1S I88UB. ) 

Clydesdale Horses— Killip <fc Co. 

Harrows -J. H. Wylie 

lncub .tors— I he '• Hatch" Co., Sin Jose. 

Mow. rs— Hawley BroB. Hardware Ca 

Orchard H me— "dwner," S .nta Clara. 

Pou t y— Geo Tre z t, Sicramento. 

Rati, h ' Chico Nurse y & Oichardi, Chico. 

Reil Estate— Anthony &Gillis, Oakland. 

Seed- — J A Everift & . o , lndiannpolis, Ind. 

Seeds -J. L. Stack & Co., St. Paul, Minn. 

Setds — Sevin Vmcei.t & Co. 

Caligr ph Tvpewiitor -Eva Barker, Auburn. 

Trees— Will ft Ho loway, Oroville. 

Trees— E. Gill, .akland. 

W See Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

There ia as yet no relief from the unwelcome 
weather, and wbioh is unfortun itely exerting 
rather a depressing influence npon individual 
and public dispositions. The roads in most 
parts of the State are inexpressibly bad and in 
many places well-nigh impassable. Oj the 
mountains the snow blanket is constantly 
thickening, and in parts little used to heavy 
snow, the precipitation is considerable. Colds 
of the influenza type are reported so prevalent 
as to interfere with business and educational 
efforts. Even where such disagreeable features 
do not exist there is the general disoontent 
over the inability to work in the fields, 
and sowing and planting are about at a 
standstill. Such is the unpleasant condi- 
tion of affairs just at present. Of course, 
sunshine, which may come any day, and may 
remain for quite a duration, would almost in- 
stantly put a new phase npon the condition 
and outlotk. Such is t'> be Mno.r'ly hoped for. 

COLFAX fido.r cuuu.y, ehipp d 118 000 
pounds of table grapes, and about a ton of 
apjfles, pears and other fruits this season. 

Drugs and Doctors. 

It was the remark of the celebrated Dr. 
Boerhaave that the physicians in his day were 
like a blind man armed with a club; they raised 
the olub and atrnok ; if they hit the disease 
they killed it; if they hit the patient they killed 
hiin. It is surely a matter of gratification that 
human life and health in our day are subjeot to 
no such blundering and uncertainty. Dr. 
George M Gould in the December number of 
the Forum speaks almost rapturously of the 
wonderful advancement medicine has made as 
a science. Ue says: " If one thoronghly con- 
versant with the medical progress of the last 
few years takes np even the best work on pathol- 
ogy or general medicine Issued five or ten years 
ago, he is astonished to find how much seems 
old and outgrown." He states it as a fact that 
the death rate in England from zymotic dis- 
eases had been reduoed one-half, and in the 
class called fevers within the past 20 years the 
death-rate had been reduced from 20,000 to 

While we willingly acknowledge the debt of 
gratitude we owe the medical profession for 
their tireless energy in improving the healing 
art and its handmaid, sanitation, still there 
are many of the profession who are very skep- 
tical, if not pessimistic, in their estimate of 
power over disease. Dr. Holmes once made the 
remark that if the whole materia medica were 
oast into the sea, it might be worse for the 
fishes, but would certainly be better for man. 
Dr. George K. Welch of Keyport, N. J., in an 
address before a medical school on " Many 
Drugs for Remedies," gives a very sad and 
graphic description of the helplessness of the 
average doctor in the presence of disease. He 
says: " Where is the young doctor who does 
not believe in the magic of drugs, and the old 
doctor, if he is a wise man, who does not look 
upon the most of them as misohievous, and the 
minority as deserving of restriction ? The 
pathologist is skeptical of them all, Dj we 
waiting behind the eye of Koch know anything 
of tuberculosis or believe that he does ? Does 
not the ravage go on ? And who has won emi- 
nence in curing yellow fever 7 Are men no 
longer in dread of the cholera? Who oures 
rheumatism or chronic Bright's disease ? And 
where is the stout heart that never failed be- 
fore the patient burning and broiling in the 
horrible slow flame of pyaemia ? " Stille and 
Mairch's dispensatory gives a list of 150 reme- 
dies for rheumatism, from grandma's teas and 
fomentations to the last specialist with 40 
grains of salicylic aoid to the dose. And what 
is true of rheumatism is largely true of all 
other diseases. There are many drugs but few 

That medicine is not an exact science, nor 
likely soon to be, is evident from the great un 
certainty of diagnosis. There are very few 
diseases whose signs and symptoms are so con- 
stant that no mistakes can be made, and no 
faot is more notorious than the almost daily 
difference of opinion among doctors. 

Of course the first thing to decide on enter- 
ing the sickroom is, what is the matter. To 
fail here is to fail in practioe, and hence the 
abilty to diagnose is the surest test of real 
medical genius. Most any one may prescribe 
when it is known what is the trouble, and the 
ability to diagnose is by no means an acquired 
talent, for in that case the doctors would all be 
nearly of equal merit. They all read and 
study the same books. They are generally well 
posted in anatomy and physiology. They all 
look at the tongue, explore the pulse, go 
through the process of auscultation and percus- 
sion. But in opinion and praotioe it is well 
known they often go widely of the mark. 
However valuable the schools may be, the fine 
insight, the acute, delicate and quick percep- 
tion that characterizes the superior physician, is 
something that oannot be found in the books or 
transmitted through a diploma. 

We suspect, however, that one cause of so 
many mistakes in the treatment of disease 
oomes from the fact that the physician is too 
haety in making up his mind. Here the patient 
is usually largely to blame. He expects the 
doctor will be able to tell him what is the 
matter on the first visit, and the doctor is 
afraid to frankly state his doubt and take time 
more thoroughly to study the case. The pi 
tient may grow alarmed and send for some one 
else. But were all physicians equally careful 
and cautious, their patients would soon learn 

not to expect the doctor to jump to a conclu- 
sion at the first visit. . 

But passing all this by, we can hardly agree 
with most doctors in regard to prognosis. 
While quite free In making a diagnosis, they 
are usually very reticent on prognosis. Now 
the knowledge of an incurable disease does not 
aggravate the malady nor hasten its progress, 
and surely one who is approaohing his end has 
an indefeasible right to know it. The matter 
may require prudence and wise caution, but we 
have seen so much horror thrown around the 
deathbed by delusive hopes that we cannot re- 
gard such a course as anything less than inex- 
cusable sympathy, if not absolute cruelty. 

The Trusts and Combines. 

Continuing briefly the comments in previous 
issues upon the baneful power of the trusts and 
combines which are operating in agricultural 
products, we note a dispatch on Jan. 13th from 
Kansas City, which announces that the Ameri- 
can Live-Stock Commission Company will dis- 
band within a few days. This company was 
organized about a year ago for the purpose of 
saving members the money they were paying 
to commission men in Kansas City and Chi- 
cago. A hundred thousand dollars was recent- 
ly divided as the first year's dividends. 

A prominent member of the association says 
Armour, Swift and Hammond have threatened 
to boycott the concern in the interest of the 
brokers. The Kansas City and Chicago Live 
Stook exchanges also threaten to do the same 
thing by the Chicago and Alton Railway if it 
continues to lease the cars of the association. 
Thus the great combine is killing out opposition 
to the middlemen who work in its interest, and 
tightens its grip upon common carriers, so that 
the public avenues of transportation oannot be 
available to parties outside the combine. There is 
a little gleam of hope that the ways of the trusts 
may be made hard in the depression in trust 
circles in New York over the injunotion pre- 
venting them from ohanging their form to 
avoid recent laws; also over the decision of 
Judge Wallace of San Francisco, which was 
commented upon in the last Rural. The pefb- 
lio should congratulate itself that there are 
some things which promise to oheck the prog- 
ress of these gigantic evils. 

The Coming Orange Crop. — We recently 
alluded to the importance of the orange prod- 
uct of Oalifornia and gave statistics of the crop 
of last year. We are interested in finding in 
the Pomona Progress, a wide-awake journal of 
Los Angeles county, a detailed estimate of the 
orange crop of Southern California this season, 
based on reports gathered from 67 of the prin- 
cipal orange-growers and many orange-buying 
firms in this part of the State. It is estimated 
that the crop for Southern California this sea- 
son amoun's to 960,000 boxes, or 3350 carloads. 
Of this, 555,000 boxes will come from Los An- 
geles oounty, ."SO, 000 boxes from San Bernar- 
dino county, and '25,000 boxes from Ventura 
and San Diego connties. The Progress finds 
that the seedling orange crop of Soutnern Cali- 
fornia is more than one-third less than the 
average yield, while the navel crop is about 
one-fourtb heavier than ever before. The in- 
crease in aoreage of bearing orange orchards in 
this region this year is abont 1100 acres. 

Progress of the Irrigation Survey. — The 
report of the Irrigation Survey for the month 
of November, lately reoeived by the Secretary 
of the Interior, states that field-work was car- 
ried on in California, Nevada, Colorado and 
Idaho. In the California and Nevada section 
parties have finished the work assigned to 
them. The topography of 250 square miles of 
Pyramid Peak sheet area in California and the 
Reno sheet area in Nevada was oompleted. 
The report of the Hydrologio division was pur- 
sued only in California and the Rio Grande val- 
ley, New Mexico. In California, examinations 
were made of a segregation of irrigable lands in 
the valley of Owen's river. The Hydrographl- 
oal party inaugurated some experiments in Cal- 
ifornia for ganging rivers by means of an ap- 
paratus worked from shore. A oamp is being 
located on Tuolumne river. 

Cabbage Seed fob China, — A Chinese 
laundryman at Chattanooga has lately sent a 
large regi-tered package of cabbage-seeds by 
mail to Hong K >ng, and an attempt will be 
made to raise Amerioan cabbages on a large 
soale in China. 

Governor Waterman and Grain Bags. 

We have already alluded to Governor Water- 
man's expressed determination to do all in his 
power to make bag prices reasonable by using 
the prison factory as a cheok npon speculators. 
In the formal report upon the results of the in- 
vestigation of State prisons, of which we re- 
ceive a copy, we find the following interesting 

California has been, and for many years to 
oome will continne to be, a grain-producing 
State. The manufacture of jute bags offers a 
field for the employment of convict labor, 
which interferes very slightly, if at all, with 
free labor, and which extends substantial bene- 
fit to our farming community. The Legislature 
of 1887 considered ft advisable to double the 
output of the jute mill at San Quentin, and 
made an appropriation of 81 60 000 tor that pur- 
pose. On the presentation of the matter to 
me, I examined the subject thoroughly, and 
having had in my own private business consid- 
erable experience with maobinery, and the 
working of double and treble shifts, it seemed 
to me that the State should adopt the same 
economic means that a private individnal would 
to secure from a manufactory the largest out- 
put at the lowest expense. After consultation 
with the Board of Directors, and after looking 
into the question of a nigbt shift from all sides, 
the conclusion reached was that the night shift 
oould be successfully worked, and the same re- 
sult attained as thongh the State had kj wan- 
dered the sum of $160,000 on an additional 

The difference between the cost of bags man- 
ufactured by day and those manufactured by 
night is infinitesimal — less than five cents per 
hundred bags This extremely small difference 
is caused by the expense for lights, etc The 
night shift being a success and the cost of an 
additional plant being saved, the benefits de- 
rived from the operation of a night shift are: 
(a) The ontput of the jute-mill is doubled. 
(6) This increase in the output renders com- 
binations to fleece the farmers extremely diffi- 
cult, if not impossible, (c) A greater revenue 
is produced for the State, tending to make the 
prison self-sustaining, (d) The convicts are 
employed, bnt free labor is not injured. 

These matters are all of the greater impor- 
tance to the farming interest from the fact that 
if we get any favorable weather for sowing be- 
fore it gets too late, there will be an unheard- 
of grain crop in this State this year, and if an 
advance in the price of sacks can be avoided in 
the face of the great prospective demand, a 
benefit will be conferred which the grain powers 
will fully appreciate. 

Meeting of the Fruit Union. 

As we go to press Wednesday afternoon the 
stockholders of the Fruit Union are holding 
their Annual Meeting in Viticultural Hall, 
President P. E . Piatt in the chair. There is a 
large attendance of members and much interest 
manifested. We are nnable to give in this issue 
more of the proceedings than the full report of 
the Board of Directors, reviewing the transac- 
tions of the past year, which may be found 
npon another page. Next week we shall note 
the other items of procedure which seem of 
general interest. 

Canned Vegetables. — Mr. W. B. Mundy 
of the Blue Lakes cannery, an establishment 
which was favorably noticed in the Rural of 
Aug. 31st last — made us a call a few days ago 
and left a sample can of the string beans that 
he and Mr. Wambold have been putting up. 
The vegetables were grown on moist land at 
the lower end of the Blue Lakes after the water 
had receded for the season. We fou,nd them 

Altitude of Bid well's Bar. — The Oroville 
Register corrects a statement by one of our cor- 
respondents, as follows: " Robt. Williamson, 
the well-known fruit-grower, says in the last 
issue of the Rural Press that the famous Bid- 
well Bar orange tree in this oounty is up in the 
mountains fully 1500 feet. He is in error; Bid- 
well Bar is only 375 feet above sea level." 

The San Joaquin Valley R. R. Oo. has filed 
articles of incorporation in Fresno. The objeot 
of the company is to build a line 75 miles long 
from that city, running up King's river into the 
mountains. Work is to be commenoed within 
90 days. The oapital stook is $1,500,000, all 
subscribed, with $75,000 paid in. 

Anti-Trust Bill. — On the 14th inst. the 
Senate Committee on Finance considered Sher- 
man's bill to declare trusts unlawful. After 
adopting several amendments, which do not 
affect the principle or soope of the measure, the 
committee ordered a favorable report to bo 
made to the Senate. 

Jan. 18,. 1890] 


The University Laboratory Building. 

The Chemical Department of the University 
of California haa Buffered for lack of accommo- 
dations for some time, but a legislative appro- 
priation of $70,000 for a special building has 
remedied this, and ground has been broken and 
foundations laid for the structure. The new 
building, an engraving of which is shown on 
this page, is located south from the Mechan- 
ics' Art building, and it is expected will be 
completed this year. 

Designs were drawn and plans made and the 
regents selected the design and plans as made 
by Mr. Clinton Day, the well-known architect 
of Barkeley. It is a radical and welcome de- 
parture from the commonplace forms of the 
structures already built, and will be a decided 
ornament to the University grounds. 

The building will be of stone, brick and terra- 
cotta, and of the Victorian-Gothic style of 
architecture. It will be about 180 feet square, 
one story in front facing west, and two stories 
in bight on the side facing south. 

There will be five entrances and the building 
will contain 50 rooms. In the center of the 
building, facing west, there will be a large 
lecture-room, provided with all the necessary 
tables and instruments used in demonstration, 
and oapable of accommodating 200 persons. 

Three rooms, communicating with one an- 

The Mistletoe Here and Elsewhere. 

Many who are familiar with California species 
of mistletoe and desire to know more about the 
plants and their botanical affiliations will be 
interested in the following essay by C. R. Or- 
outt in the San Diego Union of recent date: 

The mistletoe is one of the historic plants of 
the civilized world, and was held in great rev- 
erence by the Creeks on account of its supposed 
medical virtues. The Druids ascribed to it 
many miraculous powers. This parasitical 
plant extends in Europe from Sweden to the 
Mediterranean Sea, and the English mistletoe 
or misseltoe (Viscum album) is common in the 
southern counties of England, where it grows 
on many varieties of trees, especially the apple 
tree, which it sometimes kills. . When found 
uppn the oak, where it is rare, it was an object 
of superstitious regard among the Druidical 
Briton priests. 

This curious evergreen is now valued among 
the English-speaking peoples of the earth next 
to the Christmas tree, and every year it be- 
comes more popular. It has always been an 
important guest at English winter festivities 
since histrionic times, and this Anglomania in 
America is both joyous and healthful. The 
house that is at this season without a twig of 
mistletoe has either no children in it or is un- 
able to procure the rare parasite. 

The derivation of the word is from the Ger- 
man mist, which is supposed to have reference 
to the belief that the seeds are deposited by 

before yon start the dangerous climb, with 
mistletoe above and water below to deaden a 
possible or rather probable fall, you wonder 
ho* many blushing maidens will be kissed un- 
der those branches. 

" That climb will not be easy. You are en 
tangled in dead limbs, scratchy boughs, that 
would almost discourage a bruin. It will take 
you fully a quarter of an hour to get to the top. 
Then you will stand on a dead, swaying arm, 
with the precious green leaves on all sides of 
you. Fortunately the mistletoe's brittleness 
makes it easy to break off bit by bit, otherwise 
you would have been at your wit's end to get 
any at all. Down the berried branches drop, 
fully 90 feet, until the tree is stripped bare. 
Then the descent! — but we will forbear repeat 
ing the harrowing tale." 

The mistletoe ha? been so sedulously hunted 
in the northern Atlantio States that it is now 
so nearly exterminated in some sections as to 
be no longer profitable to the hunters. The 
main Christmas supply necessarily comes from 
the Southern States. 

This mistletoe is abundant in California, but 
as yet, I believe, has escaped the commercial 
despoiler. Should he ever approach with cov- 
etous hand to pluck our beautiful evergreen, 
he will find the way scarcely easier than aa 
above described, though different obstacles 
will beset his path. The oak, the sycamore, 
and the willow are the favorite foster-parents 
of our Phoradendron, whioh differs but slightly 
from the Eastern mistletoe. We have, how- 
ever, no less than six or eight varieties of 
Phoradendron, and each selects some particular 
tree or class of trees for its favorite abiding- 

One of these shows especial fondness for the 

two species are credited to Sin Diego oounty. 
Any one desiring to make its personal acquaint- 
ance can find by diligent search an abuudance 
along the course of the Tia Juana, the Sweet- 
water, or the San Diego rivers, or in any of 
tSi larger valleys away from the sea-coast. 
Although abundant, it seems to be little known 
to the inhabitants of Southern and Lower Cali- 

The State Floral Society. 

The January meeting of the State Floral So- 
ciety being the annual meeting, was largely oc- 
cupied with business pertaining thereto. 

The treasurer, Mrs. W. H. Ware, reported 
the gross receipts for the year at about $1100 
and a surplus of about $200 still in the treas- 
ury. The membership of the society is 126.- 

The election of officers for the ensu'ng year 
was had with the following result: E. J. Wick- 
son, president; Mrs. L. O. Hodgkins, vice-presi- 
dent; Mrs. M. A. Sperrv, secretary; A L. Ban- 
croft, treasurer; Mrs. G. P. Rixford, account- 
ant; H. G. Pratt and O. V. Parker, directors. 

The directors were instructed to arrange for 
one or more evening meetings, when those act- 
ively engaged in fl riculture might be present, 
as they cannot during the dav. 

A resolution was introduced that a commit- 
tee Bhould be appointed, to consist of A L. 
Bancroft, Leonard Coates and Cnarles V. Par- 
ker, to act with a like committee from the 
California State Horticultural Society, the two 
committees to form a joint committee to work 
for securing a scheme of national registration 
of plant-life, to be known as the "Amerioan 
Horticultural Register,''' and to provide that 
the originators of new varieties of fruit, flowers 


other, and so arranged as to be made as one, 
will be provided for laboratory purposes. The 
dimensions of the rooms are as follows: 58. 2x 
32 9; 49.9x38.4; 34x38.4. In the old building 
accommodations were provided for only 60 
students, whereas in the new one ample room 
is provided for 200 students. 

The capacity of the institution will be more 
than trebled. A small lecture-room 
made for special purposes; also several rooms 
in which students can pursue their studies in 
special subjects, and other rooms for general 
use oonnected with the laboratories, such 
as storerooms, sitting-rooms, and rooms for 

Oa the north side of the building a museum- 
room will be built. A wing, to extend from 
the north end of the structure, size 43.6x27.10, 
will be used as an organic laboratory and a 
combustion and store room, and in the court, 
about the center of which will be the complete 
building, there will be five rooms to be used as 
reading, sitting rooms, etc. 

The present design calls for ample accommo- 
dations for 125 students, which is double the 
capacity as now provided in the south hall of 
the University. 

The Marysyille Ditch Co. has incorpor- 
ated to construct irrigation ditches in Yuba 
county, with $50,000 capital; all has been sub- 
scribed. The directors are D. O. Daggett of 
Yuba, L. Biwles, H. de Venve, J. H. Sayre 
and H. de Veuve, Jr., of San Francisco. 

birds who eat the berries, and the Norwegian 
word tein, the prong of a tree or twig. The 
word is also written misletoe or misseltoe. 

The English mistletoe bears a glutinous fruit 
from which a bird lime is prepared. The radi- 
cle is peculiar in always turning toward the ob 
ieot to which the plant is attached. The 
branches are opposite and whorled with wedge- 
obovate, three-nerved leaves; the axillary 
spikes a little shorter than the leaves; the ber- 
ries a yellowish-white. 

The mistletoe whioh plays so important a 
part in America at Christmas time is quite dif- 
ferent from its English relative. It has leaves 
of a more yellowish-green; its stem is brittle 
and green-back, and it has translucent pearl- 
like berries. Nuttall, the noted American nat 
uralist and botanist, who was born in England, 
gave a new generic name to our Amerioan plant, 
phoradendron (born to a tree). Nuttall was 
one of the earliest botanists to visit San Diego, 
and thus our own California mistletoes were 
mostly named by this eminent botanist, who 
was long connected with Harvard University. 

The mistletoe which we usually see in the 
Christmas books is the Phoradendron flave- 
scens of the Atlantic States. A recent writer 
describes the way to gather the " mistletoe in 
South Carolina as like the way of the trans- 
gressor." He says further: " Yon oannot 
make it easy. Like all sinners, you need a 
guide. Take one or you will not get muoh. 
The plant always attaches itself to trees in 
swamps or very near them. Yonr guide soon 
discovers the coy parasite at the top of some 
oak or gum tree right in the middle of a large 
pool of water. Rubber boots are a desperate 
need. You will be surprised to find them use- 
ful in climbing as well as in wading. 

" The trees are desolate and bare, their dead- 
ness unrelieved except by the patches of brill- 
iant green on the topmost branches. The effect 
is so romantic, the prize so inaccessible, that 

grand cedars in the mountains (Libocedrus 
decurens), while another affjcts the humble 
juniper bushes and is equally friendly with 
the mesquite and acacia bushes of the des- 
ert, which are constrained to act as unwill- 
ing hosts. This latter variety of mistletoe 
is quite peculiar, is much slenderer than the 
other species and bears a profusion of lovely 
red berries, very different from the pearly- 
White fruit borne by the other species. 

The mistletoe grows within easy reach of 
man's hand on these low bushes, but woe to the 
One who incautiously approaches the host, who 
seems reluctant to part with his self-imposed 
guests. The cats'-claws of the acacia will warn 
the collector to desist, and make him thankful 
to even escape from its clutches without his 
wished-for prize. 

On the larger trees it is not at first easy for 
one to distinguish the mistletoe in the ever- 
green brambles of the oak or pine, but one 
may soon learn to distinguish the compact dark- 
green olnsters, whioh in fall assume a yellowish 

These parasitic plants belong to the family 
loranthaci se and are true shrubs with brittle 
wood, the stems one to two inches in thick- 
ness. It is ourious to note how the woody 
fibers of the rootB force themselves into and 
interlock with the fibers of its host. Cut off 
the limb of an oak where the mistletoe is grow- 
ing and one oan easily note the yellowish wood 
of the mistletoe, where it has engrafted itself 
into the oak and draws its sustenance from the 
life-current of the tree. It is -not rare to find 
a tree that has thai been robbed of its sap be- 
yond its ability, when. the. limb and the too 
greedy parasite have both died from starva- 

In the mountains the pin» trees sometimes 
are found to support a leu 11 ss variety, com- 
monly known aa the pine nuatletoe, belonging 
to a third genua named aroeuthobium, of whioh 

and plants should be allowed exclusive propa- 
gation and sale-right thereof for a limited time. 
The resolution was referred to the directors, 
with instructions to report at the next meeting. 

After informal discussion of the propagation 
and rearing of tuberoses, camellias and out-of- 
door roses, the meeting adj turned. 

Chrysanthemums. — With reference to the 
vaunted bigness ot some of the Chrysanthemum 
flowers, excessive bigness in either flower or 
fruit is apt to slide dangerously in the direotion 
of coarseness. Is not a desire for it somewhat 
imprudent? Surely the most delightful and 
purely enjoyable examples of the Chrysanthe- 
mum are the naturally trained, the abundantly 
bloomed, and such as will allow of the removal 
of a flower without damage to the entemble. 
For it must not be overlooked that the Chrysan- 
themum is invaluable as a cut flower for the 
parlor. The highest test of excellence in any 
description of flower is its fitness for the adorn- 
ment of a lady's boudoir. Thelight and shade 
of a well-selected handful of Chrysanthemum 
blooms, set tenderly and without orowding in a 
suitable vase, are excelled in oharm perhapa 
only by a similarly well-chosen group of Or- 
chids; In the gloomy days of November tbey 
have the effect almost of sunshine. — Manchtiter 

California Pki/e Onions.— Arroyo Grande, 
San Lais ObiSDO, maintains its reputation for 
grand vegetables. W. A. Rice- has just re- 
cuiv.d $100 from W. H. Maule of Philadelphia, 
the first prize for contests with seed of the 
" Prizetaker " onion, the specimen weighing 6 
pounds 2 ounces, and J. D, Roberts baa won 
the seoond and third prizes for the Viotoria 
onion offered by W. A. Burpee & Co. of Phila- 
delphia. These enterprising Philadelphia seeds- 
men will probably ahip all their prize coin to 
California, and our growers can stand it. 



[Jan. ]8, 1890 

Agricultural J^otes. 


Gum Tree FrEL. — Livermore Hirald, Jan. 
9: For many years we have been urging the 
cultivation of eucalyptus for firewood on the 
waste places of our farms, but few have had the 
foresight to engage in it. A blue gum tree, 
planted in the spring of 1875, and consequent- 
ly 25 years old, was cnt down on Almon Wey- 
mouth's farm recently. It made very nearly 
two cords of wood. By planting the trees close 
together in the rows, and thinning them out 
annually after the first three years, a profit is 
obtained without much delay. 

Myriads of Robins. — The present gathering 
of robins in this valley is unparalleled. They 
are present everywhere by thousands, and robin 
potpie is becoming a common article of diet 
among our people. The larger number of the 
birds are evidently from the mountains, whenoe 
they have been driven by the snow. They are 
most numerous in the south edge of the valley. 
....Thomas Ocffman has been doing a good 
business in shooting them on the Olivina dur- 
ing the past week. The birds roost in large 
numbers in the num-tree crescent, on the sec- 
ond mesa, and Mr. Coffman merely shoots into 
the trees at night, bringing them down by the 
dozen at eaoh shot. In six nights he killed 
4000 robins, and sent 222 dozen to the city. 

They bring about 40 cents per dozen In 

view of their abundance in Alameda county or- 
chards this month, and their wholesale 
slaughter by gunners, " Orchardist " makes this 
appeal in the Hav wards Journal: Don't kill 
the robins, farmers and orchardists, or allow 
others to enter your place and slangbter these 
innooent birds. Did you ever think why they 
came here in such numbers of late years? Our 
orchards are their choice feeding-grounds. 
You may be sure they would never stop here 
in their flight if instinct did not tell them our 
orchards were alive with bugs, moths, worms 
and scales of all kinds. These birds are your 
best "friends as insect-destroyers; from day 
break till dark they are ever busy. Protect 
the robins and in turn they will protect you. 
Contra Costa. 

Squirrels Strychnine-Stricken. — Martinez 
Gazette, Jan. 8: An ounce of strychnined 
wheat, put out during the last short dry spell 
last Tuesday, killed 75 squirrels, which goes to 
show iney c«o — h. ,„A «v«rvbodv 

should try it as Boon as the good weather 


Bio Pine Canal. — Independent, Jan. 3 : The 
Big Pine canal heads at a point about seven 
miles above Big Pine. There is a stretch where 
()<vens river flows south and then makes a sharp 
bend to the east. Just at this point is a deep 
slough which continues south. Below the 
mouth of the slough a matting of willows tied 
with wire has been sunk and weighted with 
many tons of rock. This has raised the river 
about four feet and throws a vast volume of 
water into the slough. About 200 yards from 
the river, head-gates and an overflow gate have 
been put in. Below the head-gate the canal is 
16 feet wide on the bottom and has two feet 
fall to the mile. The canal, when finished, will 
be about 14 miles long, and the average width 
of land between it and the river is two miles. 
There is no better soil in Owens valley than the 
land under this canal. 


Barley vs. Foxtail. — Bakerafield Cali- 
fornian, Jan. 11: On the South Fork last year, 
J. B. Firebaugb plowed np 27 acres of alfalfa, 
because the field was nearly captured by fox- 
tail, and sowed barley. It yielded 631 sacks, 
averaging 115 pounds per sack or 2687 pounds 
per aore. This was sold in Kernville, only four 
miles away, for $1.65 per 100 pounds, making 
a return of $44.35 per acre. This treatment 
killed the foxtail and the field will be re-seeded 
to alfalfa this season, and another patch of 50 
acres will this year be similarly treated. Such 
a fine yield of barley pays sufficient profit to 
make anti-foxtail treatment highly remunera- 


Long-Abiding Apples. — The Sunday Union 
Is in possession of some apples grown in Nevada 
county in 1888, and exhibited at the State Fair 
last fall, having been then off the tree for a 
year. The apples are still sound and their 
healthy appearance demonstrates that the 
foothill counties of Northern California, lying 
at the base of the snow-belt, can produce apples 
that will keep in excellent condition a year and 
a half, and possibly two years. [We would 
like to learn of what variety are these wonder- 
ful "keepers." — Eds. Press.] 

Seedling Almond. — Loomis Citrus Belt: 
John Coppin has a seedling almond tree near 
bis house, on the outskirts of town, that pro- 
duces remarkably fine nuts. They are not ex- 
tra long, but broad and thick, with a very soft 
shell that can easily be broken between the 
thumb and index finger. Mr. Coppin has no 
trees propagated from his, but Bold $5.50 worth 
of nuts from that one tree this year. 

San Bernardino. 
From Cloverdale Precinct. — Editors 
Press: The long-oontinued rain has filled the 
ground to its utmost capacity. The weather 
has been bo warm, however, until the last week 
that feed and grain have made a good growth. 

Last night there was a north wind, accom- 
panied by the heaviest frost I have seen here, 
killing tomato plants and taking the last leaves 
off the fig trees. Snow has fallen in consider- 
able quantities low down on the mountains, 
giving promise of a good supply of water for 
the summer. Ptter Kehl, the miller of San 
Bernardino, is having 1000 acres of land broken 
up and seeded to wheat on the grant south of 
us. The Franklin Bros, have about 300 acres 
of wheat and beardless barley planted on their 
land, and will put in 100 acres of rented land 
adjoining. Plows are running in every direc- 
tion between storms, the prospects are good for 
crops of all kinds, and farmers are hoping that 
better prices will prevail than during the past 
season. — L. 8. Lyman, Aletiandro, Jan. 
11, 1890. 

Cattle from Arizona.— Ontario Record, 
Jan. 1: Ricbard Gird received 550 head of 
cattle from Arizona yesterday, and the unload- 
ing here was a very interesting sight. The 
whole shipment was young stock, yearlings 
and two-year-olds, and they came through in 
very fair condition, considering delays from the 
condition of the road. No better place to win- 
ter and fatten stock can be found in the West 
than on the rich stretches of the Chino ranch. 

Citrus Fair. — Riverside Phcenix, Jan. 11: 
The Citrus Fair of the 28th Agricultural Dis- 
trict will be held in this city commencing Feb. 
24th and continuing six days. An exoellent 
premium list has been prepared, the amount of 
which reaches close to $2000. The fair will be 
held in the Lawrence Pavilion and a large tent 
adjoining. The fair will be a success, as the 
whole county takes an active interest in it. 

San Diego. 
Shipping Grain for Europe. — San Jacinto 
Regitter, Jan. 2: The great bulk of grain 
raised in San Diego county is raised in the Siu 
Jacinto valley and its immediate vicinity, and 
Kauffman & Haas have made arrangements for 
shipping grain direct from San Jacinto via San 
Diego to Europe, without the inteivention of 
any middlemen, by which parties dealing with 
them would save the commission of from 10 to 
15 cents per 100 pounds now and hereto ore 
paid to grain dealers, who ship to and repre 
sent forwarding merchants at S. F. Kauffman 
& Haas have a large warehouse at Winchester 
for the storage of grain until such time as they 
are prepared to ship it direct to such market as 
will command the best returns. They have 
also purchased two lots on the water front at 
San Diego, on which they intend erecting a 
large grain warehouse. 

iur. Bcnm Oo»cnT. — San Jacinto 'Register, 
Jan. 9 : We published in our issue of last week 
an article from the Pacific Rural Press on 
honey, wherein it is stated that Ventura had 
raised 220,000 pounds of honey, while this 
oounty was credited to only 200,000. Kauff- 
man & Haas of this city, alone, bought and 
shipped from this valley 200,000 pounds, or 10 
carloads of honey. This is no wild assertion, 
but facts, as the figures can be Been on the 
book of the railroad agent at this place at any 
time. Other of our merchants have shipped 
from one to five carloads from this station, 
thereby making the total amount something 
near 240 000 pounds shipped from this valley 
alone. Now add to this the amount as already 
published, and it will swell the full amount to 
440.000 pounds. 

Producers Organize. — San Diego Sun, Jan. 
8 : The Producers' Union, which grew out of 
the Oounty Horticultural Convention in No- 
vember, formally organized yesterday, as fol- 
lows : J M. Asher, Pres ; J. S Richardson, 
V. P.; Robert H. Young, S?o'y; C*lifornia 
National bank, Treas.; and A. W. Webber, 
Gen. Manager; Advisory C >mmittee, J. M. 
Asher, J. C. Frisbie and J. S. Richardson. Di- 
rectors for first year : J. M. A-her, Chester 
Gunn, J. S. Richardson, J. 0. Frisbie, R. F. 
Dookery, E. L. Dorn, G. W. Parnell, W. 0. 
Kimball and C. E. Thomas. The directors 
must be chosen from those whose principal 
source of income is from agriculture, and their 
only compensation shall be a mileage of 5 cents. 
Sec. Young was instructed to notify the 
county's producers to report to the Union the 
coming two months any produce they may have 
for sale, providing they desire to co-operate. A 
commission of from 5 to 8 per cent will be charged 
by the Union. Cash will be advanced on con- 
signments, of which notification should be 
given a week in advance, or goods will be 
bought outright. Qjarters are to be secured 
in a few days. 


Almeria Grapes. — Dixon Tribune, Jan, 11: 
On Dec. 20th, F. H. Buck picked from the vines 
and on the following day shipped to Allison, 
Gray A Co., S. F., 100 orates of Almeria grapes. 
The fruit arrived in good condition. The price 
realized was from $1.50 to $2 per crate. It was 
perhaps the latest shipment of grapes ever made 
from Vaca Valley. 

Santa Barbara. 

Washes— Facts and Hints. — Lob Olivos 
Cor. S. B. Prest, Jan. Li: Twenty years ago 
the Ballard valley had no special creek-bed in 
it. Now there is a wash 15 feet deep and av. 
eraging 100 feet in width through a length of 
seven miles. It widens by some 20 feet per an- 
num, and to-day is in the middle of the Bal- 
lard town site, 150 feet wide. Messrs. Jack- 
son A Davidson were threatened with the loss 
of their town lots. So they put in brush mat- 
tresses, turned the current, deepened the chan 
nel and furnished an example to the people of 
a successful jetty-saving system. If this ex- 
ample is not followed, there will be a tremen- 

dous movement in real estate here ere five 
years, which- will wipe out much of five or six 
farms. Yet a little energy now will save them 
all, A few willow jetties and a line of willow 
and eucalyptus trees planted both sides of the 
creek will prevent the otherwise oertain 


Park Association. — Santa Rosa Democrat, 
Jan. 11: The annual meeting of the stock- 
holders of the Agricultural Park Association 
was held in Capt. Guy E Grosse's cratse, Tues- 
day afternoon. Of the 2500 shares of stock, 
1972 shares were represented. The associa- 
tion's indebtedness was announced at $900; the 
property is valued at $25,000. Following are 
the names of the directors elected for the ensu- 
ing year: Capt. Guy E. Grosse, B. M. Spencer, 
J. H. Laughlin, I. DaTurk, Julius Ort. 8. I. 
Allen and C. A. Wright in place of J. N. Biil- 
haohe. After adjournment, the directors pro 
oeeded to organize by electing the following 
officers: Guy E. Grosse, Pres.; J. H. Laugh- 
lin, V. P.; L. W. Burris, Treaa.; B. M. 
Spencer, See. The sentiment of the Board is 
opposed to holding a fair or races this year, un- 
less a disposition different from that of former 
years is manifested by the people in this part 
of the county. 


Turlock Irrigation District. — Modesto 
Neu:$, Jan. 10: Tuesday afternoon the bids for 
the construction of the first six sectiona of the 
proposed canal for the Turlock irrigation dis- 
trict were opened in the presence of all of the 
directors, except Chairman Clark. The work 
embraced in the call for bids includes all of the 
heavy work necessary, except the construction 
of the dam across the Tuolumne river, at the 
head of the canal. The bidders were J. Kelso 
A Co., S. F. Construction Co., P. W. Gorrell, 
H. W. Gray, S. F. Bridge Co., and San Jose 
Improvement Co. Some of the bids were for 
one or more of the sections, while three of the 
bidders gave figures for the six sections, or all 
the work for which bids were advertised. The 
bids were submitted in a number of different 
forms, and it will take the board several 
days to determine which is the cheapest and to 
the best advantage of the district to accept. 
That the work of construction will soon be 
commenced is assured. From Treasurer Wbit- 
more's report, submitted yesterday, we glean 
the following figures as to the financial condi- 
tion of the Turlock district on Dec. 31, 1889 
The amount on hand is: Bond and lnrprpst 

Fana, ©-2641 67i Oomtrnotion Fnnd. {236.- 

306 94; General Fnnd, $615.07; total, $239,- 

563 88. 


Winter Irrigation. — Viaalia Timet, J»n. 
9: Notwithstanding the wet condition of the 
soil in this county, quite a number of our farm- 
ers are taking advantage of the high water in 
the streams by using it in irrigating their lands. 
G. S. Barry informs us that he is thus using 
water from Lswis creek. Last year his alfalfa 
di t not thrive for the want of water, and now 
that there is an abundance of the precious fluid, 
he is not slow to use it, as it is a well-estab- 
lished fact that lands flooded in the winter will 
produce good crops the following season. Mr. 
1! -rry has already seeded 5000 acres to wheat, 
and will put in more as Boon as it is practicable. 

Runaway Waters. — Woodland Cor. Call, 
Jan. 13 : This afternoon what is known as 
Moore's dam, on the Woodland ditch, broke. 
The dam is situated about five miles from 
Woodland and furnished water for a system of 
irrigation that covers the entire county, num- 
bering many miles of ditches. The dam and 
system of irrigation is supplied from Lower 
Lake. The dam was constructed in 1881 at a 
cost of $50,000, attaching thereto a further ex- 
penditure of $2500 for repairs in later years. 
The dam broke nearly in the center and is about 
75 feet wide. The cause of the break is un- 
known, whether the instability of the dam or 
by an unexpected flood. The results will be 
felt all over the county, as many acres of young 
vineyards and clover have been set out and 
would depend mainly upon the ditch for irriga- 
tion. It will be impossible to repair the dam- 
ages before low water, the middle of summer. 


Water Storage.— Florence Enterprise, Jan. 
4: The Florence Canal Co. has undertaken the 
construction of a storage reservoir about 15 
miles south of Florence and nine miles from the 
S. P. R R. The location selected is a broad 
depression nearly surrounded with a natural 
elevation and requiring the construction of an 
embankment across the only remaining open- 

ing, about 14.000 feet in length, and inclosing 
an area of 1800 acres. The embankment will 
be 20 feet wide on top, with a Blope of two to 
one on each side, the hight varying from a few 
feet to 26 feet. The work is to be of the most 
substantial character, and the contractors, 
MacRitchie A Nichol, have a large force of men 
and teams busily at work building the huge 
levee. The cost of the work originally con- 
tracted for is $135,000, but changes have been 
made that will increase this amount by fully 


Range Cattle. — Long Valley Cor. Oatette, 
Jan. 1 : Down to Dec. 21st our fields were 
bare of snow and the temperature had been 
moderate. Stock not previously put on out- 
Bide ranges was doing fairly well. Since then 
ecarcely a day has passed without snow squalls. 
At no time has the mercury been below 6° 
above zero, nor has it been so low as that except 
for one night. Down to the present writing 
it has ranged from 22° to 32' above, with the 
exception noted. Our neighboring stock 
ranges have about all the cattle they can carry, 
and even with what there are now on them it 
will be a case of "the suivival of the fittest," 
or, perhaps, I should say a survival of the 
strongest. The real rustlers, the strong and 
well conditioned, may be in at the count next 
May, but I apprehend that a very large portion 
of those driven out this fall have made their 
last pilgrimage. I know of no beef cattle that 
are being fed in this vicinity save about 80 
head at Rosa' ranch .... Hay is reported to be 
scarce in Honey Lake valley, and the same is 
the case in this valley. It will all be needed to 
carry poor stock cattle throngh the winter. 
Qazette d- Stockman, Jan. 9 : News from the 
eastern part of the State is discouraging, for be- 
fore the storm it was hard work for many of the 
cattle to get around, they were so weak. 
North of us the reports are better, for there is 
not so muoh snow and the weather has not been 
near so cold as in the eastern part of the State; 
besides, the cattle went to the winter range in 
far better condition f han those at the east. . . . 
Gaorgft Russell informs us that his advioes from 
bis Idaho and Snake river ranges are that the 
cattle are all right, but he is anticipating quite 
a loss on his Elko county range. He has or- 
dered 200 tons of hay shipped from California 
to Elko, and will feed all the poorer cattle and 
in that way save them. 


The Wheat Outlook. — Oregonian, Jan. 10: 
A reporter asked a wheat-shipper yesterday 
what was the outlook for the wheat trade. 
"The cable reports give Walla Walla wheat 
firm, and it has been just the same for the patt 
ten weeks," said he; "there is but little change 
in the situation." " How does the tonnage 
headed this way compare with the wheat in the 
country ? " " There is enough wheat held on 
the Willamette to load all the ships headed for 
this port. There is not much more to come 
from Eastern Oregon and Washington. Tbe 
crop was overestimated in that section, and 
was only about two-thirds that of the year be- 
fore. There has been a large increase of popu- 
lation in that section and the mills will need 
much more wheat than usual for grinding. If 
much more is shipped out of that country they 
will have to buy wheat from the outside or 
flour." " How about the valley orop ? " " The 
valley crop was underestimated, and there are 
2,000,000 tons yet in the valley which will load 
all the ships in sight now." 

Live-stock Notes. — East Oregonian, Jan. 7: 
A prominent stock-raiser of Eagle valley says 
that there are abont 27,000 head of sheep being 
fed in that valley this winter, and about 10,000 
head of cattle and horses. Should the winter 
prove long, hay will become scarce, for there is 
now but about 500 tone remaining unsold there. 
Hay is worth $6 per ton, and should the cold 
weather continue, it is liable to go up to $10 or 
$12 per ton... . Wm Dougherty, foreman of 
Cox A Miner's stock ranch, was in the oity 
Sunday, on his way to Cold Spring, where 300 
head of tbe firm's cattle are ranging. He re- 
ports snow so light and weather so mild in the 
John Day neighborhood that several stockmen 

have not been compelled to feed yet 

Portland Cor. Chronicle, Jan. 10: Snow is 
very rapidly disappearing here, and the weather 
is moderating. AH reports from stock ranges 
in Eastern Oregon and Washington are very 
favorable. The snow was quite heavy, but it 
was blown from the high peaks and the south 
hillsides, and horses and theep did very well 
without fodder. Unless there are further 
severe storms, there will be no loss of stock to 
amount to anything. 



Sure Cure for Diabetes, Catarrh of the Bladder, and all Disorders of the Liver 

and Urinary Organs. 

Manufactured by SIERRA CHEMICAL CO., San Francisco, Cal. 

Laboratory, 2424 Mission Street. 


Jan. 18, 1890.J 

f ACIFK3 f^URAb f R£Sb. 


We beg to call your attention to the illustration on this circular, representing CLARK'S CUTAWAY DISC HARROWS OR CULTIVATORS, arranged with Weight Boxes and 
Olod Breakers. These machines are also furnished with Seed Sower Attachment, which are designed for general use in Orchards and Vineyards and all kinds of Farming. 






$1.50 to $2.00 per Acre Saved 

In the u wV'ion of Your Orchard or Vineyard 


The blades of the CUTAWAY HARROW OR CULTIVATOR enter the ground easily, and while the blades are revolving they move sideways only a portion of the earth. 
With each revolution, 72 shovel blades enter the earth, making nearly a quarter turn, and swings sideways over 4 inches. This action thoroughly s r and pulverizes the soil. For all light 
sward and sodded lands, fields that have been plowed for several months, or wheat, corn, oats, or other stubble lands, which cannot be penetrate with the Solid Disc or any other Harrow, 
the Cutaway will put into perfect condition for seeding down. 

The HARROW or CULTIVATOR is made almost entirely of steel and refined gray iron. The draught is 25. per oent. lighter than; <solid Disc Harrows. Upward of 6,000 
have been sold the first season. 

We have seven sizes: No. 3—3 ft. in width for use in the garden ; No. 5—4 ft. in width for one horse ; two gangs of four 16-inch Steel Cut ay Discs to each gang. No. 6|— 5 ft. 
wide, two gangs of five 16-inoh Steel Cutaway Discs to each gang, and No. 7—6 ft., two gangs and six 16-inch Discs. No. 8 — 8 ft., two gangs and e ght 16 inch Discs. No. 10—10 ft., two 
gangs and ten 16-inch Discs, and No. 12 — 12 ft., two gaogs and twelve 16-inch Discs to each gang. 


No. 3 (LIST $18 OO 

No. 5 " 45 OO 

No. Qh " 55 OO 

No. 7 " 60 OO 

No. 8 LIST $: 75100 

No. 10 " 100 00 

No. 12 " 120 00 

Write for discounts and don't fail to procure one of the best and only successful and satisfactory Harrows or Cultivators ever invented. One trial will convince you that the cost of one, 
two or three, as you may want, can be made three or four times over in one season by the saving that is made in the cost of your cultivation. 
For further particulars, write for special circular devoted to the Cutaway Harrow and Cultivator. 

Agents wanted in every city or town on the Pacific Coast. Don't fail to secure this valuable agency. Full particulars and terms made on application. 

We are also General Agents for MITCHEL WAGONS, MOLINE PLOWS, and a Full Line of farminc implcmcnto. 

DO]VAHOO, Greneral Agents, 



21 & 23 Spear St. 

211 St 213 J St. 




Orchard &Vineyard 

Two-Horse Gang 


Ono-II o x- ss o Plows, 

Lightest in weight and draft of , any Gang ever nude; constructed of steel throughout; steel 
wheels, beams and frames. 

It weighs about 550 lbs., whioh is muoh lighter than other Sulky Gangs. 

The Plows are nicely balanced on the axle, so that the entire weight rides on the wheels. 
This makes it extremely light draft and very easy to operate. 

The Pole is pivoted, allowing the lead horses to swing off at the ends of the field, so the 
rear team can be driven to the end same as on a Walking Plow. 

It has an improved Land Gauge, which enables the driver to give the Plow more or less 
land while in motion. 


JAY-BYE-3EE GANG PLOW, with Steel Beams. Steel Wheels, Steel Frame, Whlffle- 
treea, Neck- Yoke Eveners and Draw-Rod, 

With two 12 inch Clipper or Stubble Bottoms Land Gauge and extra Shares, weight 546 lbs $ 95 00 

•• " 14 ■' " " " " " " " 660 *• 100 00 

Now is the time for Orchardists and Vineyardists to be looking for the right kind'of'implemcnts for the plowing 
of their Orchards and Vineyards. The BILZ PLOWS stand at the head of all Orchard and Vineyard Plows in the 
market, and are without rivals. One man with two horses and this Gang can do nearly as much and better work 
per day than two men and four horses with Single Plows, and can plow close to the tree or vine without the single- 
tree touching them. In Vineyards, the One-horse Plow is generally used with the Gang, for plowing out the center 
between the vines. Remember that these are the Best Plows, and every Orchard and Vineyard Man wants one. 

J. A. BILZ, Pleasanton, Alameda Co., Cal. 

AGENTS: TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., and FRANK BROS., San Francisco; 
KIRSCH, Walnut Creek, Contra Costa Co.; A. FATJO, Santa Clara, Cal. 


«*5 OO., 


Importers and Dealers in 


Horse and Mule Shoes, Putnam, Globe and Northwestern Horseshoe Nails, HARDWOOD LUMBER AND WAGON 
MATERIALS, Blacksmith and Carriage Makers' Supplies. 

Specially manufactured for use in Artesian Wells, and for conveying water charged with Salts and Minerals, Acids, 
Gases or other substances of o corrosive nature. In building it takes the place of either black or galvanized piping 
or gas water-waste, etc. Catalogues and testimonials, from large users in the United States, sent on application. 



f ACIF16 f^URAlo f RESS. 

[Jan. 18, 1890 

33l UIT CDa^keting. 

The California Fruit Union. 

Annual Report of the Board of Directors. 

Mr Pra'vlent and Member» of the Cal'ifor^ 
nia Fruit Union: — Another bogy season has 
come and gone, and our assembling at this the 
fifth annual meeting of the California Fruit 
Union forcibly reminds as that possibly, while 
we have been considering whether or not to 
venture shipping our cherries eastward, or 
while deploring the fact that the early rains 
have ruined onr grape orop, the year has been 
slowly bat surely advancing, and to-day we are 
one year nearer our final accounting, while for 
some of our members the haivest season is 
over for«ver and no more will they be worried 
by the vexatious vicissitudes which seem necee 
sarily to fall to the lot of all fruit-growers or 
those in any way co nected with its handling, 

Oar organization now being on an established 
footing and self-supporting, there exists no 
necessity of soliciting the farther purchase of 
stock, yet we have during the year added some 
28 names to our roll of stockholders, repre 
senting 347 shares of stock, while the fundi in 
the treasury have been increased $326 25 
thereby. It has sometimes occurred to as that 
possibly an erroneous opinion might be preva 
lent, and some who desired uniting themselves 
with ns be deterred from so djing from the 
fact that they believed there was no more stock 

To all such we would say that the fonnders 
of the L T L.ion, having great faith in the future 
of the State, and particularly in the fruit in' 
dustry, anticipating that many of the new 
comers would jjin the ranks of the fruit- 
growers, while they believed, doubtless, that 
all such would desire to identify themselves 
with this the largest fruit shinning organiza- 
tion of the coast, provided 250,000 shares of 
stock, and there is still a large amount await 
ing yonr purchase. Up to date bat 13.005 
shares hav>- been subscribed for and fully paid 
up, some 3150 shares being also partly paid, 
bat not wholly. 

The chipping season was cut short by the 
eaily rains of October, so that while our first 
car left San Lorenzo May 18 h, the same date 
as the shipment of the initial car of the year 
preceding, the last car was started from Vaca- 
ville November 15th, one day earlier than in 
1888. and 11 davs in advanoe of the final car of 

4.1 „« lfiS7 

The oherry shipments were quite heavy, some 
12 full carloads being forwarded, in addition to 
which nearly two more were sent East in small 
lots, through the Union. 

The prices obtained were in the main quite 
satisfactory, the total average net per pound 
being a tnfl ; over nine cents. 

Apricots were shipped in larger quantities 
than ever before, as up to the 19 :h of June the 
books show we had dispatched 32 full carloads. 
The consignments to the middle markets paid 
on an average very well, but those to the 
extreme East turned out quite poorly, so much 
so that we are extremely doubtful if this fruit 
can ever be successfully sold in any quantity 
in a green state east of Chicago. Especially 
were the low prices obtained on cars, when, 
because of the very light early peach crop 
rendering mixed cars impossible, the apricots 
were loaded solid, with nothing to give an 

The first peaches of the year shipped in oar 
lots were of the Alexander variety and loaded 
May 221. During all the fore part of the sea- 
son, while the early varieties were very scarce, 
the greater portion of those shipped seemed to 
arrive in bad condition, having either split pits 
or being wormy, so much so, indeed, that they 
sold low. Our crop also ripened somewhat late, 
thuB coming into direct competition in the 
Eastern markets witb an unusually fine crop of 
Georgia peaches. In fact, daring the early 
season the only real fine peaches to be seen 
offered for sale there were from that State. 
Our later varieties, notwithstanding a much 
heavier yield, sold at higher prices even than 
last season, as they carried remarkably well. 

Eirly and late Bartlett pears brought fair 
prices, but those sold during the bight of the 
season, when the bulk of this fruit was going 
forward, Bold very low, a result almost entirely 
attributable to the condition of the fruit on 

For several weeks while Birtletts were being 
shipped, our Eisttrn friends were treated to 
almost continuous hot, muggy and rainy weath- 
er. Since having experienced the past two 
months or more, we on this coast can better 
appreciate what is meant by a " continuous 
rainy spell." This peculiar kind of weather is 
the hardest possible on all kinds of fruits, and 
our agents informed us the major portion of the 
pears received by them arrived dead ripe, 
because of the olimatic conditions through 
which they had passed, and the low prices were 
the inevitable result. 

On the other hand, fall and winter pears have 
oarried very well, ant! the prices obtained for 
the immense yield have been quite siti factory, 
especially when sold on arrival. Those varie- 
ties which usually knep will in ooli storage 
hive seemed to h v an "•tf" year, and th> 
louses n c jrr d through the n< c»sity of rep ack- 
ing and its ojomquent shrinkage *h ,v<- b • i 
qi t~ heavy. 

P un.o a d prunei, becanse of the scarcity of 
peaches, at the time when they were going for- 
ward, were shipped in much larger quantities 

than ever before, being used largely this year 
to assist in making assortments for car lots, as 
in most instances mixed carloads of deoiduous 
fruits sell at better prices than solid cars of 
any one variety. It is a fact worthy of notice 
that the light-colored varieties, such as the 
Yellow Egg and Golden Drop plum and the Sil- 
ver prune, have, except when in small quanti- 
ties, sold low, while the dark-colored varieties 
have brought good prices. In all our fruits, high 
colors seem to appeal to the Eastern pockets. 

Grapes during the entire season have oarried 
and sold extremely well, and the prices being 
obtained would have materially increased our 
total net average per pound realized on all 
fruits, had it not been for the early rains cut- 
ting short the shipments. 

Qiinoes went forward in a small way, but 
those so shipped seemed to meet with ready 
sale at very satisfactory prices to the grower. 

We are steadily increasing, year by year, the 
number of cars loaded for the East, and the 
past season has Been 991 full carloads of fruit 
forwarded by the Union, again of 141 oars over 
the shipments of the preceding year. 

When we say 991 cars we are counting the 
consignments only which have been made to 
Fruit Union agents in their several cities east 
of the Rjckles. At the same time, members of 
ths Union ship a large number of carloads to 
points west of the Missouri river, where they 
have no agencies established — such as Denver, 
Cheyenne, Butte City, Lincoln, Houston, San 
Antonio, Portland and many other cities. 

The most reliable figures we can secure 
place this number at 600 carloads, so that if 
the entire number of cars of green, deciduous 
fruits sent Eist by members of the Union was 
to be given, it would reach a grand total of but 
a trill . short of 1600 out of 2432 carloads sent 
Eist by the State at large. Or in other words, 
two-thirds of the entire shipments from this 
coast are made by members of the Union and 
those working In harmony with it. 

There have been some 28 special fruit trains 
run during the season all under the supervision 
of the Union, no other organization having a;- 
tempted sending any trains this year. 

Through the kindness of the Southern Pacific 
Co., we learn that 520 more oars of fruit hav? 
bpen forwarded by them over their lines during 
1889 than during the previous season. As the 
ship i.ents of green deciduous fruits from the 
southern counties will not reach a dozen car- 
loads, we have not taken them into account in 
making our estimates given above. 

That it may readily be seen where oar 991 
cars have been loaded, and their destination, w« 
nave ariauged »t». tahlo. giving the 

carload shipments of the California Fruit Union 
for the season of 1S89: 


^ 7 < : T^f t 

■ 5 P ¥ 

E OiS 

Winters 27 

San Jos» 63 12 I 

Davisville 20 

Florin 20 

5 i 



Sacramento 148 2.51.49 7 

10 31 27 2S 12 

2 2 





Elk Grove 

San Lorenzo. 

N stoma 






Mar inez 

Portland, Or.. 



Santa Rosa ... 




22 12 

Total 545 41 94 99 74 3.S 34 36 17 2 11 991 850 


2> 25 
2061 97 
22| 24 


27> 316 






171 lit; 
47 11 

It will be noticed that two more agents have 
been appointed, i. e., at Louisville and Buffalo, 
thus affording 11 distributing centers, and it 
has been the policy of the Beard to continue 
enlarging the field of agencies as fast as the 
sales in any of the large cities would warrant 
the same, bo that during the coming season still 
further additions may be made to our corps ot 

Witb regard to shipments to Minneapolis 
and St. Paul, the same observation holds good 
this year as was made last, which was that be- 
cause of peculiar railroad facilities existing be- 
tween the twin cities, rendering it more expe- 
ditions to bill all the cars intended for division 
bet ween the two to the former point, they so 
appear in the table given above, but on their re- 
ceipt they have been very nearly equally ap- 
portioned between the two markets. 

One or two new sections have begun to real- 
ize the efficacy of co-operation as worked under 
the Union plan, and have formed themselves 
into companies, as many as 38 assisting in load 
ing a single car, and we are happy to state that 
their ventures have returned them gratifying 
results, so that we have had 70 carloadi dar- 
ing the summer from points which had made no 
car ihipments btfore. 

Hal it not been for the unusually earh 
and protracted rains rendering their s i,.- 
un nt impossible, the Ujmn would doubt 
lees h tj forwarded tully one hundred 
more cars of grapes alone. From the Santa 
Cruz mountains, a district usually fur- 

nishing our latest grape shipments, not a single 
car was received, as the fruit was just in con- 
dition to be picked when the rains b-gan. This 
was especially to be deplored, as, judging from 
the prices which bad already been received and 
the outlook at that time for the coming few 
weeks, grape-growers would have received more 
money for their product than tbey had ever 
before, a cause brought about by the combina 
tion of a light crop in the East with a small 
outDut from the Almeria vineyards. 

We have received daring the season about 
twelve thousand duplicates of the account of 
sales rendered to the various shippers by the 
agents in the East who handled their consign 
ments, and there are still quite a number of cars 
yet to hear from. These sales on being entered 
up show that during the six months of shipping 
there has b en forwarded Km* through the 
Union 257.648 crates and 351,613 boxes of the 
various kinds of fruits. Allowing a oonserva 
tive estimate of 40 lbs. net of fruit for each box 
of pears and 20 lbs. for plums, peaches and 
single crates of grapes, we find that the local 
markets and canneries have been relieved of 
15,095,190 lbs., which would otherwise neces 
sarily have oome to them, and which would 
have oertainly very materially affected prices 
received from these sources. So that while you 
may not be all actual shippers to Eastern cities, 
as fruit-growers depending on the local markets 
to take the product of your orchards and vine 
yards, you are still very largely interested in 
the success or failure of this union of fruit 

The gross sales on this 15,095,190 lbs 
shipped, amounts to $962,052 50. If from this 
is deducted the sum of th» gross freight of 
#396 395 53, cartage $2911 86. and commission 
of $96,205 83, the remainder, $467,865.11. rep 
resents the net returns to the various shippers, 
or an average of three and one-third cents per 
pound on the total shipments of all varieties of 
trait from all sources. 

We have found in previous years that 
others in copying these figures have allowed 
errors to creep in, bo that your attention is 
again called to the fact that when the above net 
figures are given no account whatever has been 
taken of the cost of raising and packing the 
fruit. Not even does there enter into these 
figures the cost of the packages in which the 
product goes forward, which of itself is no in 
considerable amount. It is simply the money 
returned from the sales after the three charges 
enumerated above have been deducted by the 
various agents in the East who handled the 

nnnniflnmmli. Bat too desire to particularly 

impress upon the minds of all that no one wbo 
baa ever shipped any fruit, in no matter how 
small a quantity, through the California Fmit 
Union has at any time received any account of 
sale upon which they found any charge made 
for telegraphing, loading or local drayage. 

When small lots have been sent to Sacra 
mento, there to be placed in cars of the special 
fruit trains, a charge of 1J cents per box for 
loading has been made and a bill rendered for 
the same accompanied by the freight receipt, 
giving the local freight as paid to that point. 
This charge of 14 cents was exactly what was 
paid out by the Union for the service and was 
not in any manner a source of revenue to the 
organization. On the contrary, as we have 
trusted entirely to those making such ship- 
ments for reimbursement, and agents have not 
been instructed to send avails from such vent- 
ures to the office of the Union where could 
have been deducted whatever we saw fit or 
thought the party would stand, and such cor- 
rection*, labeled " charges," we are sorry to say 
some few have not as yet bad time, doubtless, 
to settle their accounts. 

Some complaint has reached us as to the 
amount of commission charged by this organ- 
ization. Without an exception all shippers 
have at the outset paid ten per cent. Of this 
amount the agent handling the fruit has re- 
tained 71 per cent and returned 24 per oent to 
the Union. 

From the sum so returned, funds have been 
furnished with which to pay all bills contracted 
in behalf of the Union, so that to-day the or- 
ganization does not have any outstanding lia- 
bility whatsoever, necessitating the levying of 
an assessment npon the stock yon hold, as was 
so lately found necessary by one of our kindred 

In direct contrast, in fact, we have some 
$16 000 now in the treasury, and at a meet- 
.ng of the Biard of Trustees held yesterday a 
dividend of 6 per cent was declared on the fully 
paid stock, while the reserve fund was still 
(urther increased by an additional $200, after 
which the Biard declared a rebate due all 
shippers of 1 'i 10 per cent on their gross eales, 
or in other words refunded 1 3-10 per cent of 
the 10 per cent originally paid by them, so that 
all consigners through the Union pay 8 7 10 
per cent commission on their sales, from which 
there is no variation. 

It is a well-known fact that a cheap service 
is often poor in proportion, and we firmly be- 
lieve that our shippers, although possibly pay- 
ing a trifle higher commission than some few of 
those who shipped outside may have done, have 
on the whole saved money by so doing. 

With the above showing might it not be well 
for many of us to stop and consider whether we 
-vould prefer paying a uniform charge of 8 7-10 
per oent commission as we have done this year, 
I charge for which we most assuredly receive 
t e services of t h ■ best auctioneers to be ob- 
tained in the several cities where fruits are 
sold at auction, while at the same time we com- 
pel onr agents — than whom, after four years' 

trial, we can safely say no better can be se- 
cured — at such, as well as all other points to 
daily furnish a full and truthful report by wire 
of all sales, which is immediately mailed from 
Saoramento to all interested in the Bale, or to 
pay a oharge ranging anywhere from 5 per cent 
to 10 per cent, according to the importance of 
the shipper, for which extra inducement we 
allow the parties so handling our fruit to make 
any exorbitant charge whatsoever for local 
freight and loading or for crates and boxes 
furnished and to render statements (always 
upon their individual account of sales blanks) 
at such times and in such manner as best suits 
their convenience. 

We are confident a year's trial of the two 
systems will furnish many recruits to the ranks 
of the shippers of the Union. 

The old and ever recurring subject of 
high-freight charges, of which we have 
heard so much, and concerning which so 
many committees have been appointed, 
again presents itself as one carefully stud- 
ies the figures presented. That the rail- 
road company should receive $1,20 for every 
dollar which the fruit-producer has returned to 
him seems to many certainly anything but an 
eoaitable adjustment of receipts. We claim 
that a flit freight rate, with no technicalities 
obsouiing its meaning, of one-half what we are 
now p lying is all the fruit industry can stand 
and still be a success, and we predict that the 
day is not far distant when either through the 
natural kindness of its corporate heart a feeling 
augmented largely by a business-like apprecia- 
tion of the situation, on the understanding that 
onr interests are mutual, or possibly by the 
force of competition, such a schedule of freight 
rates will be in force, and while we argue that 
the receipts of the railroad company will be 
none the less because of the greater volume of 
business transacted, we are oertain the balance 
of the books of the average small grower will 
show a decided ohange toward the credit col- 
umn, and he will be loud in his praises of phil- 
anthropy or the power of competition as the 
railroads may elect. 

It has been stated that there was some $16,- 
000 on band. The following balance, taken 
from the book- of the corporation, Jan. 10, 
1890, will show the receipts and expenditures 
since the last balance was presented: 

Dr. Or. 

Cish on hand $584.02 

Expense 182.80 

Fuel , 21.75 

Stock $14,891.26 

K bite No. I 10.81 

Resenefund ... 360.60 

Salary and offio» !>.],> 6,051.22 

Office rent. 304.50 .... 

Postage 203. SO 

Natl, nal Bank cl D. O. Mills & 

Co. Treas 15,035.81 

Traveling expenses 202.90 

Telephone 228.60 

Offies fix ures ... 653.80 

Sinking fund 848.05 

K- bate No. 2 41 1.54 

Dividend No. 2 412.53 

Dividend No. 1 277.87 

Profit and loss 12,655 03 

Tares 97.51 ;.>?. 

Tilegraph 2.32-50 

Commission 22 369.27 

Fr-iglit and lradintr 670.31 

Stattonerv, printing and adver- 
tising 303 87 

Totals $39,334.92 $39,334 .92 

It will be notioed there is still considerable 
due on the dividends declared in '87 and '88. 
As these various sums can be used in no other 
way, they still remain in the treasury awaiting 

This statement shows that material redac- 
tions in expenses have been made over last year, 
even tbongh the disbursements were leas in 
18SS than for the year preceding. 

Salary and office-help account has. been re- 
duced some $500. traveling expense $1100, and 
telegraphing $400; this, too, with 140 addi- 
tional cars to handle. 

The total receipts for the year from all 
scurccs has been $22,695.52, and total disburse- 
ments $9668.86. 

If to this sum so left on hand we add the 
funds remaining in the treasury at the begin- 
ning of the year, it will give the amonnt we now 
have awaiting distribution. 

This is certainly much better than if we had 
to report a deficit, 'which would of neoessity 
have to ba met by If vying an assessment on 
your stock, and with this showing and witb 
the echo of the carols, proclaiming " good-will 
to all men " so lately sung, still ringing in oar 
ears, inciting as to lay aside any f eling of 
pique or animosity we may have existing to- 
ward each other, we eabmit to you for yoar 
careful consideration the report of the work of 
the California Fruit Union for the season of 

Onr Agents, 

Oi'K Fribkds can do much In aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their io- 
flnenoe and encouraging favors. We Intend to send noos 
but worthy men. 

J. C. Haas— San Francisco. 

R. O. Bailbt— San Francisco. 

Ciias M. Moody— San Francisco. 

W. W. Turobalds — Los Angeles Co. 

E. Fisciibr— Central California. 

Oso. Wuaoa— Sacramento Co. , 

E. H. Scharfflb — Fresuo Co 

C. Edward Rjbbrison— Humboldt Co. 

Fran k 8. Chamn— Butte Co. 

Wn. II. HitLKAsT — Oregon. 

E. E. Dimlso — Oregon. 

Any one wishing to rent a well-improved farm of 
480 acres in a healthy locality, at very moderate cash 
rent, can learn particulars by applying to "Cash 
Rent,'' Box *j, Tulare, Cal, 

Jan. 18, 1890.] 

f ACIFie f^URAl* fRESS, 



I am now manufacturing the Celebrated REMINGTON TRACTION ENGINE OR 

STEAM PLOW, adapted to all kinds of heavy work usually done by mules or horses. A 
number of these Engines are now in use, giving entire satisfaction for plowing and pulling 
Combined Harvesters. I have also patented and put into the field a successful STEAM 
HARVESTER, which was run through the entire harvest, giving entire satisfaction to the 

Call early and leave your orders for Engines and Steam Harvesters; will be pleased to cor- 
respond with parties desiring to purchase. 

If you are interested in Steam Plowing and Steam Harvesting, go and investigate for 
yourself and be convinced. The following parties are using my Traction Engines and Har- 
vesters, who will take pleasure in showing them up: J. S. Butler, W. Fennell, Tehama, Tehama 
county; Henry Bast, Yuba City, Sutter oounty; and W. S. Peters, San L^andro. This last 
party is running a complete steam outfit, consisting of Traction Engine and Steam Harvester. 
For further description, prices, etc., address 

Daniel Best Agricultural Works, 



Chilled and Steel Hand Plows, 
« Big Ingun " Sulky Plows, 

. Orchard Gang Plows 


I.IL'TK OUT or niii 


Tie Best and Cheapest 




3 Gang, 8 in., complete 
with extra share to each 
bottom, Price, $35.00. 

Genuine Repairs to be had only from Us or our Agents. No Old Goods on Ha i i. 


Handles so 
easy any small 
Hoy "who can 
drive a team 
can do strictly 
first-class work 
with it. 

to handle this Plow. Made in 
either Steel or chilled Iron. 

Also full line of STEEL ami 


i. smith- tn.cin.a. 

ALLISON, GRAY & CO., i^ofwIS^: San Francisco. 


The H. H. H. Liniment Is tor the treatment of 
he Aches and Pains of Humanity, as well as for the ail- 
ments of the beasts of the fields. Testimonials from 
importers and breeders of blooded stock prove "8 won- 
derful ouratlve properties. No man has ever used it for 
an ache or pain and been dissatisfied. 

H. H. MOORE & SONS, Stockton, Cal., Proprietors. 
For Sals by all Dkcsqists. 

J. L. HEALD, Pres. 

C. B. MORGAN, Seo'y. 


We pisiTiVRLT curs all kinds of Rupture 
and Rectal Diseases, no matter of how long 
standing, in from 80 to 60 days, without 
the use of knifb, drawiko blood, or db- 
tbktion from BUSINESS. Terms: No Cnre, 
N<> Pay, and No Pay until Cnred 
If afflicted, oome and see us or send stamp 
or pamphlet. Address: 

888 Market Street. - San Francisco. 

This Incubator has token First Premium wherever exhibited. It has no la,m>s. battery regulators r other xtnres to 
wear out The egg turner is the lumpiest known. It does not cost a cent to run th s machine. A child can operate it 
Th, M.oi-t.m ind beat are supplied the same as by a hen. The price is one-tMrd lower than any other Incubator made. 
Especially adapted to ra ch use. Send for circular immediately. IBV J^. 




rjc AftA TONS CAPACITY. 75 000 
I O t \J\AJ storage at Lowest Rates. • «-»» 
Cal. Dry Dock Co.. props. , Ofnee, SOS C*L St. , room 18 


Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers, 


Portable Straw-Burning Boilers & Engines. 


Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notice. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery, 

Including Grape Crushers and Stemmers, Elevators, 
Wine Presses and Pumps, and all appliances used in 
Wine Cellars. Irrigating and Drainage Pumps. Heald's 
Patent Engine Governor, Etc. 

Coaling Moth Destroyed. 


New Codling Moth Trap 

Will entirely cloan an Orchard in two years. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. Write to ' 
G. W. T II 1 SS K 1. 1 ., 

Winter., Yolo Co., Cal. 


A LITTLE book that everv farmer ought to have 
is the "Sorghum Hand Hook" for lS'JO, which 
may be had free, by addressing The Ulymyer 
Iroii Works Co., of Cincinnati, O. Sorghum is a 
very valuable crop for svnip-makiug, feed, and 
fodder, and this pamphlet gives full Information 
about the different species, best modes of CUHk 
yation, etc, Send ana get it and read it,, 



[Jan. 18, 1890 



[Written for the Rural Press by Emkuk T. Y. Swett.] 
The following are directions for making one 
of the many kinds of tamales used in Guate 
mala known as " Tamale Colorado." A quan 
tity of white corn is boiled nntil the grains 
(with the aid of a little lime) are burst open, 
he hu'l' an>1 pk'ns are then removed and the 

kernels mashed on a stone of this shape with a 
stone roller. 

The mathed corn is then mixed with melted 
lard and plenty of salt, and some tepid water is 
added in order to form a thin dough. The 
sauce is made out of dry red peppers (not hot 
peppere) and boiled tomatoes. 

The stuffing consists of either turkey or 
chicken, lean pork, and a very small piece of 
fat is put in each tamale. The stuffing is pre- 
pared raw and is subsequently cooked with the 

The tamales are wrapped in plantain leaves, 
or else corn-husks that have been soaked in 
cold water. The corn-huskB are first rinsed 
and then a thin layer of dough is spread upon 
them. Some sauoe is poured over the dough 
and the stuffing added. The whole is rolled 
up, care being taken to have the dough entire- 
ly envelop the meat, the corn husks forming 
the outside covering. Over all this another 
husk is added and securely tied at the ends. 
An iron pot with a tight fitting cover is used 
for boiling them. Three or four inches of 
water are allowed to remain in the pot, and 
care must be taken to place some sticks and a 
layer of husks on the bottom of the pot to keep 
the tamales from sticking. 

Boil four hours, replenishing! the water if it 
boils away. 

Carolina Qdeen Cake. — Work a quarter of 
a pound of butter to a cream, dredge in it half 
a pound of flour, add a quarter of a pound sift- 
ed sugar and a quarter of a pound of currants; 
whisk two eggs, and mix with half a teacupful 
sVir^ffis^&to *ue a ' ew ^ r0 P 8 °f l emon essenoe; 
spoonful of baking powder; beat the paste 
well for ten minutes, then bake in small 
buttered tins for from a quarter to half an 
hour. The mixture should be stiff and 
doughy. This amount is enough to make a 
dozen cakes. 

Riced Potatoes. — Boil a dozen potatoes till 
they are just done ; drain off the water ; mash 
them in the pot till every lump is gone. Then 
add half a cup of boiled milk, a large, heaped 
tablespionful of butter, and a tablespoonful of 
salt, i: it the potatoes now with a wooden 
spoon till they are light and creamy, and pass 
them as lightly as possible through a colander 
into the dish in which they are to be served. 
Sit them on the slide of a hot oven for five 
minutes to be touched with brown, and serve. 
Tney may be browned with a salamander or a 
red-hot shovel. 

To Prepare Sweet-Breads. — Veal sweet- 
breads are best. Tney will not keep long. 
Soak them at once in cold water for about one 
hour; then parboil them (about 15 minutes) in 
salted, boiling water, after which put them 
into cold water again for a few minutes. This 
will make them firm and white. Remove the 
skin and little pipes, and put them in a very 
cool place until ready to cook tbem again. 

Light Dough Dumplings. — Make very 
light bread-dough into small balls the size of 
eggs. Have ready a pot of water, boiling fast. 
Drop in the dumplings, taking oare to have the 
water more than cover them. Cover the pot, 
and boil for 20 minutes steadily, without lifting 
the cover. If it stops boiling for a moment, 
the dumplings will be heavy. Serve hot with 
butter and sugar for dessert. 

Kohler & Chase, established 1850. The lead- 
ing house of the Pacific Coast. Any one wishing to 
buy a first-class piano for a low figure should write 
for illustrated catalogue. Each instrument repre- 
sented by this firm is of a high standard of work- 
manship. They have the largest assortment to se- 
lect from, and are sold on easy terms. Catalogues 
sent free upon application, and all orders by mail 
promptly attended to and satisfaction guaranteed. 
The Decker Bros. , the leading upright, indorsed by all 
artists. Kohler ft Chase, 137-139 Post street, S. F. 


To loan on mortgage on ranches and city 
real estate below market rates. HOWE & KIM- 
BALI., 508 California St., S. F. ♦* 

Cheap Money for Farmers ! 

latg.- sums below market rates. S. D. HOVEY, 
318 Pine street. San Francisco. •* 


market rate of inierest on approved security in Farm- 
ing Lands. A. SCHULLER, Room 8, 420 Cali- 
fornia St., San Francisco. ** 




EXCELS purity 


Always gives a bright natural color, never 
turns rancid. Will not color the Buttermilk. 
Veed by thousands of the best Creameries and 
Dairies. Do oot allow your dealer to convince you 
that some other kind is just as Rood.